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Chinese Text Project
Show translation:[None] [English]

《䷀乾 - Qian》

English translation: James Legge [?]
Books referencing 《䷀乾》 Library Resources
1 ䷀乾:
乾:元亨,利貞。
Qian:
Qian (represents) what is great and originating, penetrating, advantageous, correct and firm.
彖傳:
大哉乾元,萬物資始,乃統天。雲行雨施,品物流形。大明始終,六位時成,時乘六龍以御天。乾道變化,各正性命,保合大和,乃利貞。首出庶物,萬國咸寧。
Tuan Zhuan:
Vast is the 'great and originating (power)' indicated by Qian! All things owe to it their beginning: - it contains all the meaning belonging to (the name) heaven. The clouds move and the rain is distributed; the various things appear in their developed forms. (The sages) grandly understand (the connexion between) the end and the beginning, and how (the indications of) the six lines (in the hexagram) are accomplished, (each) in its season. (Accordingly) they mount (the carriage) drawn by those six dragons at the proper times, and drive through the sky. The method of Qian is to change and transform, so that everything obtains its correct nature as appointed (by the mind of Heaven); and (thereafter the conditions of) great harmony are preserved in union. The result is 'what is advantageous, and correct and firm. (The sage) appears aloft, high above all things, and the myriad states all enjoy repose.
象傳:
天行健,君子以自強不息。
Xiang Zhuan:
Heaven, in its motion, (gives the idea of) strength. The superior man, in accordance with this, nerves himself to ceaseless activity.

2 ䷀乾:
初九:潛龍,勿用。
Qian:
In the first (or lowest) NINE, undivided, (we see its subject as) the dragon lying hid (in the deep). It is not the time for active doing.
象傳:
潛龍勿用,陽在下也。
Xiang Zhuan:
'The dragon lies hid in the deep; - it is not the time for active doing:' - (this appears from) the strong and undivided line's being in the lowest place.

3 ䷀乾:
九二:見龍在田,利見大人。
Qian:
In the second NINE, undivided, (we see its subject as) the dragon appearing in the field. It will be advantageous to meet with the great man.
象傳:
見龍在田,德施普也。
Xiang Zhuan:
'The dragon appears in the field:' - the diffusion of virtuous influence has been wide.

4 ䷀乾:
九三:君子終日乾乾,夕惕若,厲,无咎。
Qian:
In the third NINE, undivided, (we see its subject as) the superior man active and vigilant all the day, and in the evening still careful and apprehensive. (The position is) dangerous, but there will be no mistake.
象傳:
終日乾乾,反復道也。
Xiang Zhuan:
'Active and vigilant all the day:' - (this refers to) the treading of the (proper) path over and over again.

5 ䷀乾:
九四:或躍在淵,无咎。
Qian:
In the fourth NINE, undivided, (we see its subject as the dragon looking) as if he were leaping up, but still in the deep. There will be no mistake.
象傳:
或躍在淵,進无咎也。
Xiang Zhuan:
'He seems to be leaping up, but is still in the deep:' - if he advance, there will be no error.

6 ䷀乾:
九五:飛龍在天,利見大人。
Qian:
In the fifth NINE, undivided, (we see its subject as) the dragon on the wing in the sky. It will be advantageous to meet with the great man.
象傳:
飛龍在天,大人造也。
Xiang Zhuan:
'The dragon is on the wing in the sky:' - the great man rouses himself to his work.

7 ䷀乾:
上九:亢龍有悔。
Qian:
In the sixth (or topmost) NINE, undivided, (we see its subject as) the dragon exceeding the proper limits. There will be occasion for repentance.
象傳:
亢龍有悔,盈不可久也。
Xiang Zhuan:
'The dragon exceeds the proper limits; - there will be occasion for repentance:' - a state of fulness, that is, should not be indulged in long.

8 ䷀乾:
用九:見群龍无首,吉。
Qian:
(The lines of this hexagram are all strong and undivided, as appears from) the use of the number NINE. If the host of dragons (thus) appearing were to divest themselves of their heads, there would be good fortune.
象傳:
用九,天德不可為首也。
Xiang Zhuan:
'The same NINE (undivided) is used' (in all the places of this hexagram), but the attribute of heaven (thereby denoted) should not (always) take the foremost place.

9 文言:
《文言》曰:「元」者,善之長也;「亨」者,嘉之會也;「利」者,義之和也;「貞」者,事之幹也。君子體仁足以長人,嘉會足以合禮,利物足以和義,貞固足以幹事。君子行此四德者,故曰「乾、元、亨、利、貞」。
Qian:
What is called (under Qian) 'the great and originating' is (in man) the first and chief quality of goodness; what is called 'the penetrating' is the assemblage of excellences; what is called 'the advantageous' is the harmony of all that is right; and what is called 'the correct and firm' is the faculty of action. The superior man, embodying benevolence, is fit to preside over men; presenting the assemblage of excellences, he is fit to show in himself the union of all propriety; benefiting (all) creatures, he is fit to exhibit the harmony of all that is right; correct and firm, he is fit to manage (all) affairs. The fact that the superior man practises these four virtues justifies the application to him of the words - 'Qian represents what is great and originating, penetrating, advantageous, correct and firm.'

10 文言:
初九曰、「潛龍勿用」,何謂也?子曰:「龍、德而隱者也。不易乎世,不成乎名,遯世无悶,不見是而无悶。樂則行之,憂則違之,確乎其不可拔,潛龍也。」
Qian:
What is the meaning of the words under the first NINE, (undivided), 'The dragon lies hid (in the deep) - it is not the time for active doing?' The Master said: There he is, with the powers of the dragon, and yet lying hid. The influence of the world would make no change in him; he would do nothing (merely) to secure his fame. He can live, withdrawn from the world, without regret; he can experience disapproval without trouble of mind. Rejoicing (in opportunity), he carries his principles into action; sorrowing (for want of opportunity), he keeps with them in retirement. Yes, he is not to be torn from his root (in himself).' This is 'the dragon lying hid.'

11 文言:
九二曰:「見龍在田,利見大人」,何謂也?子曰:「龍德而正中者也。庸言之信,庸行之謹,閑邪存其誠,善世而不伐,德博而化。《》曰:『見龍在田,利見大人』,君德也。」
Qian:
What is the meaning of the words under the second NINE, 'The dragon shows himself and is in the field - it will be advantageous to see the great man?' The Master said: 'There he is, with the dragon's powers, and occupying exactly the central place. He is sincere (even) in his ordinary words, and earnest in his ordinary conduct. Guarding against depravity, he preserves his sincerity. His goodness is recognised in the world, but he does not boast of it. His virtue is extensively displayed, and transformation ensues. The language of the Yi, "The dragon shows himself and is in the field - it will be advantageous to see the great man." refers to a ruler's virtue.'

12 文言:
九三曰:「君子終日乾乾、夕惕若、厲、无咎」。何謂也?子曰:「君子進德脩業,忠信,所以進德也,脩辭立其誠,所以居業也。知至至之,可與幾也,知終終之,可與存義也。是故居上位而不驕,在下位而不憂,故乾乾因其時而惕,雖危无咎矣。」
Qian:
What is the meaning of the words under the third NINE,' The superior man is active and vigilant all the day, and in the evening (still) careful and apprehensive - the position is dangerous, but there will be no mistake?' The Master said: 'The superior man advances in virtue, and cultivates all the sphere of his duty. His leal-heartedness and good faith are the way by which he advances in virtue. His attention to his words and establishing his sincerity are the way by which he occupies in his sphere. He knows the utmost point to be reached, and reaches it, thus showing himself in accord with the first springs (of things); he knows the end to be rested in, and rests in it, thus preserving his righteousness in accordance with that end. Therefore he occupies a high position without pride, and a low position without anxiety. Thus it is that, being active and vigilant, and careful (also) and apprehensive as the time requires, though his position be perilous, he will make no mistake.'

13 文言:
九四曰:「或躍在淵,无咎。」何謂也?子曰:「上下无常,非為邪也。進退无恆,非離群也。君子進德脩業,欲及時也,故无咎。」
Qian:
What is the meaning of the words under the fourth NINE, 'He is as if he were leaping up, (but still) is in the deep - there will be no mistake?' The Master said: 'He finds no permanent place either above or below, but he does not commit the error (of advancing). He may advance or recede - there is no permanent place for him: but he does not leave his fellows. The superior man, advancing in virtue and cultivating the sphere of his duty, yet wishes (to advance only) at the (proper) time, and therefore there is no mistake.'

14 文言:
九五曰:「飛龍在天,利見大人」。何謂也?子曰:「同聲相應,同氣相求。水流濕,火就燥,雲從龍,風從虎,聖人作而萬物覩。本乎天者親上,本乎地者親下,則各從其類也。」
Qian:
What is the meaning of the words under the fifth NINE, 'The dragon is on the wing in the sky - it will be advantageous to see the great man?' The Master said: 'Notes of the same key respond to one another; creatures of the same nature seek one another; water flows towards the place that is (low and) damp; fire rises up towards what is dry; clouds follow the dragon, and winds follow the tiger:(so) the sage makes his appearance, and all men look to him. Things that draw their origin from heaven move towards what is above; things that draw their origin from the earth cleave to what is below:--so does everything follow its kind.'

15 文言:
上九曰:「亢龍有悔」,何謂也?子曰:「貴而无位,高而无民,賢人在下位而无輔,是以動而有悔也。」
Qian:
What is the meaning of the words under the topmost NINE, 'The dragon exceeds the proper limits - there will be occasion for repentance?' The Master said: 'The position is noble, but it is not that of office; (its occupant) dwells on high, but he has no people (to rule); and the men of talent and virtue in the positions below will give him no aid - should he move in such a case, there will be occasion for repentance.'

16 文言:
「潛龍勿用」,下也;「見龍在田」,時舍也;「終日乾乾」,行事也;「或躍在淵」,自試也;「飛龍在天」,上治也;「亢龍有悔」、窮之災也。乾元「用九」,天下治也。
Qian:
'The dragon lies hid - it is not the time for active doing:'--the position is (too) low.
'The dragon shows himself and is in the field:'--the time (requires him still) to be unemployed.
'All the day active and vigilant:'--(he now) does his (proper) business.
'He is as if he were leaping up, (but still) is in the deep:'--he is making trial of himself.
'The dragon is on the wing in the sky:'--(the subject of the line) is on high and ruling.
'The dragon exceeds the proper limit, and there will be occasion for repentance:'--when things have been carried to extremity, calamity ensues.
Undivided lines appear in all these representations of the great and originating power denoted by Qian:--(what follows in the Yao tells us how) all under the sky there will be good order.

17 文言:
「潛龍勿用」,陽氣潛藏。「見龍在田」,天下文明。「終日乾乾」,與時偕行。「或躍在淵」,乾道乃革。「飛龍在天」,乃位乎天德。「亢龍有悔」,與時偕極。乾元「用九」,乃見天則。
Qian:
'The dragon lies hid in the deep - it is not the time for active doing:'--the energy denoted by the undivided line is laid up and hid away as in the deep.
'The dragon appears in the field:'--all under heaven (begins to be) adorned and brightened.
'All the day active and vigilant:'--continually, as the time passes and requires, does he act.
'He is as if he were leaping up, (but still) is in the deep:'--a change is taking place in the method indicated by (this) Qian diagram.
'The dragon is on the wing in the sky this shows that his place is based on his heavenly virtue.
'The dragon exceeds the (proper) limit - there will be occasion for repentance:'--the time is come to an end, and so also is his opportunity.
Undivided NINES appear in all these representations of the great and originating power denoted by Qian:--and (from what follows in the Yao) we see the model (of action) afforded by heaven.

18 文言:
《乾》「元」者,始而亨者也。「利貞」者,性情也。乾始能以美利利天下,不言所利,大矣哉!
Qian:
The 'greatness' and 'originating' represented by Qian refer to it as (the symbol of) what gives their beginning (to all things), and (also) secures their growth and development.
'The advantageousness and the correctness and firmness' refer to its nature and feelings (as seen in all the resulting things).

19 文言:
大哉乾乎!剛健中正,純粹精也。六爻發揮,旁通情也。「時乘六龍」、以「御天」也,「雲行雨施」、天下平也。君子以成德為行,日可見之行也。「潛」之為言也,隱而未見,行而未成,是以君子「弗用」也。
Qian:
Qian, (thus) originating, is able with its admirable benefits to benefit all under the sky. We are not told how its benefits are conferred; but how great is (its operation)! How great is (what is emblemed by) Qian!--strong, vigorous, undeflected, correct, and (in all these qualities) pure, unmixed, exquisite! The six lines, as explained (by the duke of Zhou), bring forth and display (its meaning), and everything about it is (thus) indirectly exhibited. (The great man) at the proper time drives with these six dragons through the sky. The clouds move, and the rain is distributed; all under heaven enjoys repose. In the superior man his conduct is (the fruit of) his perfected virtue, which might be seen therefore in his daily course; but the force of that phrase, 'lying hid,' requires him to keep retired, and not yet show himself, nor proceed to the full development of his course. While this is the case, the superior man (knows that) it is not the time for active doing.

20 文言:
君子學以聚之,問以辯之,寬以居之,仁以行之。《》曰「見龍在田、利見大人」,君德也。
Qian:
The superior man learns and accumulates the results of his learning; puts questions, and discriminates among those results; dwells magnanimously and unambitiously in what he has attained to; and carries it into practice with benevolence. What the Yi says, 'The dragon appears in the field:--it will be advantageous to meet with the great man,' has reference to the virtuous qualities of a ruler (as thus described).

21 文言:
九三重剛而不中,上不在天,下不在田,故「乾乾」因其時而「惕」,雖危「无咎」矣。
Qian:
In the third NINE, there is a twofold symbol of) strength, but (the position) is not central. (Its occupant) is not in heaven above, nor is he in the field beneath. Therefore there must be active vigilance and cautious apprehension as the time requires; and. though (the position be) perilous, there will be no mistake.

22 文言:
九四重剛而不中,上不在天,下不在田,中不在人,故「或」之。「或」之者、疑之也,故「无咎」。
Qian:
In the fourth NINE, there is (the symbol of) strength, but (the position) is not central. (Its occupant) is not in heaven above, nor is he in the field beneath, nor is he in the place of man intermediate. Hence he is in perplexity; and being so, he has doubts about what. should be his movements, and so will give no occasion for blame.

23 文言:
夫「大人」者、與天地合其德,與日月合其明,與四時合其序,與鬼神合其吉凶,先天而天弗違,後天而奉天時。天且弗違,而況於人乎?況於鬼神乎?
Qian:
The great man is he who is in harmony, in his attributes, with heaven and earth; in his brightness, with the sun and moon; in his orderly procedure, with the four sea-sons; and in his relation to what is fortunate and what is calamitous, in harmony with the spirit-like operations (of Providence). He may precede Heaven, and Heaven will not act in opposition to him; he may follow Heaven, but will act (only) as Heaven at the time would do. If Heaven will not act in opposition to him, how much less will men! how much less will the spirit-like operation (of Providence)!

24 文言:
「亢」之為言也,知進而不知退,知存而不知亡,知得而不知喪。其唯聖人乎!知進退存亡而不失其正者,其唯聖人乎!
Qian:
The force of that phrase--'exceeding the proper limits'--indicates the knowing to advance but not to retire; to maintain but not to let perish to get but not to lose. He only is the sage who knows to advance and to retire, to maintain and to let perish; and that without ever acting incorrectly. Yes, he only is the sage!

URN: ctp:book-of-changes/qian