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Chinese Text Project
Show translation:[None] [English]

《曲禮上 - Qu Li I》

English translation: James Legge [?]
Books referencing 《曲禮上》 Library Resources
[Also known as: "Summary of the Rules of Propriety Part 1"]

1 曲禮上:
曲禮》曰:「毋不敬,儼若思,安定辭。」安民哉!
Qu Li I:
The Summary of the Rules of Propriety says: Always and in everything let there be reverence; with the deportment grave as when one is thinking (deeply), and with speech composed and definite. This will make the people tranquil.

2 曲禮上:
敖不可長,欲不可從,志不可滿,樂不可極。
Qu Li I:
Pride should not be allowed to grow; the desires should not be indulged; the will should not be gratified to the full; pleasure should not be carried to excess.

3 曲禮上:
賢者狎而敬之,畏而愛之。愛而知其惡,憎而知其善。積而能散,安安而能遷。臨財毋茍得,臨難毋茍免。很毋求勝,分毋求多。疑事毋質,直而勿有。
Qu Li I:
Men of talents and virtue can be familiar with others and yet respect them; can stand in awe of others and yet love them. They love others and yet acknowledge the evil that is in them. They accumulate (wealth) and yet are able to part with it (to help the needy); they rest in what gives them satisfaction and yet can seek satisfaction elsewhere (when it is desirable to do so). When you find wealth within your reach, do not (try to) get it by improper means; when you meet with calamity, do not (try to) escape from it by improper means. Do not seek for victory in small contentions; do not seek for more than your proper share. Do not positively affirm what you have doubts about; and (when you have no doubts), do not let what you say appear (simply) as your own view.

4 曲禮上:
若夫,坐如尸,立如齊。
Qu Li I:
If a man be sitting, let him do so as a personator of the deceased; if he be standing, let him do so (reverently), as in sacrificing.

5 曲禮上:
禮從宜,使從俗。
Qu Li I:
In (observing) the rules of propriety, what is right (for the time and in the circumstances) should be followed. In discharging a mission (to another state), its customs are to be observed.

6 曲禮上:
夫禮者所以定親疏,決嫌疑,別同異,明是非也。
Qu Li I:
They are the rules of propriety, that furnish the means of determining (the observances towards) relatives, as near and remote; of settling points which may cause suspicion or doubt; of distinguishing where there should be agreement, and where difference; and of making clear what is right and what is wrong.

7 曲禮上:
禮,不妄說人,不辭費。禮,不逾節,不侵侮,不好狎。修身踐言,謂之善行。行修言道,禮之質也。禮聞取於人,不聞取人。禮聞來學,不聞往教。
Qu Li I:
According to those rules, one should not (seek to) please others in an improper way, nor be lavish of his words. According to them, one does not go beyond the definite measure, nor encroach on or despise others, nor is fond of (presuming) familiarities. To cultivate one's person and fulfil one's words is called good conduct. When the conduct is (thus) ordered, and the words are accordant with the (right) course, we have the substance of the rules of propriety. I have heard that it is in accordance with those rules that one should be chosen by others (as their model); I have not heard of his choosing them (to take him as such). I have heard in the same way of (scholars) coming to learn; I have not heard of (the master) going to teach.

8 曲禮上:
道德仁義,非禮不成,教訓正俗,非禮不備。分爭辨訟,非禮不決。君臣上下父子兄弟,非禮不定。宦學事師,非禮不親。班朝治軍,蒞官行法,非禮威嚴不行。禱祠祭祀,供給鬼神,非禮不誠不莊。是以君子恭敬撙節退讓以明禮。
Qu Li I:
The course (of duty), virtue, benevolence, and righteousness cannot be fully carried out without the rules of propriety; nor are training and oral lessons for the rectification of manners complete; nor can the clearing up of quarrels and discriminating in disputes be accomplished; nor can (the duties between) ruler and minister, high and low, father and son, elder brother and younger, be determined; nor can students for office and (other) learners, in serving their masters, have an attachment for them; nor can majesty and dignity be shown in assigning the different places at court, in the government of the armies, and in discharging the duties of office so as to secure the operation of the laws; nor can there be the (proper) sincerity and gravity in presenting the offerings to spiritual Beings on occasions of supplication, thanksgiving, and the various sacrifices. Therefore the superior man is respectful and reverent, assiduous in his duties and not going beyond them, retiring and yielding - thus illustrating (the principle of) propriety.

9 曲禮上:
鸚鵡能言,不離飛鳥;猩猩能言,不離禽獸。今人而無禮,雖能言,不亦禽獸之心乎?夫唯禽獸無禮,故父子聚麀。是故聖人作,為禮以教人。使人以有禮,知自別於禽獸。
Qu Li I:
The parrot can speak, and yet is nothing more than a bird; the ape can speak, and yet is nothing more than a beast. Here now is a man who observes no rules of propriety; is not his heart that of a beast? But if (men were as) beasts, and without (the principle of) propriety, father and son might have the same mate. Therefore, when the sages arose, they framed the rules of propriety in order to teach men, and cause them, by their possession of them, to make a distinction between themselves and brutes.

10 曲禮上:
太上貴德,其次務施報。禮尚往來。往而不來,非禮也;來而不往,亦非禮也。人有禮則安,無禮則危。故曰:禮者不可不學也。
Qu Li I:
In the highest antiquity they prized (simply conferring) good; in the time next to this, giving and repaying was the thing attended to. And what the rules of propriety value is that reciprocity. If I give a gift and nothing comes in return, that is contrary to propriety; if the thing comes to me, and I give nothing in return, that also is contrary to propriety. If a man observe the rules of propriety, he is in a condition of security; if he do not, he is in one of danger. Hence there is the saying, 'The rules of propriety should by no means be left unlearned.'

11 曲禮上:
夫禮者,自卑而尊人。雖負販者,必有尊也,而況富貴乎?富貴而知好禮,則不驕不淫;貧賤而知好禮,則志不懾。
Qu Li I:
Propriety is seen in humbling one's self and giving honour to others. Even porters and pedlers are sure to display this giving honour (in some cases); how much more should the rich and noble do so (in all)! When the rich and noble know to love propriety, they do not become proud nor dissolute. When the poor and mean know to love propriety, their minds do not become cowardly.

12 曲禮上:
人生十年曰幼,學。二十曰弱,冠。三十曰壯,有室。四十曰強,而仕。五十曰艾,服官政。六十曰耆,指使。七十曰老,而傳。八十、九十曰耄,七年曰悼,悼與耄雖有罪,不加刑焉。百年曰期,頤。
Qu Li I:
When one is ten years old, we call him a boy; he goes (out) to school. When he is twenty, we call him a youth; he is capped. When he is thirty, we say, 'He is at his maturity;' he has a wife. When he is forty, we say, 'He is in his vigour;' he is employed in office. When he is fifty, we say, 'He is getting grey;' he can discharge all the duties of an officer. When he is sixty, we say, 'He is getting old;' he gives directions and instructions. When he is seventy, we say, 'He is old;' he delegates his duties to others. At eighty or ninety, we say of him, 'He is very old.' When he is seven, we say that he is an object of pitying love. Such a child and one who is very old, though they may be chargeable with crime, are not subjected to punishment. At a hundred, he is called a centenarian, and has to be fed.

13 曲禮上:
大夫七十而致事。若不得謝,則必賜之几杖,行役以婦人。適四方,乘安車。自稱曰老夫,於其國則稱名;越國而問焉,必告之以其制。
Qu Li I:
A great officer, when he is seventy, should resign (his charge of) affairs. If he be not allowed to resign, there must be given him a stool and staff. When travelling on service, he must have the attendance of his wife; and when going to any other state, he will ride in an easy carriage. (In another state) he will, style himself 'the old man;' in his own state, he will call himself by his name. When from another they ask (about his state), he must tell them of its (old) institutions.

14 曲禮上:
謀於長者,必操几杖以從之。長者問,不辭讓而對,非禮也。
Qu Li I:
In going to take counsel with an elder, one must carry a stool and a staff with him (for the elder's use). When the elder asks a question, to reply without acknowledging one's incompetency and (trying to) decline answering, is contrary to propriety.

15 曲禮上:
凡為人子之禮:冬溫而夏凊,昏定而晨省,在醜夷不爭。
Qu Li I:
For all sons it is the rule: In winter, to warm (the bed for their parents), and to cool it in summer; in the evening, to adjust everything (for their repose), and to inquire (about their health) in the morning; and, when with their companions, not to quarrel.

16 曲禮上:
夫為人子者,三賜不及車馬。故州閭鄉黨稱其孝也,兄弟親戚稱其慈也,僚友稱其弟也,執友稱其仁也,交游稱其信也。見父之執,不謂之進不敢進,不謂之退不敢退,不問不敢對。此孝子之行也。
Qu Li I:
Whenever a son, having received the three (first) gifts (of the ruler), declines (to use) the carriage and horses, the people of the hamlets and smaller districts, and of the larger districts and neighbourhoods, will proclaim him filial; his brothers and relatives, both by consanguinity and affinity, will proclaim him loving; his friends who are fellow-officers will proclaim him virtuous; and his friends who are his associates will proclaim him true. When he sees an intimate friend of his father, not to presume to go forward to him without being told to do so; nor to retire without being told; nor to address him without being questioned - this is the conduct of a filial son.

17 曲禮上:
夫為人子者:出必告,反必面,所游必有常,所習必有業。恒言不稱老。年長以倍則父事之,十年以長則兄事之,五年以長則肩隨之。群居五人,則長者必異席。
Qu Li I:
A son, when he is going abroad, must inform (his parents where he is going); when he returns, he must present himself before them. Where he travels must be in some fixed (region); what he engages in must be some (reputable) occupation. In ordinary conversation (with his parents), he does not use the term 'old' (with reference to them). He should serve one twice as old as himself as he serves his father, one ten years older than himself as an elder brother; with one five years older he should walk shoulder to shoulder, but (a little) behind him. When five are sitting together, the eldest must have a different mat (by himself).

18 曲禮上:
為人子者,居不主奧,坐不中席,行不中道,立不中門。食饗不為概,祭祀不為尸。聽於無聲,視於無形。不登高,不臨深。不茍訾,不茍笑。
Qu Li I:
A son should not occupy the south-west corner of the apartment, nor sit in the middle of the mat (which he occupies alone), nor walk in the middle of the road, nor stand in the middle of the doorway. He should not take the part of regulating the (quantity of) rice and other viands at an entertainment. He should not act as personator of the dead at sacrifice. He should be (as if he were) hearing (his parents) when there is no voice from them, and as seeing them when they are not actually there. He should not ascend a height, nor approach the verge of a depth; he should not indulge in reckless reviling or derisive laughing.

19 曲禮上:
孝子不服暗,不登危,懼辱親也。父母存,不許友以死。不有私財。
Qu Li I:
A filial son will not do things in the dark, nor attempt hazardous undertakings, fearing lest he disgrace his parents. While his parents are alive, he will not promise a friend to die (with or for him), nor will he have wealth that he calls his own.

20 曲禮上:
為人子者:父母存,冠衣不純素。孤子當室,冠衣不純采。
Qu Li I:
A son, while his parents are alive, will not wear a cap or (other) article of dress, with a white border. An orphan son, taking his father's place, will not wear a cap or (other article of) dress with a variegated border.

21 曲禮上:
幼子常視毋誑,童子不衣裘裳。立必正方。不傾聽。長者與之提攜,則兩手奉長者之手。負劍辟咡詔之,則掩口而對。
Qu Li I:
A boy should never he allowed to see an instance of deceit. A lad should not wear a jacket of fur nor the skirt. He must stand straight and square, and not incline his head in hearing. When an elder is holding him with the hand, he should hold the elder's hand with both his hands. When the elder has shifted his sword to his back and is speaking to him with the side of his face bent, down, he should cover his mouth with his hand in answering.

22 曲禮上:
從於先生,不越路而與人言。遭先生於道,趨而進,正立拱手。先生與之言則對;不與之言則趨而退。
Qu Li I:
When he is following his teacher, he should not quit the road to speak with another person. When he meets his teacher on the road, he should hasten forward to him, and stand with his hands joined across his breast. If the teacher speak to him, he will answer; if he do not, he will retire with hasty steps.

23 曲禮上:
從長者而上丘陵,則必鄉長者所視。
Qu Li I:
When, following an elder, they ascend a level height, he must keep his face towards the quarter to which the elder is looking.

24 曲禮上:
登城不指,城上不呼。
Qu Li I:
When one has ascended the wall of a city, he should not point, nor callout.

25 曲禮上:
將適舍,求毋固。將上堂,聲必揚。戶外有二屨,言聞則入,言不聞則不入。將入戶,視必下。入戶奉扃,視瞻毋回;戶開亦開,戶闔亦闔;有後入者,闔而勿遂。毋踐屨,毋踖席,摳衣趨隅。必慎唯諾。
Qu Li I:
When he intends to go to a lodging-house, let it not be with the feeling that he must get whatever he asks for. When about to go up to the hall (of a house), he must raise his voice. When outside the door there are two (pairs of) shoes, if voices be heard, he enters; if voices be not heard, he will not enter. When about to enter the door, he must keep his eyes cast down. As he enters, he should (keep his hands raised as high as if he were) bearing the bar of the door. In looking down or up, he should not turn (his head). If the door were open, he should leave it open; if it were shut, he should shut it again. If there be others (about) to enter after him, while he (turns to) shut the door, let him not do so hastily. Let him not tread on the shoes (left outside the door), nor stride across the mat (in going to take his seat); but let him hold up his dress, and move hastily to his corner (of the mat). (When seated), he must be careful in answering or assenting.

26 曲禮上:
大夫士出入君門,由闑右,不踐閾。
Qu Li I:
A great officer or (other) officer should go out or in at the ruler's doors, on the right of the middle post, without treading on the threshold.

27 曲禮上:
凡與客入者,每門讓於客。客至於寢門,則主人請入為席,然後出迎客。客固辭,主人肅客而入。主人入門而右,客入門而左。主人就東階,客就西階,客若降等,則就主人之階。主人固辭,然後客復就西階。主人與客讓登,主人先登,客從之,拾級聚足,連步以上。上於東階則先右足,上於西階則先左足。
Qu Li I:
Whenever (a host has received and) is entering with a guest, at every door he should give place to him. When the guest arrives at the innermost door (or that leading to the feast-room), the host will ask to be allowed to enter first and arrange the mats. Having done this, he will come out to receive the guest, who will refuse firmly (to enter first). The host having made a low bow to him, they will enter (together). When they have entered the door, the host moves to the right, and the guest to the left, the former going to the steps on the east, and the latter to those on the west. If the guest be of the lower rank, he goes to the steps of the host (as if to follow him up them). The host firmly declines this, and he returns to the other steps on the west. They then offer to each other the precedence in going up, but the host commences first, followed (immediately) by the other. They bring their feet together on every step, thus ascending by successive paces. He who ascends by the steps on the cast should move his right foot first, and the other at the western steps his left foot.

28 曲禮上:
帷薄之外不趨,堂上不趨,執玉不趨。堂上接武,堂下布武。室中不翔,并坐不橫肱。授立不跪,授坐不立。
Qu Li I:
Outside the curtain or screen (a visitor) should not walk with the formal hasty steps, nor above in the hall, nor when carrying the symbol of jade. Above, in the raised hall, the foot-prints should be alongside each other, but below it free and separate. In the apartment the elbows should not be held out like wings in bowing. When two (equals) are sitting side by side, they do not have their elbows extended crosswise. One should not kneel in handing anything to a (superior) standing, nor stand in handing it to him sitting.

29 曲禮上:
凡為長者糞之禮,必加帚於箕上,以袂拘而退;其塵不及長者,以箕自鄉而扱之。奉席如橋衡,請席何鄉,請衽何趾。席:南鄉北鄉,以西方為上;東鄉西鄉,以南方為上。
Qu Li I:
In all cases of (a lad's) carrying away the dirt that has been swept up from the presence of an elder, it is the rule that he (place) the brush on the basket, keeping his sleeve before it as he retires. The dust is not allowed to reach the elder, because he carries the basket with its mouth turned towards himself. He carries the (elder's) mat in his arms like the cross-beam of a shadoof. If it be a mat to sit on, he will ask in what direction (the elder) is going to turn his face; if it be to sleep on, in what direction he is going to turn his feet. If a mat face the south or the north, the seat on the west is accounted that of honour; if it face the east or the west, the seat on the south.

30 曲禮上:
若非飲食之客,則布席,席間函丈。主人跪正席,客跪撫席而辭。客徹重席,主人固辭。客踐席,乃坐。主人不問,客不先舉。
Qu Li I:
Except in the case of guests who are there (simply) to eat and drink, in spreading the mats a space of ten cubits should be left between them. When the host kneels to adjust the mats (of a visitor), the other should kneel and keep hold of them, declining (the honour). When the visitor (wishes to) remove one or more, the host should firmly decline to permit him to do so. When the visitor steps on his mats, (the host) takes his seat. If the host have not put some question, the visitor should not begin the conversation.

31 曲禮上:
將即席,容毋怍。兩手摳衣去齊尺。衣毋撥,足毋蹶。先生書策琴瑟在前,坐而遷之,戒勿越。虛坐盡後,食坐盡前。坐必安,執爾顏。長者不及,毋儳言。正爾容,聽必恭。毋剿說,毋雷同。必則古昔,稱先王。
Qu Li I:
When (a pupil) is about to go to his mat, he should not look discomposed. With his two hands he should hold up his lower garment, so that the bottom of it may be a cubit from the ground. His clothes should not hang loosely about him, nor should there be any hurried movements of his feet. If any writing or tablets of his master, or his lute or cithern be in the way, he should kneel down and remove them, taking care not to disarrange them. When sitting and doing nothing, he should keep quite at the back (of his mat); when eating, quite at the front of it. He should sit quietly and keep a watch on his countenance. If there be any subject on which the elder has not touched, let him not introduce it irregularly. Let him keep his deportment correct, and listen respectfully. Let him not appropriate (to himself) the words (of others), nor (repeat them) as (the echo does the) thunder. If he must (adduce proofs), let them be from antiquity, with an appeal to the ancient kings.

32 曲禮上:
侍坐於先生:先生問焉,終則對。請業則起,請益則起。父召無諾,先生召無諾,唯而起。
Qu Li I:
When sitting by his side, and the teacher puts a question, (the learner) should not reply till (the other) has finished. When requesting (instruction) on the subject of his studies, (the learner) should rise; when requesting further information, he should rise. When his father calls, (a youth) should not (merely) answer 'yes,' nor when his teacher calls. He should, with (a respectful) 'yes,' immediately rise (and go to them).

33 曲禮上:
侍坐於所尊敬,毋餘席。見同等不起。燭至起,食至起,上客起。燭不見跋。尊客之前不叱狗。讓食不唾。
Qu Li I:
When one is sitting in attendance on another whom he honours and reveres, he should not allow any part of his mat to keep them apart, nor will he rise when he sees others (come in) of the same rank as himself. When the torches come, he should rise; and also when the viands come in, or a visitor of superior rank. The torches should not (be allowed to burn) till their ends can be seen. Before an honoured visitor we should not shout (even) at a dog. When declining any food, one should not spit.

34 曲禮上:
侍坐於君子,君子欠伸,撰杖屨,視日蚤莫,侍坐者請出矣。侍坐於君子,君子問更端,則起而對。侍坐於君子,若有告者曰:「少間」,愿有復也;則左右屏而待。
Qu Li I:
When one is sitting in attendance on another of superior character or rank, and that other yawns or stretches himself, or lays hold of his staff or shoes, or looks towards the sun to see if it be early or late, he should ask to be allowed to leave. In the same position, if the superior man put a question on a new subject, he should rise up in giving his reply. Similarly, if there come some one saying (to the superior man), 'I wish, when you have a little leisure, to report to you,' he should withdraw to the left or right and wait.

35 曲禮上:
毋側聽,毋噭應,毋淫視,毋怠荒。游毋倨,立毋跛,坐毋箕,寢毋伏。斂髮毋髢,冠毋免,勞毋袒,暑毋褰裳。
Qu Li I:
Do not listen with the head inclined on one side, nor answer with a loud sharp voice, nor look with a dissolute leer, nor keep the body in a slouching position. Do not saunter about with a haughty gait, nor stand with one foot raised. Do not sit with your knees wide apart, nor sleep on your face. Have your hair gathered up, and do not use any false hair. Let not the cap be laid aside; nor the chest be bared, (even) when one is toiling hard; nor let the lower garment be held up (even) in hot weather.

36 曲禮上:
侍坐於長者,屨不上於堂,解屨不敢當階。就屨,跪而舉之,屏於側。鄉長者而屨;跪而遷屨,俯而納屨。
Qu Li I:
When (going to) sit in attendance on an elder, (a visitor) should not go up to the hall with his shoes on, nor should he presume to take them off in front of the Steps. (When any single visitor is leaving), he will go to his shoes, kneel down and take them up, and then move to one side. (When the visitors retire in a body) with their faces towards the elder, (they stand) by the shoes, which they then, kneeling, remove (some distance), and, stooping down, put on.

37 曲禮上:
離坐離立,毋往參焉;離立者,不出中間。
Qu Li I:
When two men are sitting or standing together, do not join them as a third. When two are standing together, another should not pass between them.

38 曲禮上:
男女不雜坐,不同椸枷,不同巾櫛,不親授。嫂叔不通問,諸母不漱裳。外言不入於梱,內言不出於捆。
Qu Li I:
Male and female should not sit together (in the same apartment), nor have the same stand or rack for their clothes, nor use the same towel or comb, nor let their hands touch in giving and receiving. A sister-in-law and brother-in-law do not interchange inquiries (about each other). None of the concubines in a house should be employed to wash the lower garment (of a son). Outside affairs should not be talked of inside the threshold (of the women's apartments), nor inside (or women's) affairs outside it.

39 曲禮上:
女子許嫁,纓;非有大故,不入其門。姑姊妹女子子,已嫁而反,兄弟弗與同席而坐,弗與同器而食。父子不同席。
Qu Li I:
When a young lady is promised in marriage, she wears the strings (hanging down to her neck); and unless there be some great occasion, no (male) enters the door of her apartment. When a married aunt, or sister, or daughter returns home (on a visit), no brother (of the family) should sit with her on the same mat or eat with her from the same dish. (Even) the father and daughter should not occupy the same mat.

40 曲禮上:
男女非有行媒,不相知名;非受幣,不交不親。故日月以告君,齊戒以告鬼神,為酒食以召鄉黨僚友,以厚其別也。
Qu Li I:
Male and female, without the intervention of the matchmaker, do not know each other's name. Unless the marriage presents have been received, there should be no communication nor affection between them. Hence the day and month (of the marriage) should be announced to the ruler, and to the spirits (of ancestors) with purification and fasting; and (the bridegroom) should make a feast, and invite (his friends) in the district and neighbourhood, and his fellow-officers - thus giving its due importance to the separate position (of male and female).

41 曲禮上:
取妻不取同姓;故買妾不知其姓則卜之。寡婦之子,非有見焉,弗與為友。
Qu Li I:
One must not marry a wife of the same surname with himself. Hence, in buying a concubine, if he do not know her surname, he must consult the tortoise-shell about it. With the son of a widow, unless he be of acknowledged distinction, one should not associate himself as a friend.

42 曲禮上:
賀取妻者,曰:「某子使某聞子有客,使某羞。」
Qu Li I:
When one congratulates (a friend) on his marrying, his messenger says, 'So and So has sent me. Having heard that you are having guests, he has sent me with this present.'

43 曲禮上:
貧者不以貨財為禮,老者不以筋力為禮。
Qu Li I:
Goods and wealth are not to be expected from the poor in their discharge of the rules of propriety; nor the display of sinews and strength from the old.

44 曲禮上:
名子者不以國,不以日月,不以隱疾,不以山川。男女異長。男子二十,冠而字。父前,子名;君前,臣名。女子許嫁,笄而字。
Qu Li I:
In giving a name to a son, it should not be that of a state, nor of a day or a month, nor of any hidden ailment, nor of a hill or river. Sons and daughters should have their (relative) ages distinguished. A son at twenty is capped, and receives his appellation. Before his father a son should be called by his name, and before his ruler a minister. When a daughter is promised in marriage, she assumes the hair-pin, and receives her appellation.

45 曲禮上:
凡進食之禮,左殽右胾,食居人之左,羹居人之右。膾炙處外,醯醬處內,蔥渫處末,酒漿處右。以脯修置者,左朐右末。
Qu Li I:
The rules for bringing in the dishes for an entertainment are the following: The meat cooked on the bones is set on the left, and the sliced meat on the right; the rice is placed on the left of the parties on the mat, and the soup on their right; the minced and roasted meat are put outside (the chops and sliced meat), and the pickles and sauces inside; the onions and steamed onions succeed to these, and the drink and syrups are on the right. When slices of dried and spiced meat are put down, where they are folded is turned to the left, and the ends of them to the right.

46 曲禮上:
客若降等執食興辭,主人興辭於客,然後客坐。主人延客祭:祭食,祭所先進。殽之序,遍祭之。三飯,主人延客食胾,然後辯殽。主人未辯,客不虛口。
Qu Li I:
If a guest be of lower rank (than his entertainer), he should take up the rice, rise and decline (the honour he is receiving). The host then rises and refuses to allow the guest (to retire). After this the guest will resume his seat. When the host leads on the guests to present an offering (to the father of cookery), they will begin with the dishes which were first brought in. Going on from the meat cooked on the bones they will offer of all (the other dishes). After they have eaten three times, the host will lead on the guests to take of the sliced meat, from which they will go on to all the other dishes. A guest should not rinse his mouth with spirits till the host has gone over all the dishes.

47 曲禮上:
侍食於長者,主人親饋,則拜而食;主人不親饋,則不拜而食。共食不飽,共飯不澤手。
Qu Li I:
When (a youth) is in attendance on an elder at a meal, if the host give anything to him with his own hand, he should bow to him and eat it. If he do not so give him anything, he should eat without bowing. When eating with others from the same dishes, one should not try to eat (hastily) to satiety. When eating with them from the same dish of rice, one should not have to wash his hands.

48 曲禮上:
毋摶飯,毋放飯,毋流歠,毋吒食,毋嚙骨,毋反魚肉,毋投與狗骨。毋固獲,毋揚飯。飯黍毋以箸。毋嚃羹,毋絮羹,毋刺齒,毋歠醢。客絮羹,主人辭不能亨。客歠醢,主人辭以窶。濡肉齒決,乾肉不齒決。毋嘬炙。卒食,客自前跪,徹飯齊以授相者,主人興辭於客,然後客坐。
Qu Li I:
Do not roll the rice into a ball; do not bolt down the various dishes; do not swill down (the soup). Do not make a noise in eating; do not crunch the bones with the teeth; do not put back fish you have been eating; do not throw the bones to the dogs; do not snatch (at what you want). Do not spread out the rice (to cool); do not use chopsticks in eating millet. Do not (try to) gulp down soup with vegetables in it, nor add condiments to it; do not keep picking the-teeth, nor swill down the sauces. If a guest add condiments, the host will apologise for not having had the soup prepared better. If he swill down the sauces, the host will apologise for his poverty. Meat that is wet (and soft) may be divided with the teeth, but dried flesh cannot be so dealt with. Do not bolt roast meat in large pieces. When they have done eating, the guests will kneel in front (of the mat), and (begin to) remove the (dishes) of rice and sauces to give them to the attendants. The host will then rise and decline this service from the guests, who will resume their seats.

49 曲禮上:
侍飲於長者,酒進則起,拜受於尊所。長者辭,少者反席而飲。長者舉未釂,少者不敢飲。
Qu Li I:
If a youth is in attendance on, and drinking with, an elder, when the (cup of) spirits is brought to him, he rises, bows, and (goes to) receive it at the place where the spirit-vase is kept. The elder refuses (to allow him to do so), when he returns to the mat, and (is prepared) to drink. The elder (meantime) lifts (his cup); but until he has emptied it, the other does not presume to drink his.

50 曲禮上:
長者賜,少者、賤者不敢辭。賜果於君前,其有核者懷其核。御食於君,君賜餘,器之溉者不寫,其餘皆寫。
Qu Li I:
When an elder offers a gift, neither a youth, nor one of mean condition, presumes to decline it. When a fruit is given by the ruler and in his presence, if there be a kernel in it, (the receiver) should place it in his bosom. When one is attending the ruler at a meal, and the ruler gives him anything that is left, if it be in a vessel that can be easily scoured, he does not transfer it (to another of his own); but from any other vessel he should so transfer it.

51 曲禮上:
餕餘不祭。父不祭子,夫不祭妻。
Qu Li I:
Portions of (such) food should not be used as offerings (to the departed). A father should not use them in offering even to a (deceased) son, nor a husband in offering to a (deceased) wife.

52 曲禮上:
御同於長者,雖貳不辭,偶坐不辭。
Qu Li I:
When one is attending an elder and (called to) share with him (at a feast), though the viands may be double (what is necessary), he should not (seek) to decline them. If he take his seat (only) as the companion of another (for whom it has been prepared), he should not decline them.

53 曲禮上:
羹之有菜者用梜,其無菜者不用梜。
Qu Li I:
If the soup be made with vegetables, chopsticks should be used; but not if there be no vegetables.

54 曲禮上:
為天子削瓜者副之,巾以絺。為國君者華之,巾以綌。為大夫累之,士疐之,庶人齕之。
Qu Li I:
He who pares a melon for the son of Heaven should divide it into four parts and then into eight, and cover them with a napkin of fine linen. For the ruler of a state, he should divide it into four parts, and cover them with a coarse napkin. To a great officer he should (present the four parts) uncovered. An inferior officer should receive it (simply) with the stalk cut away. A common man will deal with it with his teeth.

55 曲禮上:
父母有疾,冠者不櫛,行不翔,言不惰,琴瑟不御,食肉不至變味,飲酒不至變貌,笑不至矧,怒不至詈。疾止復故。
Qu Li I:
When his father or mother is ill, (a young man) who has been capped should not use his comb, nor walk with his elbows stuck out, nor speak on idle topics, nor take his lute or cithern in hand. He should not eat of (different) meats till his taste is changed, nor drink till his looks are changed'. He should not laugh so as to show his teeth, nor be angry till he breaks forth in reviling. When the illness is gone, he may resume his former habits.

56 曲禮上:
有憂者側席而坐,有喪者專席而坐。
Qu Li I:
He who is sad and anxious should sit with his mat spread apart from others; he who is mourning (for a death) should sit on a single mat.

57 曲禮上:
水潦降,不獻魚鱉,獻鳥者拂其首,畜鳥者則勿拂也。獻車馬者執策綏,獻甲者執胄,獻杖者執末。獻民虜者操右袂。獻粟者執右契,獻米者操量鼓。獻孰食者操醬齊。獻田宅者操書致。
Qu Li I:
When heavy rains have fallen, one should not present fish or tortoises (to a superior). He who is presenting a bird should turn its head on one side; if it be a tame bird, this need not be done. He who is presenting a carriage and horses should carry in his hand (to the hall) the whip, and strap for mounting by. He who is presenting a suit of mail should carry the helmet (to the hall). He who is presenting a staff should hold it by its end. He who is presenting a captive should hold him by the right sleeve. He who is presenting grain unhulled should carry with him the left side of the account (of the quantity); if the hull be off, he should carry with him a measure-drum. He who is presenting cooked food, should carry with him the sauce and pickles for it. He who is presenting fields and tenements should carry with him the writings about them, and give them up (to the superior).

58 曲禮上:
凡遺人弓者:張弓尚筋,弛弓尚角。右手執簫,左手承弣。尊卑垂帨。若主人拜,則客還辟,辟拜。主人自受,由客之左接下承弣;鄉與客并,然後受。
Qu Li I:
In every case of giving a bow to another, if it be bent, the (string of) sinew should be kept upwards; but if unbent, the horn. (The giver) should with his right hand grasp the end of the bow, and keep his left under the middle of the back. The (parties, without regard to their rank as) high and low, (bow to each other) till the napkins (at their girdles) hang down (to the ground). If the host (wish to) bow (still lower), the other moves on one side to avoid the salutation. The host then takes the bow, standing on the left of the other. Putting his hand under that of the visitor, he lays hold of the middle of the back, having his face in the same direction as the other; and thus he receives (the bow).

59 曲禮上:
進劍者左首。進戈者前其鐏,後其刃。進矛戟者前其鐓。進几杖者拂之。效馬效羊者右牽之;效犬者左牽之。執禽者左首。飾羔雁者以繢。受珠玉者以掬。受弓劍者以袂。飲玉爵者弗揮。凡以弓劍、苞苴、簞笥問人者,操以受命,如使之容。
Qu Li I:
He who is giving a sword should do so with the hilt on his left side. He who is giving a spear with one hook should do so with the metal end of the shaft in front, and the sharp edge behind. He who is presenting one with two hooks, or one with a single hook and two sharp points, should do so with the blunt shaft in front. He who is giving a stool or a staff should (first) wipe it. He who is presenting a horse or a sheep should lead it with his right hand. He who is presenting a dog should lead it with his left hand. He who is carrying a bird (as his present of introduction) should do so with the head to the left. For the ornamental covering of a lamb or a goose, an embroidered cloth should be used. He who receives a pearl or a piece of jade should do so with both his hands. He who receives a bow or a sword should do so (having his hands covered) with his sleeves. He who has drunk from a cup of jade should not (go on to) shake it out. Whenever friendly messages are about to be sent, with the present of a sword or bow, or of (fruit, flesh, and other things, wrapped in) matting of rushes, with grass mats, and in baskets, round and square, (the messenger) has these things (carried with him, when he goes) to receive his commission, and deports himself as when he will be discharging it.

60 曲禮上:
凡為君使者,已受命,君言不宿於家。君言至,則主人出拜君言之辱;使者歸,則必拜送于門外。若使人於君所,則必朝服而命之;使者反,則必下堂而受命。
Qu Li I:
Whenever one is charged with a mission by his ruler, after he has received from him his orders, and (heard all) he has to say, he should not remain over the night in his house. When a message from the ruler comes (to a minister), the latter should go out and bow (to the bearer), in acknowledgment of the honour of it. When the messenger is about to return, (the other) must bow to him (again), and escort him outside the gate. If (a minister) send a message to his ruler, he must wear his court-robes when he communicates it to the bearer; and on his return, he must descend from the hall, to receive (the ruler's) commands.

61 曲禮上:
博聞強識而讓,敦善行而不怠,謂之君子。君子不盡人之歡,不竭人之忠,以全交也。
Qu Li I:
To acquire extensive information and remember retentively, while (at the same time) he is modest; to do earnestly what is good, and not become weary in so doing - these are the characteristics of him whom we call the superior man. A superior man does not accept everything by which another would express his joy in him, or his devotion to him; and thus he preserves their friendly intercourse unbroken.

62 曲禮上:
《禮》曰:「君子抱孫不抱子。」此言孫可以為王父尸,子不可以為父尸。為君尸者,大夫士見之,則下之。君知所以為尸者,則自下之,尸必式。乘必以几。
Qu Li I:
A rule of propriety says, 'A superior man may carry his grandson in his arms, but not his son.' This tells us that a grandson may be the personator of his deceased grandfather (at sacrifices), but a son cannot be so of his father. When a great officer or (other) officer sees one who is to personate the dead (on his way to the ancestral temple), he should dismount from his carriage to him. The ruler himself, when he recognises him, should do the same. The personator (at the same time) must bow forward to the cross-bar. In mounting the carriage, he must use a stool.

63 曲禮上:
齊者不樂不吊。
Qu Li I:
One who is fasting (in preparation for a sacrifice) should neither listen to music nor condole with mourners.

64 曲禮上:
居喪之禮,毀瘠不形,視聽不衰。升降不由阼階,出入不當門隧。居喪之禮,頭有創則沐,身有瘍則浴,有疾則飲酒食肉,疾止復初。不勝喪,乃比於不慈不孝。五十不致毀,六十不毀,七十唯衰麻在身,飲酒食肉,處於內。
Qu Li I:
According to the rules for the period of mourning (for a father), (a son) should not emaciate himself till the bones appear, nor let his seeing and hearing be affected (by his privations). He should not go up to, nor descend from, the hail by the steps on the east (which his father used), nor go in or out by the path right opposite to the (centre of the) gate. According to the same rules, if he have a scab on his head, he should wash it; if he have a sore on his body, he should bathe it. If he be ill, he should drink spirits, and eat flesh, returning to his former (abstinence) when he is better. If he make himself unable to perform his mourning duties, that is like being unkind and unfilial. If he be fifty, he should not allow himself to be reduced (by his abstinence) very much; and, if he be sixty, not at all. At seventy, he will only wear the unhemmed dress of sackcloth, and will drink and eat flesh, and occupy (the usual apartment) inside (his house).

65 曲禮上:
生與來日,死與往日。知生者吊,知死者傷。知生而不知死,吊而不傷;知死而不知生,傷而不吊。
Qu Li I:
Intercourse with the living (will be continued) in the future; intercourse with the dead (friend) was a thing of the past. He who knows the living should send (a message of) condolence; and he who knew the dead (a message also of his) grief. He who knows the living, and did not know the dead, will send his condolence without (that expression of) his grief; he who knew the dead, and does not know the living, will send the (expression of) grief, but not go on to condole.

66 曲禮上:
吊喪弗能賻,不問其所費。問疾弗能遺,不問其所欲。見人弗能館,不問其所舍。賜人者不曰來取。與人者不問其所欲。
Qu Li I:
He who is condoling with one who has mourning rites in band, and is not able to assist him with a gift, should put no question about his expenditure. He who is enquiring after another that is ill, and is not able to send (anything to him), should not ask what he would like. He who sees (a traveller), and is not able to lodge him, should not ask where he is stopping. He who would confer something on another should not say, 'Come and take it;' he who would give something (to a smaller man), should not ask him what he would like.

67 曲禮上:
適墓不登壟,助葬必執紼。臨喪不笑。揖人必違其位。望柩不歌。入臨不翔。當食不嘆。鄰有喪,舂不相。里有殯,不巷歌。適墓不歌。哭日不歌。送喪不由徑,送葬不辟涂潦。臨喪則必有哀色,執紼不笑,臨樂不嘆;介胄,則有不可犯之色。故君子戒慎,不失色於人。
Qu Li I:
When one goes to a burying-ground, he should not get up on any of the graves. When assisting at an interment, one should (join in) holding the rope attached to the coffin. In a house of mourning, one should not laugh. In order to bow to another, one should leave his own place. When one sees at a distance a coffin with the corpse in it, he should not sing. When he enters among the mourners, he should not keep his arms stuck out. When eating (with others), he should not sigh. When there are mourning rites in his neighbourhood, one should not accompany his pestle with his voice. When there is a body shrouded and coffined in his village, one should not sing in the lanes. When going to a burying-ground, one should not sing, nor on the same day when he has wailed (with mourners). When accompanying a funeral, one should not take a by-path. When taking part in the act of interment, one should not (try to) avoid mud or pools. When presenting himself at any mourning rite, one should have a sad countenance. When holding the rope, one should not laugh, When present on an occasion of joy, one should not sigh. When wearing his coat of mail and helmet, one's countenance should say, 'Who dares meddle with me?' Hence the superior man is careful to maintain the proper expression of his countenance before others.

68 曲禮上:
國君撫式,大夫下之。大夫撫式,士下之。禮不下庶人,刑不上大夫。刑人不在君側。
Qu Li I:
Where the ruler of a state lays hold of the cross-bar, and bends forward to it, a great officer will descend from his carriage. Where a great officer lays bold of the bar and bends forward, another officer will descend. The rules of ceremony do not go down to the common people. The penal statutes do not go up to great officers. Men who have suffered punishment should not (be allowed to) be by the side of the ruler.

69 曲禮上:
兵車不式。武車綏旌,德車結旌。史載筆,士載言。前有水,則載青旌。前有塵埃,則載鳴鳶。前有車騎,則載飛鴻。前有士師,則載虎皮。前有摯獸,則載貔貅。行:前朱鳥而後玄武,左青龍而右白虎。招搖在上,急繕其怒。進退有度,左右有局,各司其局。
Qu Li I:
A fighting chariot has no cross-board to assist its occupants in bowing; in a war chariot the banner is fully displayed; in a chariot of peace it is kept folded round the pole. A recorder should carry with him in his carriage his implements for writing; his, subordinates the (recorded) words (of former covenants and other documents). When there is water in front, the flag with the green bird on it should be displayed. When there is (a cloud of) dust in front, that with the screaming kites. For chariots and horsemen, that with wild geese in flight. For a body of troops, that with a tiger's (skin). For a beast of prey, that with a leopard's (skin). On the march the (banner with the) Red Bird should be in front; that with the Dark Warrior behind; that with the Azure Dragon on the left; and that with the White Tiger on the right; that with the Pointer of the Northern Bushel should be reared aloft (in the centre of the host) - all to excite and direct the fury (of the troops). There are rules for advancing and retreating; there are the various arrangements on the left and the right, each with its (proper) officer to look after it.

70 曲禮上:
父之讎,弗與共戴天。兄弟之讎不反兵。交游之讎不同國。
Qu Li I:
With the enemy who has slain his father, one should not live under the same heaven. With the enemy who has slain his brother, one should never have his sword to seek (to deal vengeance). With the enemy who has slain his intimate friend, one should not live in the same state (without seeking to slay him).

71 曲禮上:
四郊多壘,此卿大夫之辱也。地廣大,荒而不治,此亦士之辱也。
Qu Li I:
Many ramparts in the country round and near (a capital) are a disgrace to its high ministers and great officers. Where the wide and open country is greatly neglected and uncultivated, it is a disgrace to the officers (in charge of it).

72 曲禮上:
臨祭不惰。祭服敝則焚之,祭器敝則埋之,龜策敝則埋之,牲死則埋之。凡祭於公者,必自徹其俎。
Qu Li I:
When taking part in a sacrifice, one should not show indifference. When sacrificial robes are worn out, they should be burnt: sacrificial vessels in the same condition should be buried, as should the tortoise-shell and divining stalks, and a victim that has died. All who take part with the ruler in a sacrifice must themselves remove the stands (of their offerings).

73 曲禮上:
卒哭乃諱。禮,不諱嫌名。二名不偏諱。逮事父母,則諱王父母;不逮事父母,則不諱王父母。君所無私諱,大夫之所有公諱。《》、《》不諱,臨文不諱。廟中不諱。夫人之諱,雖質君之前,臣不諱也;婦諱不出門。大功小功不諱。入竟而問禁,入國而問俗,入門而問諱。
Qu Li I:
When the ceremony of wailing is over, a son should no longer speak of his deceased father by his name. The rules do not require the avoiding of names merely similar in sound to those not to be spoken. When (a parent had) a double name, the avoiding of either term (used singly) is not required. While his parents (are alive), and a son is able to serve them, he should not utter the names of his grandparents; when he can no longer serve his parents (through their death), he need not avoid the names of his grandparents. Names that would not be spoken (in his own family) need not be avoided (by a great officer) before his ruler; in the great officer's, however, the names proper to be suppressed by the ruler should not be spoken. In (reading) the books of poetry and history, there need be no avoiding of names, nor in writing compositions. In the ancestral temple there is no such avoiding. Even in his presence, a minister need not avoid the names improper to be spoken by the ruler's wife. The names to be avoided by a wife need not be unspoken outside the door of the harem. The names of parties for whom mourning is worn (only) nine months or five months are not avoided. When one is crossing the boundaries (of a state), he should ask what are its prohibitory laws; when he has fairly entered it, he should ask about its customs; before entering the door (of a house), he should ask about the names to be avoided in it.

74 曲禮上:
外事以剛日,內事以柔日。凡卜筮日:旬之外曰遠某日,旬之內曰近某日。喪事先遠日,吉事先近日。曰:「為日,假爾泰龜有常,假爾泰筮有常。」卜筮不過三,卜筮不相襲。龜為卜,策為筮,卜筮者,先聖王之所以使民信時日、敬鬼神、畏法令也;所以使民決嫌疑、定猶與也。故曰:「疑而筮之,則弗非也;日而行事,則必踐之。」
Qu Li I:
External undertakings should be commenced on the odd days, and internal on the even. In all cases of divining about a day, whether by the tortoise-shell or the stalks, if it be beyond the decade, it is said, 'on such and such a distant day,' and if within the decade, 'on such and such a near day.' For matters of mourning a distant day is preferred; for festive matters a near day. It is said, 'For the day we depend on thee, O great Tortoise-shell, which dost give the regular indications; we depend on you, O great Divining Stalks, which give the regular indications.' Divination by the shell or the stalks should not go beyond three times. The shell and the stalks should not be both used on the same subject. Divination by the shell is called bu; by the stalks, shi. The two were the methods by which the ancient sage kings made the people believe in seasons and days, revere spiritual beings, stand in awe of their laws and orders; the methods (also) by which they made them determine their perplexities and settle their misgivings. Hence it is said, 'If you doubted, and have consulted the stalks, you need not (any longer) think that you will do wrong. If the day (be clearly indicated), boldly do on it (what you desire to do).'

75 曲禮上:
君車將駕,則仆執策立於馬前。已駕,仆展軨、效駕,奮衣由右上取貳綏,跪乘,執策分轡,驅之五步而立。君出就車,則仆并轡授綏。左右攘辟,車驅而騶。至于大門,君撫仆之手而顧,命車右就車;門閭溝渠,必步。
Qu Li I:
When the ruler's carriage is about to have the horses put to it, the driver should stand before them, whip in hand. When they are yoked, he will inspect the linch pin, and report that the carriage is ready. (Coming out again), he should shake the dust from his clothes, and mount on the right side, taking hold of the second strap he should (then) kneel in the carriage. Holding his whip, and taking the reins separately, he will drive the horses on five paces, and then stop. When the ruler comes out and approaches the carriage, the driver should take all the reins in one hand, and (with the other) hand the strap to him. The attendants should then retire out of the way. They should follow quickly as the carriage drives on. When it reaches the great gate, the ruler will lay his hand on that of the driver (that he may drive gently), and, looking round, will order the warrior for the seat on the right to come into the carriage. In passing through the gates (of a city) or village, and crossing the water-channels, the pace must be reduced to a walk.

76 曲禮上:
凡仆人之禮,必授人綏。若仆者降等,則受;不然,則否。若仆者降等,則撫仆之手;不然,則自下拘之。客車不入大門。婦人不立乘。犬馬不上於堂。
Qu Li I:
In all cases it is the rule for the driver to hand the strap (to the person about to mount the carriage). If the driver be of lower rank (than himself) that other receives it. If this be not the case, he should not do so. If the driver be of the lower rank, the other should (still) lay his own hand on his (as if to stop him). If this be not the case (and the driver will insist on handing it), the other should take hold of the strap below (the driver's hand). A guest's carriage does not enter the great gate; a woman does not stand up in her carriage; dogs and horses are not taken up to the hall.

77 曲禮上:
故君子式黃髮,下卿位,入國不馳,入里必式。君命召,雖賤人,大夫士必自御之。介者不拜,為其拜而蓌拜。祥車曠左,乘君之乘車不敢曠左;左必式。仆御、婦人則進左手,後右手;御國君,則進右手、後左手而俯。
Qu Li I:
Hence, the ruler bows forward to his cross-board to (an old man of) yellow hair; he dismounts (and walks on foot) past the places of his high nobles (in the audience court). He does not gallop the horses of his carriage in the capital; and should bow forward on entering a village. When called by the ruler's order, though through a man of low rank, a great officer, or (other) officer, must meet him in person. A man in armour does not bow, he makes an obeisance indeed, but it is a restrained obeisance. When the carriage of a deceased ruler is following at his interment, the place on the left should be vacant. When (any of his ministers on other occasions) are riding in (any of) the ruler's carriages, they do not presume to leave the seat on the left vacant, but he who occupies it should bend forward to the cross-board. A charioteer driving a woman should keep his left hand advanced (with the reins in it), and his right hand behind him. When driving the ruler of a state, (the charioteer) should have his right hand advanced, with the left kept behind and the head bent down.

78 曲禮上:
國君不乘奇車。車上不廣咳,不妄指。立視五巂,式視馬尾,顧不過轂。國中以策彗恤勿驅。塵不出軌。國君下齊牛,式宗廟。大夫士下公門,式路馬。乘路馬,必朝服載鞭策,不敢授綏,左必式。步路馬,必中道。以足蹙路馬芻,有誅。齒路馬,有誅。
Qu Li I:
The ruler of a state should not ride in a one-wheeled carriage. In his carriage one should not cough loudly, nor point with his hand in an irregular way. Standing (in his carriage) one should look (forward only) to the distance of five revolutions of the wheels. Bending forward, he should (do so only till he) sees the tails of the horses. He should not turn his head round beyond the (line of the) naves. In the (streets of the) capital one should touch the horses gently with the brush-end of the switch. He should not urge them to their speed. The dust should not fly beyond the ruts. The ruler of a state should bend towards the cross-board when he meets a sacrificial victim, and dismount (in passing) the ancestral temple. A great officer or (other) officer should descend (when he comes to) the ruler's gate, and bend forward to the ruler's horses. (A minister) riding in one of the ruler's carriages must wear his court robes. He should have the whip in the carriage with him, (but not use it). He should not presume to have the strap handed to him. In his place on the left, he should bow forward to the cross-board. (An officer) walking the ruler's horses should do so in the middle of the road. It he trample on their forage, he should be punished, and also if he look at their teeth, (and go on to calculate their age).

URN: ctp:liji/qu-li-i