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Chinese Text Project
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《間傳 - Jian Zhuan》

English translation: James Legge [?]
Books referencing 《間傳》 Library Resources
[Also known as: "Treatise on subsidiary points in mourning usages"]

1 間傳:
斬衰何以服苴?苴,惡貌也,所以首其內而見諸外也。斬衰貌若苴,齊衰貌若枲,大功貌若止,小功、緦麻容貌可也,此哀之發於容體者也。
Jian Zhuan:
What is the reason that the headband worn with the frayed sackcloth, for a father, must be made of the fibres of the female plant? Those fibres have an unpleasant appearance, and serve to show outwardly the internal distress. The appearance of (the mourners), wearing the sackcloth for a father with its jagged edges, corresponds to those fibres. That of one wearing the sackcloth for a mother with its even edges, corresponds to the fibres of the male plant. That of one wearing the mourning of nine months looks as if (the ebullitions of sorrow) had ceased. For one wearing the mourning of five months or of three, his (ordinary) appearance is suitable. These are the manifestations of sorrow in the bodily appearance.

2 間傳:
斬衰之哭,若往而不反;齊衰之哭,若往而反;大功之哭,三曲而偯;小功緦麻,哀容可也。此哀之發於聲音者也。
Jian Zhuan:
The wailing of one wearing the sackcloth for his father seems to go forth in one unbroken strain; that of one wearing the sackcloth for a mother is now and then broken; in the mourning of nine months, after the first burst there are three quavers in it, and then it seems to die away; in the mourning of five and three months, an ordinary wailing is sufficient. These are the manifestations of sorrow in the modulations of the voice.

3 間傳:
斬衰,唯而不對;齊衰,對而不言;大功,言而不議;小功緦麻,議而不及樂。此哀之發於言語者也。
Jian Zhuan:
When wearing the sackcloth for a father, one indicates that he hears what is said to him, but does not reply in words; when wearing that for a mother, he replies, but does not speak of anything else. During the nine months' mourning, he may speak of other things, but not discuss them; during that for five months or three months, he may discuss other things, but does not show pleasure in doing so. These are the manifestations of sorrow in speech.

4 間傳:
斬衰,三日不食;齊衰,二日不食;大功,三不食;小功緦麻,再不食;士與斂焉,則壹不食。故父母之喪,既殯食粥,朝一溢米,莫一溢米;齊衰之喪,疏食水飲,不食菜果;大功之喪,不食醯醬;小功緦麻,不飲醴酒。此哀之發於飲食者也。
Jian Zhuan:
When a mourner has assumed the sackcloth for a father, for three days he abstains from food; for a mother, for two days. When he has commenced the nine months' mourning, he abstains from three meals; in that of five months or of three, for two. When an ordinary officer takes part in the dressing (of a friend's corpse), he abstains from one meal. Hence at the mourning rites for a father or mother, when the coffining takes place, (the children) take gruel made of a handful of rice in the morning, and the same quantity in the evening. During all the rites for a mother, they eat coarse rice, and drink only water, not touching vegetables or fruits. During the nine months' mourning (the mourners) do not eat pickles of sauces; during that of five months or three, they do not drink. prepared liquor, either new or old. These are the manifestations of sorrow in drinking and eating.

5 間傳:
父母之喪,既虞卒哭,疏食水飲,不食菜果;期而小祥,食菜果;又期而大祥,有醯醬;中月而禫,禫而飲醴酒。始飲酒者先飲醴酒。始食肉者先食乾肉。
Jian Zhuan:
In the mourning rites for a parent, when the sacrifice of repose has been presented, and the wailing is at an end, (the mourners) eat coarse rice and drink water, but do not take vegetables or fruits. At the end of a year, when the smaller felicitous sacrifice has been offered, they eat vegetables and fruits. After another year, when the greater sacrifice has been offered, they take pickles and sauces. In the month after, the final mourning sacrifice is offered, after which they drink the must and spirits. When they begin to drink these, they first use the must; when they begin to eat flesh, they first take that which has been dried.

6 間傳:
父母之喪,居倚廬,寢苫枕塊,不說絰帶;齊衰之喪,居堊室,芐翦不納;大功之喪,寢有席,小功緦麻,床可也。此哀之發於居處者也。
Jian Zhuan:
During the mourning rites for a parent, (the son) occupied the mourning shed, and slept on straw with a clod for his pillow, without taking off the headband or girdle. If they were for a mother (only, and the father were still alive), be occupied the unplastered chamber, (sleeping on) typha rushes with their tops cutoff, but not woven together. During the mourning for nine months, there was a mat to sleep on. In that for five months or for three, it was allowed to use a bedstead. These were the manifestations of sorrow given in the dwelling-places.

7 間傳:
父母之喪,既虞卒哭,柱楣翦屏,芐翦不納;期而小祥,居堊室,寢有席;又期而大祥,居復寢;中月而禫,禫而床。
Jian Zhuan:
At the mourning rites for a parent, after the sacrifice of repose, and when the wailing was concluded, the (inclined) posts of the shed were set up on lintels, and the screen (of grass) was clipped, while typha rushes, with the tops cut off, but not woven together, (were laid down for a mat). At the end of a year, and when the smaller felicitous sacrifice had been offered, (the son) occupied the unplastered chamber, and had a mat to sleep on. After another year, and when the greater felicitous sacrifice had been offered, he returned to his old sleeping apartment. Then, when the final mourning sacrifice was offered, he used a bedstead.

8 間傳:
斬衰三升,齊衰四升、五升、六升,大功七升、八升、九升,小功十升、十一升、十二升,緦麻十五升去其半,有事其縷、無事其布曰緦。此哀之發於衣服者也。
Jian Zhuan:
The mourning with jagged edges was made with 3 sheng of hempen threads, each sheng containing 81 threads; that with even edge, with 4, 5, or 6 sheng; that for the nine months' mourning with 7, 8, or 9 sheng; that for the five months, with 10, 11, or 12 sheng; that for the three months, with 15 sheng less the half. When the thread was manipulated and boiled, no such operation was performed on the woven cloth, and it was called sze (or the material for the mourning of three months). These were the manifestations of sorrow shown in the fabrics of the different mournings.

9 間傳:
斬衰三升,既虞卒哭,受以成布六升、冠七升;為母疏衰四升,受以成布七升、冠八升。去麻服葛,葛帶三重。期而小祥,練冠縓緣,要絰不除,男子除乎首,婦人除乎帶。男子何為除乎首也?婦人何為除乎帶也?男子重首,婦人重帶。除服者先重者,易服者易輕者。又期而大祥,素縞麻衣。中月而禫,禫而纖,無所不佩。
Jian Zhuan:
The sackcloth with jagged edges (worn at first) was made with 3 sheng, but after the sacrifice of repose when the wailing was over, this was exchanged for a different fabric made with 6 sheng, while the material for the cap was made with 7 sheng. The coarse sackcloth for a mother was made with 4 sheng, exchanged for a material made with 7 sheng, while the cap was made with one of 8 sheng. When the hempen dress is put away (after the burial), grass-cloth is worn, the sash of it being made of triple twist. At the end of the year, and when the first felicitous sacrifice has been offered, (the son) pas on the cap of dyed silk proper to that sacrifice, and the red collar, still retaining the sash and headband. A son begins at the head, and a woman with the girdle. Why does the son begin at the head, and why does a woman begin with the girdle? Because a man considers the head the most important to him, and a woman the waist. In laying aside the mourning, they began with the most important; in changing it, with what was least. At the end of the second year, and when the greater felicitous sacrifice had been offered, the cap and dress of plain hempen cloth was assumed. After the concluding sacrifice of mourning, in the next month, the black cap and silk of black and white were put on, and all the appendages of the girdle were assumed.

10 間傳:
易服者,何為易輕者也?斬衰之喪,既虞卒哭,遭齊衰之喪,輕者包,重者特。既練,遭大功之喪,麻葛重。齊衰之喪,既虞卒哭,遭大功之喪,麻葛兼服之。斬衰之葛,與齊衰之麻同;齊衰之葛,與大功之麻同;大功之葛,與小功之麻同;小功之葛,與緦之麻同,麻同則兼服之。兼服之服重者,則易輕者也。
Jian Zhuan:
Why is it that in changing the mourning they (first) changed what was the lightest? During the wearing of the sackcloth with jagged edges for a father, if when, after the sacrifice of repose and the end of the wailing, there came occasion to wear the even-edged sackcloth for a mother, that, as lighter, was considered to be embraced in the other, and that which was most important was retained. After the sacrifice at the end of the year, when there occurred occasion for the mourning rites of nine months, both the sackcloth and grass-cloth bands were worn. During the wearing of the sackcloth for a mother, when, after the sacrifice of repose and the end of the wailing, there came occasion to wear the mourning for nine months, the sackcloth and grasscloth bands were worn together. The grass-cloth band with the jagged-edged sackcloth and the hempen band with the even-edged sackcloth were of the same value. The grass-cloth with the even-edged sackcloth and the hempen band of the nine months' mourning were of the same value. The grass-cloth with the nine months' mourning and the hempen band with that of five months were of the same value. The grass-cloth with the five months' mourning and the hempen with that of three months were of the same value. So they wore them together. When they did so, that which was the lighter was changed first.

URN: ctp:liji/jian-zhuan