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Chinese Text Project
Show translation:[None] [English]

《儒行 - Ru Xing》

English translation: James Legge [?]
Books referencing 《儒行》 Library Resources
[Also known as: "The conduct of the scholar"]

1 儒行:
魯哀公問於孔子曰:「夫子之服,其儒服與?」孔子對曰:「丘少居魯,衣逢掖之衣,長居宋,冠章甫之冠。丘聞之也:君子之學也博,其服也鄉;丘不知儒服。」
Ru Xing:
Duke Ai of Lu asked Confucius, saying, 'Is not the dress, Master, which you wear that of the scholar?' Confucius replied, 'When I was little, I lived in Lu, and wore the garment with large sleeves; when I was grown up, I lived in Song, and was then capped with the kang-fu cap. I have heard that the studies of the scholar are extensive, but his dress is that of the state from which he sprang. I do not know any dress of the scholar.'

2 儒行:
哀公曰:「敢問儒行。」孔子對曰:「遽數之不能終其物,悉數之乃留,更仆未可終也。」哀公命席。
Ru Xing:
The duke said, 'Allow me to ask what is the conduct of the scholar.' Confucius replied, 'If I were to enumerate the points in it summarily, I could not touch upon them all; if I were to go into details on each, it would take a long time. You would have changed all your attendants-in-waiting before I had concluded.' The duke-ordered a mat to be placed for him.

3 儒行:
孔子侍曰:「儒有席上之珍以待聘,夙夜強學以待問,懷忠信以待舉,力行以待取,其自立有如此者。
Ru Xing:
Confucius took his place by his side. He then said, 'The scholar has a precious gem placed upon its mat, with which he is waiting to receive an invitation (from some ruler); early and late he studies with energy, waiting to be questioned. He carries in his bosom leal-heartedness and good faith, waiting to be raised (to office); he is vigorous in all his doings, waiting to be chosen (to employment): so does he establish his character and prepare himself (for the future).

4 儒行:
儒有衣冠中,動作慎,其大讓如慢,小讓如偽,大則如威,小則如愧,其難進而易退也,粥粥若無能也。其容貌有如此者。
Ru Xing:
'The scholar's garments and cap are all fitting and becoming; he is careful in his undertakings and doings: in declining great compliments he might seem to be rude, and in regard to small compliments, hypocritical; in great matters he has an air of dignity, and in small matters, of modesty; he seems to have a difficulty in advancing, but retires with ease and readiness; and he has a shrinking appearance, as if wanting in power - such is he in his external appearance.

5 儒行:
儒有居處齊難,其坐起恭敬,言必先信,行必中正,道涂不爭險易之利,冬夏不爭陰陽之和,愛其死以有待也,養其身以有為也。其備豫有如此者。
Ru Xing:
'The scholar, wherever he resides, ordinarily or only for a time, is grave as if he were apprehensive of difficulties; when seated or on foot, he is courteous and respectful; in speaking, his object is, first of all, to be sincere; in acting, he wishes to be exact and correct; on the road, he does not strive about the most difficult or easiest places; in winter and summer, he does not strive about the temperature, the light and shade; he guards against death that he may be in waiting (for whatever he may be called to); he attends well to his person that he maybe ready for action - such are his preparations and precautions for the future.

6 儒行:
儒有不寶金玉,而忠信以為寶;不祈土地,立義以為土地;不祈多積,多文以為富。難得而易祿也,易祿而難畜也,非時不見,不亦難得乎?非義不合,不亦難畜乎?先勞而後祿,不亦易祿乎?其近人有如此者。
Ru Xing:
'The scholar does not consider gold and jade to be precious treasures, but leal-heartedness and good faith; he does not desire lands and territory, but considers the establishment of righteousness as his domain; he does not desire a great accumulation of wealth, but looks on many accomplishments as his riches; it is difficult to win him, but easy to pay him; it is easy to pay him, but difficult to retain him. As he will not show himself when the time is not proper for him to do so, is it not difficult to win him? As he will have no fellowship with what is not righteous, is it not difficult to retain him? As he must first do the work, and then take the pay, is it not easy to pay him?--such are the conditions of his close association with others.

7 儒行:
儒有委之以貨財,淹之以樂好,見利不虧其義;劫之以眾,沮之以兵,見死不更其守;鷙蟲攫搏不程勇者,引重鼎不程其力;往者不悔,來者不豫;過言不再,流言不極;不斷其威,不習其謀。其特立有如此者。
Ru Xing:
'Though there may be offered to the scholar valuable articles and wealth, and though it be tried to enervate him with delights and pleasures, he sees those advantages without doing anything contrary to his sense of righteousness; though a multitude may attempt to force him (from his standpoint), and his way be stopped by force of arms, he will look death in the face without changing the principles (which) be maintains; (he would face) birds and beasts of prey with their talons and wings, without regard to their fierceness; he would undertake to raise the heaviest tripod, without regard to his strength; he has no occasion to regret what he has done in the past, nor to make preparations for what may come to him in the future; he does not repeat any error of speech; any rumours against him he does not pursue up to their source; he does not allow his dignity to be interrupted; he does not dread to practise (beforehand) the counsels (which he gives) - such are the things in which he stands out and apart from other men.

8 儒行:
儒有可親而不可劫也;可近而不可迫也;可殺而不可辱也。其居處不淫,其飲食不溽;其過失可微辨而不可面數也。其剛毅有如此者。
Ru Xing:
'With the scholar friendly relations may be cultivated, but no attempt must be made to constrain him; near association with him can be sought, but cannot be forced on him; he may be killed, but he cannot be disgraced; in his dwelling he will not be extravagant; in his eating and drinking he will not be luxurious; he may be gently admonished of his errors and failings, but he should not have them enumerated to him to his face - such is his boldness and determination.

9 儒行:
儒有忠信以為甲胄,禮義以為干櫓;戴仁而行,抱義而處,雖有暴政,不更其所。其自立有如此者。
Ru Xing:
'The scholar considers leal-heartedness and good faith to be his coat-of-mail and helmet; propriety and righteousness to be his shield and buckler; he walks along, bearing aloft over his head benevolence; he dwells, holding righteousness in his arms before him; the government may be violently oppressive, but he does not change his course - such is the way in which he maintains himself.

10 儒行:
儒有一畝之宮,環堵之室,篳門圭窬,蓬戶甕牖;易衣而出,并日而食,上答之不敢以疑,上不答不敢以諂。其仕有如此者。
Ru Xing:
'The scholar may have a house in (only) a mu of ground - a (poor) dwelling each of whose (surrounding) walls is (only) ten paces long, with an outer door of thorns and bamboos, and openings in the wall, long and pointed; within, the inner door stopped up by brushwood, and little round windows like the mouth of a jar; the inmates may have to exchange garments when they go out; they may have to make one day's food serve for two days; if the ruler respond to him, he does not dare to have any hesitation (in accepting office); if he do not respond, he does not have recourse to flattery - such is he in the matter of taking office, (however small).

11 儒行:
儒有今人與居,古人與稽;今世行之,後世以為楷;適弗逢世,上弗援,下弗推,讒諂之民有比黨而危之者,身可危也,而志不可奪也,雖危起居,竟信其志,猶將不忘百姓之病也。其憂思有如此者。
Ru Xing:
'The scholar lives and has his associations with men of the present day, but the men of antiquity are the subjects of his study. Following their (principles and example) in the present age, he will become a pattern in future ages. If it should be that his own age does not understand and encourage him, that those above him do not bring him, and those below him do not push him, forward, or even that calumniators and flatterers band together to put him in danger, his person may be placed in peril, but his aim cannot be taken from him. Though danger may threaten him in his undertakings and wherever he is, he will still pursue his aim, and never forget the afflictions of the people, (which he would relieve) - such is the anxiety which he cherishes.

12 儒行:
儒有博學而不窮,篤行而不倦;幽居而不淫,上通而不困;禮之以和為貴,忠信之美,優游之法,舉賢而容眾,毀方而瓦合。其寬裕有如此者。
Ru Xing:
'The scholar learns extensively, but never allows his researches to come to an end; he does what he does with all his might, but is never weary; he may be living unnoticed, but does not give way to licentiousness; he may be having free course in his acknowledged position, but is not hampered (by it); in his practice of ceremonial usages he shows the value which he sets on a natural ease; in the excellence of his leal-heartedness and good faith, he acts under the law of a benignant playfulness; he shows his fond regard for men of virtue and ability, and yet is forbearing and kind to all; he (is like a potter who) breaks his square (mould), and his tiles are found to fit together - such is the largeness and generosity of his spirit.

13 儒行:
儒有內稱不辟親,外舉不辟怨,程功積事,推賢而進達之,不望其報;君得其志,茍利國家,不求富貴。其舉賢援能有如此者。
Ru Xing:
'The scholar recommends members of his own family (to public employment), without shrinking from doing so, because of their kinship, and proposes others beyond it, without regard to their being at enmity with him; he estimates men's merits, and takes into consideration all their services, selecting those of virtue and ability, and putting them forward, without expecting any recompense from them; the ruler thus gets what he wishes, and if benefit results to the state, the scholar does not seek riches or honours for himself - such is he in promoting the employment of the worthy and bringing forward the able.

14 儒行:
儒有聞善以相告也,見善以相示也;爵位相先也,患難相死也;久相待也,遠相致也。其任舉有如此者。
Ru Xing:
'The scholar when he hears what is good, tells it to (his friends), and when he sees what is good, shows it to them; in the view of rank and position, he gives the precedence to them over himself; if they encounter calamities and hardships, he is prepared to die with them; if they are long (in getting advancement), he waits for them; if they are far off, he brings them together with himself - such is he in the employment and promotion of his friends.

15 儒行:
儒有澡身而浴德,陳言而伏,靜而正之,上弗知也;粗而翹之,又不急為也;不臨深而為高,不加少而為多;世治不輕,世亂不沮;同弗與,異弗非也。其特立獨行有如此者。
Ru Xing:
'The scholar keeps his person free from stain, and continually bathes (and refreshes) his virtue; he sets forth what he has to say (to his superior by way of admonition), but remains himself in the back-ground, trying thus quietly to correct him; if his superior do not acknowledge (his advice), he more proudly and clearly makes his views known, but still does not press them urgently; he does not go among those who are low to make himself out to be high, nor place himself among those who have little (wisdom) to make himself out to have much; in a time of good government, he does not think little (of what he himself can do); in a time of disorder, he does not allow his course to be obstructed; he does not (hastily) agree with those who think like himself, nor condemn those who think differently - so does he stand out alone among others and take his own solitary course.

16 儒行:
儒有上不臣天子,下不事諸侯;慎靜而尚寬,強毅以與人,博學以知服;近文章砥厲廉隅;雖分國如錙銖,不臣不仕。其規為有如此者。
Ru Xing:
'The scholar sometimes will not take the high office of being a minister of the son of Heaven, nor the lower office of serving the prince of a state; he is watchful over himself in his retirement, and values a generous enlargement of mind, while at the same time he is bold and resolute in his intercourse with others; he learns extensively that he may know whatever should be done; he makes himself acquainted with elegant accomplishments, and thus smoothes and polishes all his corners and angles; although the offer were made to share a state with him, it would be no more to him than the small weights of a balance; he will not take a ministry, he will not take an office - such are the rules and conduct he prescribes to himself.

17 儒行:
儒有合志同方,營道同術;并立則樂,相下不厭;久不相見,聞流言不信;其行本方立義,同而進,不同而退。其交友有如此者。
Ru Xing:
'The scholar has those with whom he agrees in aim, and pursues the same objects, with whom he cultivates the same course, and that by the same methods; when they stand on the same level with him, he rejoices in them; if their standing be below his, he does not tire of them; if for long he has not seen them, and hears rumours to their prejudice, he does not believe them; his actions are rooted in correctness, and his standing in what is right; if they proceed in the same direction with him, he goes forward with them, if not in the same direction, he withdraws from them - so is he in his intercourse with his friends.

18 儒行:
溫良者,仁之本也;敬慎者,仁之地也;寬裕者,仁之作也;孫接者,仁之能也;禮節者,仁之貌也;言談者,仁之文也;歌樂者,仁之和也;分散者,仁之施也;儒皆兼此而有之,猶且不敢言仁也。其尊讓有如此者。
Ru Xing:
'Gentleness and goodness are the roots of humanity; respect and attention are the ground on which it stands; generosity and large-mindedness are the manifestation of it; humility and courtesy are the ability of it; the rules of ceremony are the demonstration of it; speech is the ornament of it; singing and music are the harmony of it; sharing and distribution are the giving of it. The scholar possesses all these qualities in union and has them, and still he will not venture to claim a perfect humanity on account of them - such is the honour (he feels for its ideal), and the humility (with which) he declines it (for himself).

19 儒行:
儒有不隕獲於貧賤,不充詘於富貴,不慁君王,不累長上,不閔有司,故曰儒。今眾人之命儒也妄,常以儒相詬病。」
Ru Xing:
'The scholar is not cast down, or cut from his root, by poverty and mean condition; he is not elated or exhausted by riches and noble condition; he feels no disgrace that rulers and kings (may try to inflict); he is above the bonds that elders and superiors (may try to impose); and superior officers cannot distress him. Hence he is styled a scholar. Those to whom the multitude now-a-days give that name have no title to it, and they constantly employ it to one another as a term of reproach.'

20 儒行:
孔子至舍,哀公館之,聞此言也,言加信,行加義:「終沒吾世,不敢以儒為戲。」
Ru Xing:
When Confucius came (from his wanderings to Lu) to his own house, duke Ai gave him a (public) lodging. When the duke heard these words, he became more sincere in his speech, and more righteous in his conduct. He said, 'To the end of my days I will not presume to make a jest of the name of scholar.'

URN: ctp:liji/ru-xing