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Chinese Text Project
Show translation:[None] [English]

《祭統 - Ji Tong》

English translation: James Legge [?]
Books referencing 《祭統》 Library Resources
[Also known as: "A summary account of sacrifices"]

1 祭統:
凡治人之道,莫急於禮。禮有五經,莫重於祭。夫祭者,非物自外至者也,自中出生於心也;心怵而奉之以禮。是故,唯賢者能盡祭之義。
Ji Tong:
Of all the methods for the good ordering of men, there is none more urgent than the use of ceremonies. Ceremonies are of five kinds, and there is none of them more important than sacrifices. Sacrifice is not a thing coming to a man from without; it issues from within him, and has its birth in his heart. When the heart is deeply moved, expression is given to it by ceremonies; and hence, only men of ability and virtue can give complete exhibition to the idea of sacrifice.

2 祭統:
賢者之祭也,必受其福。非世所謂福也。福者,備也;備者,百順之名也。無所不順者,謂之備。言:內盡於己,而外順於道也。忠臣以事其君,孝子以事其親,其本一也。上則順於鬼神,外則順於君長,內則以孝於親。如此之謂備。唯賢者能備,能備然後能祭。是故,賢者之祭也:致其誠信與其忠敬,奉之以物,道之以禮,安之以樂,參之以時。明薦之而已矣。不求其為。此孝子之心也。
Ji Tong:
The sacrifices of such men have their own blessing;--not indeed what the world calls blessing. Blessing here means perfection;-it is the name given to the complete and natural discharge of all duties. When nothing is left incomplete or improperly discharged;--this is what we call perfection, implying the doing everything that should be done in one's internal self, and externally the performance of everything according to the proper method. There is a fundamental agreement between a loyal subject in his service of his ruler and a filial son in his service of his parents. In the supernal sphere there is a compliance with (what is due to) the repose and expansion of the energies of nature; in the external sphere, a compliance with (what is due) to rulers and elders; in the internal sphere, the filial service of parents;--all this constitutes what is called perfection. It is only the able and virtuous man who can attain to this perfection; and can sacrifice when he has attained to it. Hence in the sacrifices of such a man he brings into exercise all sincerity and good faith, with all right-heartedness and reverence; he offers the (proper) things; accompanies them with the (proper) rites; employs the soothing of music; does everything suitably to the season. Thus intelligently does he offer his sacrifices, without seeking for anything to be gained by them - such is the heart and mind of a filial son.

3 祭統:
祭者,所以追養繼孝也。孝者畜也。順於道不逆於倫,是之謂畜。是故,孝子之事親也,有三道焉:生則養,沒則喪,喪畢則祭。養則觀其順也,喪則觀其哀也,祭則觀其敬而時也。盡此三道者,孝子之行也。
Ji Tong:
It is by sacrifice that the nourishment of parents is followed up and filial duty to them Perpetuated. The filial heart is a storehouse (of all filial duties). Compliance with everything that can mark his course, and be no violation of the relation (between parent and child) - the keeping of this is why we call it a storehouse. Therefore in three ways is a filial son's service of his parents shown - while they are alive, by nourishing them; when they are dead, by all the rites of mourning; and when the mourning is over by sacrificing to them. In his nourishing them we see his natural obedience; in his funeral rites we see his sorrow; in his sacrifices we see his reverence and observance of the (proper) seasons. In these three ways we see the practice of a filial son.

4 祭統:
既內自盡,又外求助,昏禮是也。故國君取夫人之辭曰:「請君之玉女與寡人共有敝邑,事宗廟社稷。」此求助之本也。夫祭也者,必夫婦親之,所以備外內之官也;官備則具備。水草之菹,陸產之醢,小物備矣;三牲之俎,八簋之實,美物備矣;昆蟲之異,草木之實,陰陽之物備矣。凡天之所生,地之所長,茍可薦者,莫不咸在,示盡物也。外則盡物,內則盡志,此祭之心也。
Ji Tong:
When a son had done everything (for his sacrifices) that he could do himself, he proceeded to seek assistance from abroad; and this came through the rites of marriage. Hence the language of a ruler, when about to marry a wife, was - 'I beg you, O ruler, to give me your elegant daughter, to share this small state with my poor self, to do service in the ancestral temple, and at the altars to (the spirits of) the land and grain.' This underlay his seeking for that assistance (from abroad). In sacrificing, husband and wife had their several duties which they personally attended to; and on this account there was the array of officials belonging to the exterior and interior departments (of the palace). When these officers were complete, all things necessary (for the service) were made ready - small things, such as the sourcrout of water plants and pickles from the produce of dry grounds; and fine things, such as the stands for the bodies of the three victims, and the supplies for the eight dishes. Strange insects and the fruits of plants and trees, produced under the best influences of light and shade, were all made ready. Whatever heaven produces, whatever earth developes in its growth;--all were then exhibited in the greatest abundance. Everything was there from without, and internally there was the utmost effort of the will - such was the spirit in sacrificing.

5 祭統:
是故,天子親耕於南郊,以共齊盛;王后蠶於北郊,以共純服。諸侯耕於東郊,亦以共齊盛;夫人蠶於北郊,以共冕服。天子諸侯非莫耕也,王后夫人非莫蠶也,身致其誠信,誠信之謂盡,盡之謂敬,敬盡然後可以事神明,此祭之道也。
Ji Tong:
For this reason, also, the son of Heaven himself guided the plough in the southern suburb, to provide the grain for the sacrificial vessels; and the queen looked after her silkworms in the northern suburb, to provide the cap and robes of silk. The princes of the states guided the plough in their eastern suburb, also to provide the grain for the sacrificial vessels, and their wives looked after their silkworms in the northern suburb, to provide the cap and robes of silk. This was not because the son of Heaven and the princes had not men to plough for them, or 'because the queen and the princes' wives had not women to tend the silkworms for them; it was to give the exhibition of their personal sincerity. Such sincerity was what is called doing their utmost; and such doing of their utmost was what is called reverence. When they had reverently done their utmost, they could serve the spiritual Intelligences--such was the way of sacrificing.

6 祭統:
及時將祭,君子乃齊。齊之為言齊也。齊不齊以致齊者也。是以君子非有大事也,非有恭敬也,則不齊。不齊則於物無防也,嗜欲無止也。及其將齊也,防其邪物,訖其嗜欲,耳不聽樂。故記曰:「齊者不樂」,言不敢散其志也。心不茍慮,必依於道;手足不茍動,必依於禮。是故君子之齊也,專致其精明之德也。
Ji Tong:
When the time came for offering a sacrifice, the man wisely gave himself to the work of purification. That purification meant the production of uniformity (in all the thoughts);-it was the giving uniformity to all that was not uniform, till a uniform direction of the thoughts was realised. Hence a superior man, unless for a great occasion, and unless he were animated by a great reverence, did not attempt this purification. While it was not attained, he did not take precautions against the influence of (outward) things, nor did he cease from all (internal) desires. But when he was about to attempt it, he guarded against all things of an evil nature, and suppressed all his desires, His ears did not listen to music;--as it is said in the Record, 'People occupied with purification have no music,' meaning that they did not venture to allow its dissipation of their minds. He allowed no vain thoughts in his heart, but kept them in a strict adherence to what was right. He allowed no reckless movement of his hands or feet, but kept them firmly in the way of propriety. Thus the superior man, in his purification, devotes himself to carrying to its utmost extent his refined and intelligent virtue.

7 祭統:
故散齊七日以定之,致齊三日以齊之。定之之謂齊。齊者精明之至也,然後可以交於神明也。是故,先期旬有一日,宮宰宿夫人,夫人亦散齊七日,致齊三日。君致齊於外,夫人致齊於內,然後會於大廟。
Ji Tong:
Therefore there was the looser ordering of the mind for seven days, to bring it to a state of fixed determination; and the complete ordering of it for three days, to effect the uniformity of all the thoughts. That determination is what is called purification; the final attainment is when the highest degree of refined intelligence is reached. After this it was possible to enter into communion with the spiritual Intelligences. Moreover, on the eleventh day, before that appointed for the sacrifice, the governor of the palace gave warning notice to the wife of the ruler, and she also conducted that looser ordering of her thoughts for seven days, and that more complete ordering of them for three. The ruler accomplished his purification in the outer apartment, and the wife her purification in the inner. After this they met in the grand temple.

8 祭統:
君純冕立於阼,夫人副褘立於東房。君執圭瓚裸尸,大宗執璋瓚亞裸。及迎牲,君執紖,卿大夫從士執芻。宗婦執盎從夫人薦涗水。君執鸞刀羞嚌,夫人薦豆,此之謂夫婦親之。
Ji Tong:
The ruler, in the dark-coloured square-topped cap, stood at the top of the steps on the east; his wife in her head-dress and pheasant-embroidered robe stood in the eastern chamber. The ruler from his mace-handled libation-cup poured out the fragrant spirit before the personator of the dead; and the great minister in charge of the temple with his halfmace-handled cup poured the second libation (for the wife). When the victim was introduced, the ruler held it by the rope; the ministers and Great officers followed; other officers carried the dried grass (to lay on the ground when it should be killed); the wives of the ruler's surname followed the wife with the basins; she presented the purified liquid; the ruler held in his hand the knife with bells; he prepared the lungs (to be offered to the personator); and his wife put them on the dishes and presented them. All this shows what is meant in saying that husband and wife had their parts which they personally performed.

9 祭統:
及入舞,君執干戚就舞位,君為東上,冕而揔干,率其群臣,以樂皇尸。是故天子之祭也,與天下樂之;諸侯之祭也,與竟內樂之。冕而揔干,率其群臣,以樂皇尸,此與竟內樂之之義也。
Ji Tong:
When they went in for the dance, the ruler, holding his shield and axe, went to the place for the performance. He took his station at the head of those on the east, and in his square-topped cap,, carrying his shield, he led on all his officers, to give pleasure to the august personator of the dead. Hence the son of Heaven in his sacrifices (gave expression to) the joy of all in the kingdom. (In the same way) the feudal princes at their sacrifices (gave expression to) the joy of all within their territories. In their square-topped caps, and carrying their shields, they led on all their officers, to give joy to the august personators - with the idea of showing the joy of all within their territories.

10 祭統:
夫祭有三重焉:獻之屬,莫重於裸,聲莫重於升歌,舞莫重於《武宿夜》,此周道也。凡三道者,所以假於外而以增君子之志也,故與志進退;志輕則亦輕,志重則亦重。輕其志而求外之重也,雖聖人弗能得也。是故君子之祭也,必身自盡也,所以明重也。道之以禮,以奉三重,而薦諸皇尸,此聖人之道也。
Ji Tong:
At a sacrifice there were three things specially important. Of the offerings there was none more important than the libation; of the music there was none more important than the singing in the hall. above; of the pantomimic evolutions there was none more important than that representing (king) Wu's (army) on the night (before his battle). Such was the practice of the Zhou dynasty. All the three things were designed to increase the aim of the superior man by the use of these external representations. Hence their movements in advancing and retreating were regulated by (the degree of) that aim. If it were less intense, they were lighter; if it were more intense, they were more vehement. If the aim were less intense, and they sought to make the outward representation more vehement, even a sage could not have accomplished this. Therefore the superior man, in sacrificing, exerted himself to the utmost in order to give clear expression to these more important things. He conducted everything according to the rules of ceremony, thereby giving prominent exhibition to them, and displaying them to the august personator - Such was the method of the sages.

11 祭統:
夫祭有餕;餕者祭之末也,不可不知也。是故古之人有言曰:「善終者如始。」餕其是已。是故古之君子曰:「尸亦餕鬼神之餘也,惠術也,可以觀政矣。」是故尸謖,君與卿四人餕。君起,大夫六人餕;臣餕君之餘也。大夫起,士八人餕;賤餕貴之餘也。士起,各執其具以出,陳于堂下,百官進,徹之,下餕上之餘也。
Ji Tong:
At sacrifices there are the provisions that are left. The dealing with these is the least important thing in sacrifices, but it is necessary to take knowledge of it. Hence there is the saying of antiquity, 'The end must be attended to even as the beginning:'--there is an illustration of it in these leavings. Hence it was the remark of a superior man of antiquity, that 'The personator also eats what the spirits have left;--it is a device of kindness, in which may be seen (the method of) government.' Hence, when the personator rose, the ruler and his three ministers partook of what he had left. When the ruler had risen, the six Great officers partook;-the officers partook of what the ruler had left. When the Great officers rose, the eight officers partook - the lower in rank ate what the higher had left. When these officers rose, each one took what was before him and went out, and placed it (in the court) below the hall, when all the inferior attendants entered and removed it - the inferior class ate what the superior had left.

12 祭統:
凡餕之道,每變以眾,所以別貴賤之等,而興施惠之象也。是故以四簋黍見其修於廟中也。廟中者竟內之象也。祭者澤之大者也。是故上有大澤則惠必及下,顧上先下後耳。非上積重而下有凍餒之民也。是故上有大澤,則民夫人待于下流,知惠之必將至也,由餕見之矣。故曰:「可以觀政矣。」
Ji Tong:
Every change in the disposal of these relics was marked by an increase in the number (of those who partook of them); and thus there was marked the distinction between the degrees of the noble and the mean, and a representation given of the dispensation of benefits (by the sovereign). Hence by means of the four vessels of millet there is shown the cultivation of this in the ancestral temple, which becomes thereby a representation of all comprised within the confines (of the state). What is done at sacrifices afforded the greatest example of the dispensation of favours. Hence when the superior possessed the greatest blessing, acts of favour were sure to descend from him to those below him, the only difference being that he enjoyed the blessing first, and those below him afterwards;--there was no such thing as the superior's accumulating a great amount for himself, while the people below him might be suffering from cold and want. Therefore when the superior enjoyed his great blessing, even private individuals waited till the stream should flow down, knowing that his favours would surely come to them. This was shown by what was done with the relics at sacrifices, and hence came the saying that 'By the dealing with these was seen (the method of) government.'

13 祭統:
夫祭之為物大矣,其興物備矣。順以備者也,其教之本與?是故,君子之教也,外則教之以尊其君長,內則教之以孝於其親。是故,明君在上,則諸臣服從;崇事宗廟社稷,則子孫順孝。盡其道,端其義,而教生焉。
Ji Tong:
Sacrifice is the greatest of all things. Its apparatus of things employed in it is complete, but that completeness springs from all being in accordance with the requirements (of nature and reason) is it not this which enables us to find in it the basis of all the lessons of the sages? Therefore those lessons, in the external sphere, inculcated the honouring of the ruler and of elders, and, in the internal sphere, filial piety towards parents. Hence, when there was an intelligent ruler above, all his ministers submitted to and followed him. When he reverently sacrificed in his ancestral temple, and at the altars to the (spirits of the) land and grain, his sons and grandsons were filially obedient. He did all his duty in his own walk, and was correct in his righteousness; and thence grew up the lessons (of all duty).

14 祭統:
是故君子之事君也,必身行之,所不安於上,則不以使下;所惡於下,則不以事上;非諸人,行諸己,非教之道也。是故君子之教也,必由其本,順之至也,祭其是與?故曰:祭者,教之本也已。
Ji Tong:
Therefore a superior man, in the service of his ruler, should find (guidance for) all his personal conduct. What does not satisfy him in (the behaviour of) his superiors, he will not show in his employment of those below himself; and what he dislikes in the behaviour of those below him, he will not show in the service of his superiors. To disapprove of anything in another, and do the same himself, is contrary to the rule of instruction. Therefore the superior in the inculcation of his lessons, ought to proceed from the foundation (of all duty). This will show him pursuing the greatest method of what is natural and right in the highest degree; and is not this what is seen in sacrifice? Hence we have the saying that 'The first and greatest teaching is to be found in sacrifice.'

15 祭統:
夫祭有十倫焉;見事鬼神之道焉,見君臣之義焉,見父子之倫焉,見貴賤之等焉,見親疏之殺焉,見爵賞之施焉,見夫婦之別焉,見政事之均焉,見長幼之序焉,見上下之際焉。此之謂十倫。
Ji Tong:
In sacrifice there is a recognition of what belongs to ten relationships. There are seen in it the method of serving spiritual Beings; the righteousness between ruler and subject; the relation between father and son; the degrees of the noble and mean; the distance gradually increasing between relatives; the bestowment of rank and reward; the separate duties of husband and wife; impartiality in government affairs; the order to be observed between old and young; and the boundaries of high and low. These are what are called the (different duties in the) ten relationships.

16 祭統:
鋪筵設同几,為依神也;詔祝於室,而出于祊,此交神明之道也。
Ji Tong:
The spreading of the mat and placing on it a stool to serve for two, was intended as a resting-place for the united spirits (of husband and wife). The instruction to the blesser in the apartment and the going out to the inside of the gate, was the method pursued in (seeking) communion with the spirits.

17 祭統:
君迎牲而不迎尸,別嫌也。尸在廟門外,則疑於臣,在廟中則全於君;君在廟門外則疑於君,入廟門則全於臣、全於子。是故,不出者,明君臣之義也。
Ji Tong:
The ruler went to meet the victim, but not to meet the representative of the dead;-to avoid misconstruction. While the representative was outside the gate of the temple, he was to be regarded only as a subject; inside the temple, he had the full character of a ruler. While the ruler was outside the gate of the temple, he was there the ruler; when he entered that gate (on the occasion of the sacrifice), he had the full character of a subject, or a son. Hence his not going forth (to meet the representative) made clear the right distinction between the ruler and subject.

18 祭統:
夫祭之道,孫為王父尸。所使為尸者,於祭者子行也;父北面而事之,所以明子事父之道也。此父子之倫也。
Ji Tong:
According to the rule in sacrifices, a grandson acted as the representative of his grandfather. Though employed to act the part of representative, yet he was only the son of the sacrificer. When his father, with his face to the north, served him, he made clear how it is the way of a son to serve his father. Thus (sacrifice) illustrated the relation of father and son.

19 祭統:
尸飲五,君洗玉爵獻卿;尸飲七,以瑤爵獻大夫;尸飲九,以散爵獻士及群有司,皆以齒。明尊卑之等也。
Ji Tong:
When the representative had drunk the fifth cup, the ruler washed the cup of jade, and presented it to the ministers. When he had drunk the seventh cup, that of green jasper was presented to the Great officers. When he had drunk the ninth cup, the plain one varnished was presented to the ordinary officers, and all who were taking part in the service. In all the classes the cup passed from one to another, according to age; and thus were shown the degrees of rank as more honourable and lower.

20 祭統:
夫祭有昭穆,昭穆者,所以別父子、遠近、長幼、親疏之序而無亂也。是故,有事於大廟,則群昭群穆咸在而不失其倫。此之謂親疏之殺也。
Ji Tong:
At the sacrifice the parties taking part in it were arranged on the left and right, according to their order of descent from the common ancestor, and thus the distinction was maintained between the order of fathers and sons, the near and the distant, the older and the younger, the more nearly related and the more distantly, and there, was no confusion. Therefore at the services in the grand ancestral temple, all in the two lines of descent were present, and no one failed to receive his proper place in their common relationship. This was what was called (showing) the distance gradually increasing between relatives.

21 祭統:
古者,明君爵有德而祿有功,必賜爵祿於大廟,示不敢專也。故祭之日,一獻,君降立于阼階之南,南鄉。所命北面,史由君右執策命之。再拜稽首。受書以歸,而舍奠于其廟。此爵賞之施也。
Ji Tong:
Anciently the intelligent rulers conferred rank on the virtuous, and emoluments on the meritorious; and the rule was that this should take place in the Grand temple, to show that they did not dare to do it on their own private motion. Therefore, on the day of sacrifice, after the first presenting (of the cup to the representative), the ruler descended and stood on the south of the steps on the east, with his face to the south, while those who were to receive their appointments stood facing the north. The recorder was on the right of the ruler, holding the tablets on which the appointments were written. He read these, and (each man) bowed twice, with his head to the ground, received the writing, returned (home), and presented it in his (own) ancestral temple - such was the way in which rank and reward were given.

22 祭統:
君卷冕立于阼,夫人副褘立于東房。夫人薦豆執校,執醴授之執鐙。尸酢夫人執柄,夫人受尸執足。夫婦相授受,不相襲處,酢必易爵。明夫婦之別也。
Ji Tong:
The ruler, in the dragon robe and square-topped cap, stood at the top of the steps on the east, while his wife in her head-dress and pheasant-embroidered robe, stood in the chamber on the east. When the wife presented and put down the dishes or, stands, she held them by the foot; (the officer) who held the vessels with new wine, presented them to her, holding them by the bottom; when the representative of the dead was handing, the cup to the wife, he held it by, the handle, and she gave it to him by the foot; when husband and wife were giving and receiving, the one did not touch the place where the other had held the article; in passing the pledge cup, they changed the cups - so was the distinction to be maintained between husband and wife shown.

23 祭統:
凡為俎者,以骨為主。骨有貴賤;殷人貴髀,周人貴肩,凡前貴於後。俎者,所以明祭之必有惠也。是故,貴者取貴骨,賤者取賤骨。貴者不重,賤者不虛,示均也。惠均則政行,政行則事成,事成則功立。功之所以立者,不可不知也。俎者,所以明惠之必均也。善為政者如此,故曰:見政事之均焉。
Ji Tong:
In all arrangements with the stands, the chief attention was given to the bones. Some bones were considered nobler, and some meaner. Under the Yin they preferred the thigh bone; and under the Zhou, the shoulder bone. Generally, the bones in front were thought nobler than those behind. The stands served to illustrate the rule in sacrifices of showing favours. Hence the nobler, guests received the nobler bones, and the lower, the less noble; the nobler did not receive very much, and the lower were not left without any - impartiality was thus shown. With impartiality of favours, government proceeded freely; with the free proceeding of government, undertakings were accomplished; with the accomplishment of undertakings, merit was established. It is necessary that the way in which merit is established should be known. The stands served to show the rule for the impartial bestowment of favours. So did the skilful administrators of government proceed, and hence it is said that (sacrifices showed the principle of) impartiality in the business of government.

24 祭統:
凡賜爵,昭為一,穆為一。昭與昭齒,穆與穆齒,凡群有司皆以齒,此之謂長幼有序。
Ji Tong:
Whenever they came to the (general) circulation of the cup, those whose place was on the left stood in one row, and also those whose place was on the right. The members of each row had places according to their age; and in the same way were arranged all the assistants at the service. This was what was called (exhibiting) the order of the old and young.

25 祭統:
夫祭有畀輝胞翟閽者,惠下之道也。唯有德之君為能行此,明足以見之,仁足以與之。畀之為言與也,能以其餘畀其下者也。輝者,甲吏之賤者也;胞者,肉吏之賤者也;翟者,樂吏之賤者也;閽者,守門之賤者也。古者不使刑人守門,此四守者,吏之至賤者也。尸又至尊;以至尊既祭之末,而不忘至賤,而以其餘畀之。是故明君在上,則竟內之民無凍餒者矣,此之謂上下之際。
Ji Tong:
At sacrifices there were portions given to the skinners, cooks, assistants, feather-wavers, and doorkeepers,--showing how favours should descend to the lowest. Only a virtuous ruler, however, could do this; having intelligence sufficient to perceive (the wisdom of) it, and benevolence equal to the bestowment of it. Apportioning means bestowing; they were able to bestow what was left on those below them. Skinners were the meanest of those who looked after the buff-coats; cooks' assistants, the meanest of those who looked after the flesh; feather-wavers, the meanest of those who had to do with the music; door-keepers, those who looked after the doors; for anciently they did not employ men who had suffered dismemberment to keep the doors. These four classes of keepers were the meanest of the servants; and the representative of the dead was the most honoured of all. When the most honoured, at the close of the sacrifice, did not forget those who were the most mean, but took what was left and bestowed it on them, (it may be seen how) with an intelligent ruler above, there would not be any of the people within his territory who suffered from cold and want. This is what was meant by saying that sacrifices show the relation between high and low.

26 祭統:
凡祭有四時:春祭曰礿,夏祭曰禘,秋祭曰嘗,冬祭曰烝。礿、禘,陽義也;嘗、烝,陰義也。禘者陽之盛也,嘗者陰之盛也。故曰:莫重於禘、嘗。古者於禘也,發爵賜服,順陽義也;於嘗也,出田邑,發秋政,順陰義也。故記曰:「嘗之日,發公室,示賞也;草艾則墨;未發秋政,則民弗敢草也。」故曰:禘、嘗之義大矣。治國之本也,不可不知也。明其義者君也,能其事者臣也。不明其義,君人不全;不能其事,為臣不全。
Ji Tong:
For the sacrifices (in the ancestral temple) there were the four seasons. That in spring was called yue; that in summer, di; that in autumn, chang; and that in winter, zheng. The yue and di expressed the idea in the bright and expanding (course of nature); the chang and zheng, that in the sombre and contracting (course). The di showed the former in its fullest development, and the chang showed the latter in the same. Hence it is said, 'There is nothing more important than the di and chang.' Anciently, at the di sacrifice, they conferred rank, and bestowed robes - acting according to the idea in the bright and expanding (course); and at the khang they gave out fields and homesteads, and issued the rules of autumn-work - acting according to the idea in the sombre and contracting (course). Hence it is said in the Record, 'On the day of the chang sacrifice they gave forth (the stores of) the ruler's house;' showing how rewards (were then given). When the plants were cut down, the punishment of branding might be inflicted. Before the rules of autumn-work were issued, the people did not dare to cut down the grass. Hence it is said that 'the ideas in the di and chang are great, and lie at the, foundation of the government of a state; and should by all means be known.' It is for the ruler to know clearly those ideas, and for the minister to be able to execute (what they require). The ruler who does not know the ideas is not complete, and the minister who cannot carry them into execution is not complete.

27 祭統:
夫義者,所以濟志也,諸德之發也。是故其德盛者,其志厚;其志厚者,其義章。其義章者,其祭也敬。祭敬則竟內之子孫莫敢不敬矣。是故君子之祭也,必身親蒞之;有故,則使人可也。雖使人也,君不失其義者,君明其義故也。其德薄者,其志輕,疑於其義,而求祭;使之必敬也,弗可得已。祭而不敬,何以為民父母矣?
Ji Tong:
Now the idea serves to direct and help the aim, and leads to the manifestation of all virtue. Hence he whose virtue is the completest, has the largest aims; and he whose aims are the largest, has the clearest idea. He whose idea is the clearest, will be most reverent in his sacrifices. When the sacrifices (of a state) are reverent, none of the sons and grandsons within its borders will dare to be irreverent. Then the superior man, when he has a sacrifice, will feel it necessary to preside at it in person. if there be a (sufficient) reason for it, he may commit the performance of it to another. But when committing the performance to another, the ruler will not fail (to think) of its meaning, because he understands the ideas in it. He whose virtue is slight, has but a small aim. He who is in doubts as to the idea in it, and will yet seek to be reverent in his sacrifice, will find it impossible to be so; and how can he, who sacrifices without reverence, be the parent of his people?

28 祭統:
夫鼎有銘,銘者,自名也。自名以稱揚其先祖之美,而明著之後世者也。為先祖者,莫不有美焉,莫不有惡焉,銘之義,稱美而不稱惡,此孝子孝孫之心也。唯賢者能之。
Ji Tong:
The tripods (at the sacrifices) had inscriptions on them. The maker of an inscription named himself, and took occasion to praise and set forth the excellent qualities of his ancestors, and clearly exhibit them to future generations. Those ancestors must have had good qualities and also bad. But the idea of an inscription is to make mention of the good qualifies and not of the bad - such is the heart of a filial descendant; and it is only the man of ability and virtue who can attain to it.

29 祭統:
銘者,論譔其先祖之有德善,功烈勛勞慶賞聲名列於天下,而酌之祭器;自成其名焉,以祀其先祖者也。顯揚先祖,所以崇孝也。身比焉,順也。明示後世,教也。
Ji Tong:
The inscriber discourses about and panegyrises the virtues and goodness of his ancestors, their merits and zeal, their services and toils, the congratulations and rewards (given to them), their fame recognised by all under heaven; and in the discussion of these things on his spiritual vessels, he "makes himself famous; and thus he sacrifices to his ancestors. In the celebration of his ancestors he exalts his filial piety. That he himself appears after them is natural. And in the clear showing (of all this) to future generations, he is giving instruction.

30 祭統:
夫銘者,壹稱而上下皆得焉耳矣。是故君子之觀於銘也,既美其所稱,又美其所為。為之者,明足以見之,仁足以與之,知足以利之,可謂賢矣。賢而勿伐,可謂恭矣。
Ji Tong:
By the one panegyric of an inscription benefit accrues to the ancestors, to their descendant and to others after them. Hence when a superior man looks at an inscription, while he admires those whom it praises, he also admires him who made it. That maker had intelligence to see (the excellences of his ancestors), virtue to associate himself with them, and wisdom to take advantage (of his position);-he may be pronounced a man of ability and virtue. Such worth without boasting may be pronounced courteous respect.

31 祭統:
故衛孔悝之鼎銘曰:六月丁亥,公假于大廟。公曰:「叔舅!乃祖莊叔,左右成公。成公乃命莊叔隨難于漢陽,即宮于宗周,奔走無射。啟右獻公。獻公乃命成叔,纂乃祖服。乃考文叔,興舊耆欲,作率慶士,躬恤衛國,其勤公家,夙夜不解,民咸曰:『休哉!』」公曰:「叔舅!予女銘:若纂乃考服。」悝拜稽首曰:「對揚以辟之,勤大命施于烝彝鼎。」此衛孔悝之鼎銘也。
Ji Tong:
Thus the inscription on the tripod of Kong Kui of Wei was: 'In the sixth month, on the day ding-hai, the duke went to the Grand Temple, and said, "My young uncle, your ancestor Zhuang Shu assisted duke Cheng, who ordered him to follow him in his difficulties on the south of the Han, and afterwards to come to him in his palace (of imprisonment) in the honoured capital of Zhou; and all these hurried journeyings he endured without wearying of them. From him came the helper of duke Xian, who charged your (later) ancestor Zhuang Shu to continue the service of his ancestor. Your deceased father Wen Shu cherished and stimulated in himself the old desires and aims, roused and led on the admirable officers, and showed his own great personal interest in the state of Wei. His labours for our ducal house never wearied early or late, so that the people all testified how good he was." The duke further said, "My young uncle, I give you (this tripod with) its inscription. Carry on and out the services of your father." Kui bowed with his head to the ground, and said, "In response to the distinction (you have conferred upon me) I will take your great and important charge, and I will put it on the vases and tripods of my winter sacrifice."' Such was the inscription on the tripod of Kong Kui of Wei.

32 祭統:
古之君子論譔其先祖之美,而明著之後世者也。以比其身,以重其國家如此。子孫之守宗廟社稷者,其先祖無美而稱之,是誣也;有善而弗知,不明也;知而弗傳,不仁也。此三者,君子之所恥也。
Ji Tong:
In this way the superior men of antiquity panegyrised the excellent qualities of their ancestors, and clearly exhibited them to future generations, thereby having the opportunity to introduce their own personality and magnify their states. If descendants who maintain their ancestral temples and the altars to the spirits of the land and grain, praised their ancestors for good qualities which they did not possess, that was falsehood; if they did not take knowledge of the good qualities which they did possess, that showed their want of intelligence; if they knew them and did not transmit them (by their inscriptions), that showed a want of virtue - these are three things of which a superior man should have been ashamed.

33 祭統:
昔者,周公旦有勛勞於天下。周公既沒,成王、康王追念周公之所以勛勞者,而欲尊魯;故賜之以重祭。外祭,則郊社是也;內祭,則大嘗禘是也。夫大嘗禘,升歌《清廟》,下而管《象》;朱干玉戚,以舞《大武》;八佾,以舞《大夏》;此天子之樂也。康周公,故以賜魯也。子孫纂之,至于今不廢,所以明周公之德而又以重其國也。
Ji Tong:
Anciently, Dan, duke of Zhou, did most meritorious service for the kingdom. After his death the kings Cheng and Kang, bearing in mind all his admirable work, and wishing to honour Lu, granted to its lords the right of offering the greatest sacrifices - those in the borders of their capital to Heaven and Earth, in the wider sphere of sacrifice; and the great summer and autumnal sacrifices in the ancestral temple of the state. At those great summer and autumnal sacrifices, on the hall above, they sang the Qing Miao, and in the courtyard below it they danced the Xiang to the flute; they carried red shields and axes adorned with jade in performing the Da Wu dance; and this was the music employed by the son of Heaven. (Those kings) in acknowledgment of the great merit of the duke of Zhou, allowed (the use of those sacrifices and this music) to the (marquis of) Lu. His descendants have continued it, and down to the present day it is not abolished, thereby showing clearly the virtue of the lords of Zhou and magnifying their state.

URN: ctp:liji/ji-tong