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Chinese Text Project
Show translation:[None] [English]

《坊記 - Fang Ji》

English translation: James Legge [?]
Books referencing 《坊記》 Library Resources
[Also known as: "Record of the dykes"]

1 坊記:
子言之:「君子之道,辟則坊與,坊民之所不足者也。」大為之坊,民猶逾之。故君子禮以坊德,刑以坊淫,命以坊欲。
Fang Ji:
According to what the Masters said, the ways laid down by the superior men may be compared to dykes, the object of which is to conserve that in which the people may be deficient; and though they may be on a great scale, the people will yet pass over them. Therefore the superior men framed rules of ceremony for the conservation of virtue; punishments to serve as a barrier against licentiousness; and declared the allotments (of Heaven), as a barrier against evil desires.

2 坊記:
子云:「小人貧斯約,富斯驕;約斯盜,驕斯亂。」禮者,因人之情而為之節文,以為民坊者也。故聖人之制富貴也使民富不足以驕,貧不至於約,貴不慊於上,故亂益亡。
Fang Ji:
The Master said, 'The small man, when poor, feels the pinch of his straitened circumstances; and when rich, is liable to become proud. Under the pinch of that poverty he may proceed to steal; and when proud, he may proceed to deeds of disorder. The rules of propriety recognise these feelings of men, and lay down definite regulations for them, to serve as dykes for the people. Hence the sages dealt with riches and honours, so that riches should not have power to make men proud; that poverty should not induce that feeling of being pinched; and that men in positions of honour should not be intractable to those above them. In this way the causes of disorder would more and more disappear.'

3 坊記:
子云:「貧而好樂,富而好禮,眾而以寧者,天下其幾矣。《》云:『民之貪亂,寧為荼毒。』」故制:國不過千乘,都城不過百雉,家富不過百乘。以此坊民,諸侯猶有畔者。
Fang Ji:
The Master said, 'Under heaven the cases are few in which the poor yet find enjoyment', the rich yet love the rules of propriety, and a family that is numerous (and strong) yet remains quiet and at peace. As it is said in the Book of Poetry (III, iii, ode 3, 11), "The people desire disorder, And find enjoyment in bitter, poisonous ways." Hence it was made the rule that no state should have more than 1000 chariots, no chief city's wall more than 100 embrasures, no family, however rich, more than 100 chariots. These regulations were intended for the protection of the people, and yet some of the lords of states rebelled against them.'

4 坊記:
子云:「夫禮者,所以章疑別微,以為民坊者也。」故貴賤有等,衣服有別,朝廷有位,則民有所讓。
Fang Ji:
The Master said, 'It is by the rules of ceremony that what is doubtful is displayed, and what is minute is distinguished, that they may serve as dykes for the people. Thus it is that there are the grades of the noble and the mean, the distinctions of dress, the different places at court; and so the people (are taught to) give place to one another.'

5 坊記:
子云:「天無二日,土無二王,家無二主,尊無二上,示民有君臣之別也。」《春秋》不稱楚越之王喪,禮君不稱天,大夫不稱君,恐民之惑也。《》云:「相彼盍旦,尚猶患之。」
Fang Ji:
The Master said, 'There are not two suns in the sky, nor two kings in a territory, nor two masters in a family, nor two superiors of equal honour; and the people are shown how the distinction between ruler and subject should be maintained. The Chun Qiu does not mention the funeral rites for the kings of Chu and Yue. According to the rules, the ruler of a state is not spoken of as "Heaven's," and a Great officer is not spoken of as "a ruler" - lest the people should be led astray. It is said in the ode, "Look at (that bird) which in the night calls out for the morning." Even this is still occasion for being dissatisfied with it.'

6 坊記:
子云:「君不與同姓同車,與異姓同車不同服,示民不嫌也。」以此坊民,民猶得同姓以弒其君。
Fang Ji:
The Master said, 'A ruler does not ride in the same carriage with those of the same surname with himself; and when riding with those of a different surname, he wears a different dress - to show the people that they should avoid what may give rise to suspicion. This was intended to guard the people (from incurring suspicion), and yet they found that there were those of the same surname who murdered their ruler.'

7 坊記:
子云:「君子辭貴不辭賤,辭富不辭貧,則亂益亡。」故君子與其使食浮於人也,寧使人浮於食。
Fang Ji:
The Master said, 'The superior man will decline a position of high honour, but not one that is mean; and riches, but not poverty. In this way confusion and disorder will more and more disappear. 'Hence the superior man, rather than have his emoluments superior to his worth, will have his worth superior to his emoluments.'

8 坊記:
子云:「觴酒豆肉讓而受惡,民猶犯齒;衽席之上讓而坐下,民猶犯貴;朝廷之位讓而就賤,民猶犯君。」《》云:「民之無良,相怨一方;受爵不讓,至于已斯亡。
Fang Ji:
The Master said, 'In the matter of a cup of liquor and a dish of meat, one may forego his claim and receive that which is less than his due; and yet the people will try to obtain more than is due to their years. When one's mat has been spread for him in a high place, he may move and take his seat on a lower; and yet the people will try to occupy the place due to rank. From the high place due to him at court one may in his humility move to a meaner place; and yet the people shall be intrusive even in the presence of the ruler. As it is said in the Book of Poetry (II, vii, ode 9, 4), "When men in disputations fine, To hear their consciences refuse, Then 'gainst each other they repine, And each maintains his special views. If one a place of rank obtain, And scorn humility to show, The others view him with disdain, And, wrangling, all to ruin go."'

9 坊記:
子云:「君子貴人而賤己,先人而後己,則民作讓。」故稱人之君曰君,自稱其君曰寡君。
Fang Ji:
The Master said, 'The superior man exalts others and abases himself; he gives the first place to others and takes the last himself - and thus the people are taught to be humble and yielding. Thus when he is speaking of the ruler of another state, he calls him "The Ruler;" but when mentioning his own ruler, he calls him "Our ruler of little virtue."'

10 坊記:
子云:「利祿,先死者而後生者,則民不偝;先亡者而後存者,則民可以托。」《》云:「先君之思,以畜寡人。」以此坊民,民猶偝死而號無告。
Fang Ji:
The Master said, 'When advantages and rewards are given to the dead first, and to the living afterwards, the people will not act contrarily to the (character of) the dead. When (the ruler) places those who are exiles (from and for their state) first, and those who remain in it last, the people may be trusted with (the most arduous duties). It is said in the Book of Poetry (1, iii, ode 3, 4), "In thinking of our deceased lord, She stimulated worthless me." When this dyke is set up for the people, will they still act contrarily to the dead and have to bewail their lot, with none to whom to appeal?'

11 坊記:
子云:「有國家者,貴人而賤祿,則民興讓;尚技而賤車,則民興藝。」故君子約言,小人先言。
Fang Ji:
The Master said, 'When the ruler of a state, with its clans, thinks much of the men and little of the emoluments (which he bestows on them), the people give place readily (to those men). When he thinks much of their ability, and little of the chariots (with which he rewards them), the people address themselves to elegant arts. Hence a superior man keeps his speech under control, while the small man is forward to speak.'

12 坊記:
子云:「上酌民言,則下天上施;上不酌民言,則犯也;下不天上施,則亂也。」故君子信讓以蒞百姓,則民之報禮重。《》云:「先民有言,詢于芻蕘。
Fang Ji:
The Master said, 'If superiors consider and are guided by the words of the people, the people receive their gifts or commands as if they were from Heaven. If superiors pay no regard to the words of the people, the people put themselves in opposition to them. When inferiors do not receive the gifts of their superiors as if they were from Heaven, there ensues violent disorder. Hence, when the superior exhibits his confidence and courtesy in the government of the people, then the usages of the people in response to him are very great. It is said in the Book of Poetry (III, ii, ode 10, 3), "Remember what in days of old they spake, With grass and fuel-gatherers counsel take."'

13 坊記:
子云:「善則稱人,過則稱己,則民不爭;善則稱人,過則稱己,則怨益亡。」《》云:「爾卜爾筮,履無咎言。」
Fang Ji:
The Master said, 'If (the ruler) ascribe what is good to others, and what is wrong to himself, the people will not contend (among themselves). If he ascribe what is good to others, and what is wrong to himself, dissatisfactions will more and more disappear. It is said in the Book of Poetry (I, v, ode 4, 2), "You had consulted the tortoise-shell; you had consulted the stalks; In their responses there was nothing unfavourable."'

14 坊記:
子云:「善則稱人,過則稱己,則民讓善。」《》云:「考卜惟王,度是鎬京;惟龜正之,武王成之。」
Fang Ji:
The Master said, 'If (the ruler) ascribe what is good to others and what is wrong to himself, the people will yield to others (the credit of) what is good in them. It is said in the Book of Poetry (III, i, ode 10, 7), "He examined and divined, did the king, About settling in the capital of Hao. The tortoise-shell decided the site, And king Wu completed the city."'

15 坊記:
子云:「善則稱君,過則稱己,則民作忠。」《君陳》曰:「爾有嘉謀嘉猷,入告爾君于內,女乃順之于外,曰:此謀此猷,惟我君之德。於乎!是惟良顯哉。」
Fang Ji:
The Master said, 'If (ministers) ascribe what is good to their ruler and what is wrong to themselves, the people will become loyal. It is said in the Book of History (V, xxi, 6), '"When you have any good plans or counsels, enter and lay them before your ruler in the court; and thereafter, when you are acting abroad in accordance with them, say, 'This plan, or this view, is all due to the virtue of our ruler!' Oh! in this way how good and distinguished will you be!"'

16 坊記:
子云:「善則稱親,過則稱己,則民作孝。」《大誓》曰:「予克紂,非予武,惟朕文考無罪;紂克予,非朕文考有罪,惟予小子無良。」
Fang Ji:
The Master said, 'If (a ruler, being a son,) ascribe what is good to his father, and what is wrong to himself, the people will become filial. It is said in "The Great Declaration," "If I subdue Zhou, it will not be my prowess, but the faultless virtue of my deceased father Wen. If Zhou subdues me, it will not be from any fault of my deceased father Wen, but because I, who am as a little child, am not good"' (Shu, V, i, sect. 3, 6).

17 坊記:
子云:「君子弛其親之過,而敬其美。」《論語》曰:「三年無改於父之道,可謂孝矣。」《高宗》云:「三年其惟不言,言乃讙。」
Fang Ji:
The Master said "A superior man will forget and not make much of the errors of his father, and will show his reverence for his excellence. It is said in the Lun Yu (I, xi), "He who for three years does not change from the way of his father, may be pronounced filial;" and in the Gao Zong (Shu, III, viii, i) it is said, "For three years he kept without speaking; when he did speak, they were delighted."'

18 坊記:
子云:「從命不忿,微諫不倦,勞而不怨,可謂孝矣。」《》云:「孝子不匱。
Fang Ji:
The Master said, 'To obey (his parents') commands without angry (complaint); to remonstrate with them gently without being weary; and not to murmur against them, though they punish him, may be pronounced filial piety. It is said in the Book of Poetry (III, ii, ode 3, 5), "Your filial son was unceasing in his service."'

19 坊記:
子云:「睦於父母之黨,可謂孝矣。故君子因睦以合族。」《》云:「此令兄弟,綽綽有裕;不令兄弟,交相為愈。」
Fang Ji:
The Master said, 'To cultivate harmony with all the kindred of parents may be pronounced filial! It is said in the Book of Poetry (II, vii, ode 9, 3), "Brethren whose virtue stands the test, By bad example still unchanged, Their generous feelings manifest, Nor grow among themselves estranged. But if their virtue weakly fails, The evil influence to withstand, Then selfishness o'er love prevails, And troubles rise on every hand."'

20 坊記:
子云:「於父之執,可以乘其車,不可以衣其衣。君子以廣孝也。」
Fang Ji:
The Master said, '(A son) may ride in the chariot of an intimate friend of his father, but he should not wear his robes. By this (rule) the superior man widens (the sphere of) his filial duty.'

21 坊記:
子云:「小人皆能養其親,君子不敬,何以辨?」
Fang Ji:
The Master said, 'Small men are all able to support their parents. If the superior man do not also reverence them, how is his supporting to be distinguished (from theirs)?'

22 坊記:
子云:「父子不同位,以厚敬也。」《》云:「厥辟不辟,忝厥祖。」
Fang Ji:
The Master said, 'Father and son should not be in the same (official) position - to magnify the reverence (due to the father). It is said in the Book of History (Shu, III, v, sect. 1, 3), "If the sovereign do not show himself the sovereign, he disgraces his ancestors."'

23 坊記:
子云:「父母在,不稱老,言孝不言慈;閨門之內,戲而不嘆。」君子以此坊民,民猶薄於孝而厚於慈。
Fang Ji:
The Master said, 'Before his parents (a son) should not speak of himself as old; he may speak of the duty due to parents, but not of the gentle kindness due from them; inside the female apartments he may sport, but should not sigh. By these (rules) the superior man would protect the people (from evil), and still they are found slight in their acknowledgment of filial duty, and prompt in their appreciation of gentle kindness.'

24 坊記:
子云:「長民者,朝廷敬老,則民作孝。」
Fang Ji:
The Master said, 'When they who are over the people show at their courts their respect for the old, the people become filial.'

25 坊記:
子云:「祭祀之有尸也,宗廟之主也,示民有事也。修宗廟,敬祀事,教民追孝也。」以此坊民,民猶忘其親。
Fang Ji:
The Master said, 'The (use of) the representatives of the deceased at sacrifices, and of one who presides (at the services) in the ancestral temple, was intended to show the people that they had still those whom they should serve. The repairing of the ancestral temple and the reverential performance of the sacrifices were intended to teach the people to follow their dead with their filial duty. These things should guard the people (from evil), and still they are prone to forget their parents.'

26 坊記:
子云:「敬則用祭器。故君子不以菲廢禮,不以美沒禮。」故食禮:主人親饋,則客祭;主人不親饋,則客不祭。故君子茍無禮,雖美不食焉。《》曰:「東鄰殺牛,不如西鄰之禴祭,實受其福。」《》云:「既醉以酒,既飽以德。」以此示民,民猶爭利而忘義。
Fang Ji:
The Master said, 'When (it is wished to) show respect (to guests), the vessels of sacrifice are used. Thus it is that the superior man will not in the poverty of his viands neglect the rules of ceremony, nor in their abundance and excellence make those rules disappear. Hence, according to the rules of feasting, when the host gives in person anything to a guest, the guest offers a portion in sacrifice, but he does not do so with what the host does not himself give him. Therefore, when there is no ceremony in the gift, however admirable it may be, the superior man does not partake of it. It is said in the Yi, "The ox slain in sacrifice by the neighbour on the east is not equal to the spare spring sacrifice of the neighbour on the west, (whose sincerity) receives the blessing." It is said in the Book of Poetry (III, ii, ode 3, 1), "You have made us drink to the full of your spirits, You have satiated us with your virtue." But though in this way the people are admonished, they will still keep striving after profit, and forget righteousness.'

27 坊記:
子云:「七日戒,三日齊,承一人焉以為尸,過之者趨走,以教敬也。」醴酒在室,醍酒在堂,澄酒在下,示民不淫也。尸飲三,眾賓飲一,示民有上下也。因其酒肉,聚其宗族,以教民睦也。故堂上觀乎室,堂下觀乎上。《》云:「禮儀卒度,笑語卒獲。
Fang Ji:
The Master said, 'There are the seven days of fasting, and the three days of vigil and adjustment of the thoughts; there is the appointment of the one man to act as the personator of the dead, in passing whom it is required to adopt a hurried pace - all to teach reverence (for the departed).' The sweet liquor is in the apartment (where the personator is); the reddish in the hall; and the clear in the court below - all to teach the people not to go to excess in being greedy. The personator drinks three cups, and all the guests drink one - teaching the people that there must be the distinction of high and low. The ruler takes the opportunity of the spirits and flesh of his sacrifice to assemble all the members of his kindred - teaching the people to cultivate harmony. Thus it is that on the hall above they look at what is done in the apartment, and in the court below at what is done by those in the hall (for their pattern); as it is said in the Book of Poetry (II. vi, ode 5, 3), 'Every form is according to rule; Every smile and word is as it should be.'

28 坊記:
子云:「賓禮每進以讓,喪禮每加以遠。」浴於中溜,飯於牖下,小斂於戶內,大斂於阼,殯於客位,祖於庭,葬於墓,所以示遠也。殷人吊於壙,周人吊於家,示民不偝也。
Fang Ji:
The Master said, 'The giving place to a visitor at every stage of his advancing (from the entrance gate), according to the rules for visitors; and the repetition of the ceremonies, according to the mourning rites, in an ever-increasing distance from the apartment of the corpse; the washing of the corpse over the pit in the centre of the open court; the putting the rice into the mouth under the window; the slighter dressing of the corpse inside the door of the apartment; the greater dressing at the top of the steps on the east; the coffining in the place for guests; the sacrifice on taking the road (with the coffin) in the courtyard; and the interment in the grave - these were intended to teach the people how the element of distance enters into the usages. Under the Yin dynasty they condoled with the mourners at the grave; they do so under Zhou in the house - showing the people that they should not neglect the custom.'

29 坊記:
子云:「死,民之卒事也,吾從周。」以此坊民,諸侯猶有薨而不葬者。
Fang Ji:
The Master said, '(These services in connexion with) death are the last duties which the people have to pay (to their departed). I follow Zhou in them. They were intended to serve as guards to the people (to keep them from error). Among the princes, however, there still were those who did not attend the burials of other princes, and take part in them.'

30 坊記:
子云:「升自客階,受吊於賓位,教民追孝也。」未沒喪不稱君,示民不爭也。故魯《春秋》記晉喪曰:「殺其君之子奚齊及其君卓。」以此坊民,子猶有弒其父者。
Fang Ji:
The Master said, 'The going up to the hall by the steps for the guests, and receiving the condolences sent to him in the guests' place, are designed to teach the filial to continue their filial duty even to the dead. Until the mourning rites are finished, a son is not styled "Ruler" - showing the people that there ought to be no contention (between father and son). Hence in the Chun Qiu of Lu, recording deaths in Qin, it is said, "(Li Ke) killed Xi-qi, the son of his ruler, and his ruler Zhuo - "a barrier was thus raised to prevent the people (from doing such deeds). And yet there were sons who still murdered their fathers.'

31 坊記:
子云:「孝以事君,弟以事長」,示民不貳也,故君子有君不謀仕,唯卜之日稱二君。喪父三年,喪君三年,示民不疑也。父母在,不敢有其身,不敢私其財,示民有上下也。故天子四海之內無客禮,莫敢為主焉。故君適其臣,升自阼階,即位於堂,示民不敢有其室也。父母在,饋獻不及車馬,示民不敢專也。以此坊民,民猶忘其親而貳其君。
Fang Ji:
The Master said, 'Filial duty may be transferred to the service of the ruler, and brotherly submission to the service of elders - showing the people that they ought not to be double-minded. Hence a superior man, while his ruler is alive, should not take counsel about taking office (in another state). It is only on the day of his consulting the tortoise-shell (about such a thing) that he will mention two rulers.' The mourning for a father lasts for three years, and that for a ruler the same time - showing the people that they must not doubt (about the duty which they owe to their ruler). While his parents are alive, a son should not dare to consider his wealth as his own, nor to hold any of it as for his own private use - showing the people how they should look on the relation between high and low. Hence the son of Heaven cannot be received with the ceremonies of a guest anywhere within the four seas, and no one can presume to be his host. Hence, also, when a ruler goes to a minister's (mansion) he goes up to the hall by the (host's) steps on the east and proceeds to the place (of honour) in the hall: showing the people that they should not dare to consider their houses their own. While his parents are alive, the gifts presented to a son should not extend to a carriage and its team - showing the people that they should not dare to monopolise (any honours). All these usages were intended to keep the people from transgressing their proper bounds; and yet there are those who forget their parents, and are double-minded to their ruler.'

32 坊記:
子云:「禮之先幣帛也,欲民之先事而後祿也。」先財而後禮,則民利;無辭而行情,則民爭。故君子於有饋者,弗能見則不視其饋。《》曰:「不耕獲,不菑畬,凶。」以此坊民,民猶貴祿而賤行。
Fang Ji:
The Master said, 'The ceremony takes place before the silks (offered in connexion with it) are presented - this is intended to teach the people to make the doing of their duties the first thing, and their salaries an after consideration. If money be sought first and the usages of propriety last, then the people will be set on gain: if the mere feeling be acted on, without any expressions (of courtesy and deference), there will be contentions among the people. Hence the superior man, when presents are brought to him, if he cannot see him who offers them, does not look at the presents. It is said in the Yi, "He reaps without having ploughed that he may reap; he gathers the produce of the third year's field without having cultivated them the first year; there will be evil." In this way it is sought to guard the people, and yet there are of them who value their emoluments and set little store by their practice.'

33 坊記:
子云:「君子不盡利以遺民。」《》云:「彼有遺秉,此有不斂穧,伊寡婦之利。」故君子仕則不稼,田則不漁;食時不力珍,大夫不坐羊,士不坐犬。《》云:「采葑采菲,無以下體,德音莫違,及爾同死。」以此坊民,民猶忘義而爭利,以亡其身。
Fang Ji:
The Master said, 'The superior man does not take all the profit that he might do, but leaves some for the people. It is said in the Book of Poetry (II, vi, ode 8, 3), "There shall be handfuls left on the ground, And ears here and there left untouched; For the benefit of the widow." Hence, when a superior man is in office (and enjoys its emoluments), he does not go in for farming; if he hunts, he does not (also) fish; he eats the (fruits of the) season, and is not eager for delicacies; if a Great officer, he does not sit on sheepskins; if a lower officer, he does not sit on dogskins. It is said in the Book of Poetry (I, iii, ode 10, 1), "When we gather the mustard-plant and earth-melons, We do not reject them because of their roots. While I do nothing contrary to my good name, I should live with you till our death." In this way it was intended to guard the people against loving wrong; and still some forget righteousness and struggle for gain, even to their own ruin.'

34 坊記:
子云:「夫禮,坊民所淫,章民之別,使民無嫌,以為民紀者也。」故男女無媒不交,無幣不相見,恐男女之無別也。以此坊民,民猶有自獻其身。《》云:「伐柯如之何?匪斧不克;取妻如之何?匪媒不得;蓺麻如之何?橫從其畝;取妻如之何?必告父母。」
Fang Ji:
The Master said, 'The ceremonial usages serve as dykes to the people against bad excesses (to which they are prone). They display the separation which should be maintained (between the sexes), that there may be no occasion for suspicion, and the relations of the people be well defined. It is said in the Book of Poetry (I, viii, ode vi, 3, 4), How do we proceed in hewing an axe-handle? Without another axe it cannot be done. How do we proceed in taking a wife? Without a go-between it cannot be done. How do we proceed in planting hemp? The acres must be dressed length-wise and crosswise. How do we proceed in taking a wife? Announcement must first be made to our parents." In this way it was intended to guard the people (against doing wrong), and still there are some (women) among them, who offer themselves (to the male).'

35 坊記:
子云:「取妻不取同姓,以厚別也。」故買妾不知其姓,則卜之。以此坊民,魯《春秋》猶去夫人之姓曰吳,其死曰孟子卒。
Fang Ji:
The Master said, 'A man in taking a wife does not take one of the same surname with himself - to show broadly the distinction (to be maintained between man and wife). Hence, when a man is buying a concubine, if he do not know her surname, he consults the tortoise-shell about it. In this way it was intended to preserve the people (from going wrong in the matter); and yet the Chun Qiu of Lu still suppresses the surname of duke Zhao's wife, simply saying "Wu," and the record of her death is "Meng (the elder) Zi died."'

36 坊記:
子云:「禮,非祭,男女不交爵。」以此坊民,陽侯猶殺繆侯而竊其夫人。故大饗廢夫人之禮。
Fang Ji:
The Master said, 'According to the rules, male and female do not give the cup to one another, excepting at sacrifice. This was intended to guard the people against (undue freedom of intercourse); and yet the marquis of Yang killed the marquis of Mu, and stole away his wife. Therefore the presence of the wife at the grand entertainments was disallowed.'

37 坊記:
子云:「寡婦之子,不有見焉,則弗友也,君子以辟遠也。」故朋友之交,主人不在,不有大故,則不入其門。以此坊民,民猶以色厚於德。
Fang Ji:
The Master said, 'With the son of a widow one does not have interviews - this would seem to be an obstacle to friendship, but a superior man will keep apart from intercourse in such a case, in order to avoid (suspicion). Hence, in the intercourse of friends, if the master of the house be not in, a visitor, unless there is some great cause, does not enter the door. This was intended to preserve the people (from all appearance of evil); and yet there are of them who pay more regard to beauty than to virtue.'

38 坊記:
子云:「好德如好色。」諸侯不下漁色。故君子遠色以為民紀。故男女授受不親。御婦人則進左手。姑姊妹女子子已嫁而反,男子不與同席而坐。寡婦不夜哭。婦人疾,問之不問其疾。以此坊民,民猶淫泆而亂於族。
Fang Ji:
The Master said, 'The love of virtue should be like the love of beauty (from an inward constraint). Princes of states should not be like fishers for beauty (in the families) below them. Hence the superior man keeps aloof from beauty, in order to constitute a rule for the people. Thus male and female, in giving and receiving, do not allow their hands to touch; in driving his wife in a carriage, a husband advances his left hand; when a young aunt, a sister, or a daughter has been married, and returns (to her father's house), no male can sit on the same mat with her; a widow should not wail at night; when a wife is ill, in asking for her, the nature of her illness should not be mentioned:-in this way it was sought to keep the people (from irregular connexions); and yet there are those who become licentious, and introduce disorder and confusion among their kindred.'

39 坊記:
子云:「婚禮,婿親迎,見於舅姑,舅姑承子以授婿,恐事之違也。」以此坊民,婦猶有不至者。
Fang Ji:
The Master said, 'According to the rules of marriage, the son-in-law should go in person to meet the bride. When he is introduced to her father and mother, they bring her forward, and give her to him' - being afraid things should go contrary to what is right. In this way a dyke is raised in the interest of the people; and yet there are cases in which the wife will not go (to her husband's).'

URN: ctp:liji/fang-ji