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Discussion -> Translations -> Xunzi 23.23 English

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2016-11-18 06:26:58Xunzi 23.23 English
Posted by: frank091 (Frank Saunders Jr)There is courage of the highest kind. There is courage of the middle kind. There is courage of the lowest kind.

The empire has its [moral] center, and he dares to straighten himself [in accordance with it]. The former kings had the Way, and he dares to conduct his understanding [in accordance with it]. When in power, he does not obey the rulers of chaotic ages. When among the people, he does not practice the customs of the people of chaotic ages. Where benevolence is is without poverty or destitution. Where benevolence is lost is without wealth or value. When the empire knows him, he desires to be one and the same in taking part in their suffering and joy. When the empire doesn't know him, he stands alone would stand between Heaven and Earth and is not afraid. This is the highest courage.

He respects ritual and is frugal with his ideas. He is grand, equitable, and trustworthy, and he doesn't put much weight on material goods and wealth. As for worthy people, he dares to encourage and promote them. As for the unworthy, he is bold enough both to assist and to abandon them. This is courage of the middle kind.

He doesn't value himself, but heavily values material goods. He is quiet during turmoil, but goes to great lengths to free himself [from it], improperly avoiding it. He does not care about the essential substance of right and wrong, so and not-so. He uses those who best him to form his intentions. This is courage of the lowest kind.

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