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Chinese Text Project
Show translation:[None] [English]

《玉藻 - Yu Zao》

English translation: James Legge [?]
Books referencing 《玉藻》 Library Resources
[Also known as: "The jade-bead pendants of the royal cap"]

1 玉藻:
天子玉藻,十有二旒,前後邃延,龍卷以祭。玄端而朝日於東門之外,聽朔於南門之外,閏月則闔門左扉,立於其中。皮弁以日視朝,遂以食,日中而餕,奏而食。日少牢,朔月大牢;五飲:上水、漿、酒、醴、酏。卒食,玄端而居。動則左史書之,言則右史書之,御瞽几聲之上下。年不順成,則天子素服,乘素車,食無樂。
Yu Zao:
The son of Heaven, when sacrificing, wore (the cap) with the twelve long pendants of beads of jade hanging down from its top before and behind, and the robe embroidered with dragons. When saluting the appearance of the sun outside the eastern gate, he wore the dark-coloured square-cut robes; and (also) when listening to the notification of the first day of the month outside the southern gate. If the month were intercalary, he caused the left leaf of the door to be shut, and stood in the middle of that (which remained open). He wore the skin cap at the daily audience in the court, after which he proceeded to take the morning meal in it. At midday he partook of what was left in the morning. He had music at his meals. Every day a sheep and a pig were killed and cooked; and on the first day of the month an ox in addition. There were five beverages: water, which was the principal; rice-water, spirits, must, and millet-water. When he had done eating, he remained at ease in the dark-coloured square-cut robes. His actions were written down by the recorder of the Left, and his utterances by the recorder of the Right. The blind musician in attendance judged whether the music were too high or too low. If the year were not good and fruitful, the son of Heaven wore white and plain robes, rode in the Plain and unadorned carriage, and had no music at his meals.

2 玉藻:
諸侯玄端以祭,裨冕以朝,皮弁以聽朔於大廟,朝服以日視朝於內朝。朝,辨色始入。君日出而視之,退適路寢,聽政,使人視大夫,大夫退,然後適小寢寢,釋服。又朝服以食,特牲三俎祭肺,夕深衣,祭牢肉,朔月少牢,五俎四簋,子卯稷食菜羹,夫人與君同庖。
Yu Zao:
The princes of states, in sacrificing, wore their dark-coloured square-cut robes. At court-audiences (of the king), they wore the cap of the next inferior degree of rank to their own. They wore the skin-cap, when listening to the notification of the first day of the month in the Grand temples; and their court robes when holding their daily audience in the inner court-yard. (Their ministers and officers) entered (the palace) as soon as they could distinguish the dawning light, and the ruler came out daily (to the first court, inside the Khu gate), and received them. (After this audience), he retired, and went to the great chamber, there to listen to their proposals about the measures of government. He employed men to see whether the Great officers (were all withdrawn); and when they had left, he repaired to the smaller chamber, and put off his (court) robes. He resumed his court robes, when he was about to eat. There was a single animal, with three (other) dishes of meat, the lungs forming the sacrificial offering. In the evening he wore the long robe in one piece, and offered some of the flesh of the animal. On the first day of the moon, a sheep and a pig were killed, and there were five (other) dishes of meat, and four of grain. On Zi and Mao days there were only the glutinous rice and vegetable soup. His wife used the same kitchen as the ruler.

3 玉藻:
君無故不殺牛,大夫無故不殺羊,士無故不殺犬、豕。君子遠庖廚,凡有血氣之類,弗身踐也。
Yu Zao:
Without some cause for it, a ruler did not kill an ox, nor a Great officer a sheep, nor a lower officer a pig or a dog. A superior man had his shambles and kitchen at a distance (from the) house; he did not tread wherever there was such a thing as blood or (tainted) air.

4 玉藻:
至於八月不雨,君不舉。年不順成,君衣布搢本,關梁不租,山澤列而不賦,土功不興,大夫不得造車馬。
Yu Zao:
When the eighth month came without rain, the ruler did not have full meals nor music. If the year were not abundant, he wore linen, and stuck in his girdle the tablet of an officer. Duties were not levied at the barrier-gates and dams; the prohibitions of the hills and meres were enforced, but no contributions were required (from hunters and fishermen). No earthworks were undertaken, and Great officers did not make (any new) carriages for themselves.

5 玉藻:
卜人定龜,史定墨,君定體。
Yu Zao:
The officer of divination by the tortoise-shell fixed the shell (to be used); the recorder applied the ink; and the ruler determined the figures (produced by the fire).

6 玉藻:
君羔幦虎犆;大夫齊車,鹿幦豹犆,朝車;士齊車,鹿幦豹犆。
Yu Zao:
(The cross-board in front of) the ruler was covered with lambskin, edged with tiger's fur; for his sacred carriage and court-carriage a Great officer had a covering of deer skin, edged with leopard's fur; as also had an ordinary officer for his sacred carriage.

7 玉藻:
君子之居恒當戶,寢恒東首。若有疾風迅雷甚雨,則必變,雖夜必興,衣服冠而坐。日五盥,沐稷而靧粱,櫛用樿櫛,發曦用象櫛,進禨進羞,工乃升歌。浴用二巾,上絺下綌,出杅,履蒯席,連用湯,履蒲席,衣布曦身,乃屨進飲。將適公所,宿齊戒,居外寢,沐浴,史進象笏,書思對命;既服,習容觀玉聲,乃出,揖私朝,輝如也,登車則有光矣。
Yu Zao:
The regular place for a gentleman was exactly opposite the door, (facing the light). He slept with his head to the east. When there came violent wind, or rapid thunder, or a great rain, he changed (countenance). It was the rule for him then, even in the night, to get up, dress himself, put on his cap, and take his seat. He washed his hands five times a day. He used millet-water in washing his head, and maize-water in washing his face. For his hair (when wet) he used a comb of white-grained wood, and an ivory comb for it when dry. (After his toilet), there were brought to him the (usual) cup and some delicacy; and the musicians came up and sang. In bathing he used two towels; a fine one for the upper part (of his body), and a coarser for the lower part. When he got out of the tub, he stepped on a straw mat; and having next washed his feet with hot water, he stepped on the rush one. Then in his (bathing) robe of cloth, he dried his body (again), and put on his shoes; and a drink was then brought into him. When he had arranged to go to the ruler's, he passed the night in vigil and fasting, occupying an apartment outside his usual one. After he had washed his head and bathed, his secretary brought him the ivory tablet, on which were written his thoughts (which he should communicate to the ruler), and how he should respond to orders (that he might receive). When he was dressed he practised deportment and listened to the sounds of the gems (at his girdle pendant). When he went forth, he bowed to all in his own private court elegantly, and proceeded to mount his carriage (to go to the ruler's) in brilliant style.

8 玉藻:
天子搢挺,方正於天下也,諸侯荼,前詘後直,讓於天子也,大夫前詘後詘,無所不讓也。
Yu Zao:
The son of Heaven carried in his girdle the ting tablet, showing how exact and correct he should be in his relations with all under heaven. The feudal lords had the shu, rounded at the top and straight at the bottom, showing how they should give place to the son of Heaven. The tablet of the Great officers was rounded both at the top and the bottom; showing how they should be prepared to give place in all positions.

9 玉藻:
侍坐,則必退席;不退,則必引而去君之黨。登席不由前,為躐席。徒坐不盡席尺,讀書,食,則齊,豆去席尺。
Yu Zao:
When (a minister) is sitting in attendance on his ruler, the rule was that he should occupy a mat somewhat behind him on one side. If he did not occupy such a mat, he had to draw the one assigned to him back and keep aloof from the ruler's kindred who were near him. One did not take his place on his mat from the front, to avoid seeming to step over it, When seated and unoccupied he did not take up the-whole of the mat by at least a cubit. If he were to read any writings or to eat, he sat forward to the edge. The dishes were put down a cubit from the mat.

10 玉藻:
若賜之食而君客之,則命之祭,然後祭;先飯辯嘗羞,飲而俟。若有嘗羞者,則俟君之食,然後食,飯,飲而俟。
Yu Zao:
If food were given (to a visitor), and the ruler proceeded to treat him as a guest, he would order him to present the offering, and the visitor would do so. If he took the precedence in eating, he would take a little of all the viands, drink a mouthful, and wait (for the ruler to eat). If there were one in attendance to taste the viands, he would wait till the ruler ate, and then eat himself After this eating, he would drink (a mouthful), and wait (again).

11 玉藻:
君命之羞,羞近者,命之品嘗之,然後唯所欲。凡嘗遠食,必順近食。君未覆手,不敢飧;君既食,又飯飧,飯飧者,三飯也。君既徹,執飯與醬,乃出,授從者。
Yu Zao:
If the ruler ordered him to partake of the delicacies, he took of that which was nearest to him. If he were told to take of all, he took of whatever he liked. In all cases, in tasting of what was some way off, they began with what was near. (The visitor) did not dare to add the liquid to his rice till the ruler had touched the corners of his mouth with his hands and put them down. When the ruler had done eating, he also took of the rice in this fashion, repeating the process three times. When the ruler had the things removed, he took his rice and sauces, and went out and gave them to his attendants.

12 玉藻:
凡侑食,不盡食;食於人不飽。唯水漿不祭,若祭為已儕卑。
Yu Zao:
Whenever pressed (by his host) to eat, one should not eat largely; when eating at another's, one should not eat to satiety. It was only of the water and sauces that some was not put down as an offering; they were accounted too trivial for such a purpose.

13 玉藻:
君若賜之爵,則越席再拜稽首受,登席祭之,飲卒爵而俟君卒爵,然後授虛爵。君子之飲酒也,受一爵而色灑如也,二爵而言言斯,禮已三爵而油油以退,退則坐取屨,隱辟而後屨,坐左納右,坐右納左。
Yu Zao:
If the ruler gave a cup (of drink) to an officer, he crossed over from his mat, bowed twice, laid his head to the ground and received it. Resuming his place, he poured a portion of it as an offering, drank it off, and waited. When the ruler had finished his cup, he then returned his empty. The rule for a superior man in drinking (with the ruler) was this:--When he received the first cup, he wore a grave look; when he received the second, he looked pleased and respectful. With this the ceremony stopped. At the third cup, he looked self-possessed and prepared to withdraw. Having withdrawn, he knelt down and took his shoes, retired out of the ruler's (sight) and put them on. Kneeling on his left knee, he put on the right shoe; kneeling on the right knee, he put on the left one.

14 玉藻:
凡尊必上玄酒,唯君面尊,唯饗野人皆酒,大夫側尊用棜,士側尊用禁。
Yu Zao:
(At festive entertainments), of all the vases that with the dark-coloured liquor (of water) was considered the most honourable; and only the ruler sat with his face towards it. For the uncultivated people in the country districts, the vases all contained prepared liquors. Great officers had the vase on one side of them upon a tray without feet; other officers had it in a similar position on a tray with feet.

15 玉藻:
始冠,緇布冠,自諸侯下達,冠而敝之可也。玄冠朱組纓,天子之冠也。緇布冠繢緌,諸侯之冠也。玄冠丹組纓,諸侯之齊冠也。玄冠綦組纓,士之齊冠也。縞冠玄武,子姓之冠也。縞冠素紕,既祥之冠也。垂緌五寸,惰游之士也,玄冠縞武,不齒之服也。居冠屬武,自天子下達,有事然後緌。五十不散送,親沒不髦,大帛不緌。衣冠紫緌,自魯桓公始也。
Yu Zao:
At the ceremony of capping, the first cap put on was one of black linen. The use of this extended from the feudal lords downwards. It might, after having been thus employed, be put away or disused. The dark-coloured cap, with red strings and tassels descending to the breast, was used at the capping of the son of Heaven. The cap of black linen, with strings and tassels of various colours, was used at the capping of a feudal prince. A dark-coloured cap with scarlet strings and tassels was worn by a feudal lord, when fasting. A dark-coloured cap with gray strings and tassels was worn by officers when similarly engaged. A cap of white silk with the border or roll of a dark colour was worn (? at his capping) by a son or grandson (when in a certain stage of mourning). A similar cap with a plain white edging, was worn after the sacrifice at the end of the year's mourning. (The same cap) with strings hanging down five inches, served to mark the idle and listless officer. A dark-coloured cap with the roll round it of white silk was worn by one excluded from the ranks of his compeers. The cap worn in private, with the roll or border attached to it, was used by all from the son of Heaven downwards. When business called them, the strings were tied and their ends allowed to hang down. At fifty, one did not accompany a funeral with his sackcloth hanging loose. When his parents were dead, (a son) did not have his hair dressed in tufts (any more). With the large white (cap) they did not use strings hanging down. The purple strings with the dark-coloured cap began with duke Huan of Lu.

16 玉藻:
朝玄端,夕深衣。深衣三袪,縫齊倍要,衽當旁,袂可以回肘。長中繼掩尺。袷二寸,祛尺二寸,緣廣寸半。以帛裹布,非禮也。
Yu Zao:
In the morning they wore the dark-coloured square-cut dress; in the evening, the long dress in one piece. That dress at the waist was thrice the width of the sleeve; and at the bottom twice as wide as at the waist. It was gathered in at each side (of the body). The sleeve could be turned back to the elbow. The outer or under garment joined on to the sleeve and covered a cubit of it. The collar was 2 inches wide; the cuff, a cubit and 2 inches long; the border, 1.5 inch broad. To wear silk under or inside linen was contrary to rule.

17 玉藻:
士不衣織,無君者不貳采。衣正色,裳間色。
Yu Zao:
An (ordinary) officer did not wear anything woven of silk that had been first dyed. One who had left the service of his ruler wore no two articles of different colours. If the upper garment were of one of the correct colours, the lower garment was of the (corresponding) intermediate one.

18 玉藻:
非列采不入公門,振絺綌不入公門,表裘不入公門,襲裘不入公門。
Yu Zao:
One did not enter the ruler's gate without the proper colours in his dress; nor in a single robe of grass-cloth, fine or coarse; nor with his fur robe either displayed outside, or entirely covered.

19 玉藻:
纊為繭,縕為袍,禪為絅,帛為褶。
Yu Zao:
A garment wadded with new floss was called jian; with old, pao. One unlined was called jiong; one lined, but not wadded, die.

20 玉藻:
朝服之以縞也,自季康子始也。孔子曰:「朝服而朝,卒朔然後服之。」曰:「國家未道,則不充其服焉。」
Yu Zao:
The use of thin white silk in court-robes began with Ji Kang-zi. Confucius said, 'For the audience they use the (regular) court-robes, which are put on after the announcement of the first day of the month (in the temple).' He (also) said, 'When good order does not prevail in the states and clans, (the officers) should not use the full dress (as prescribed).'

21 玉藻:
唯君有黼裘以誓省,大裘非古也。君衣狐白裘,錦衣以裼之。君之右虎裘,厥左狼裘。士不衣狐白。
Yu Zao:
Only a ruler wore the chequered fur robes in addressing (his troops or the multitudes), and at the autumnal hunts, (For him) to wear the Great fur robe was contrary to ancient practice. When a ruler wore the robe of white fox-fur, he wore one of embroidered silk over it to display. When (the guards on) the right of the ruler wore tigers' fur, those on the left wore wolves' fur. An (ordinary) officer did not wear the fur of the white fox.

22 玉藻:
君子狐青裘豹褎,玄綃衣以裼之;麑裘青豻褎,絞衣以裼之;羔裘豹飾,緇衣以裼之;狐裘,黃衣以裼之。錦衣狐裘,諸侯之服也。
Yu Zao:
(Great and other) officers wore the fur of the blue fox, with sleeves of leopard's fur, and over it a jacket of dark-coloured silk to display it; which fawn's fur they used cuffs of the black wild dog, with a jacket of bluish yellow silk, to display it; with lamb's fur, ornaments of leopard's fur, and a jacket of black silk to display it; with fox-fur, a jacket of yellow silk to display it. A jacket of embroidered silk with fox-fur was worn by the feudal lords.

23 玉藻:
犬羊之裘不裼,不文飾也不裼。裘之裼也,見美也。吊則襲,不盡飾也;君在則裼,盡飾也。服之襲也,充美也,是故尸襲,執玉龜襲,無事則裼,弗敢充也。
Yu Zao:
With dog's fur or sheep's fur, they did not wear any jacket of silk over it. Where there was no ornamentation, they did not use the jacket. The wearing the jacket was to show its beauty. When condoling, they kept the jacket covered, and did now show all its ornamental character; in the presence of the ruler, they showed all this. The covering of the dress was to hide its beauty. Hence, personators of the deceased covered their jackets of silk. Officers holding a piece of jade or a tortoise-shell (to present it) covered it; but if they had no (such official) business in hand, they displayed the silken garment, and did not presume to cover it.

24 玉藻:
笏:天子以球玉;諸侯以象;大夫以魚須文竹;士竹本,象可也。見於天子與射,無說笏,入大廟說笏,非古也。小功不說笏,當事免則說之。既搢必盥,雖有執於朝,弗有盥矣。凡有指畫於君前,用笏造,受命於君前,則書於笏,笏畢用也,因飾焉。笏度二尺有六寸,其中博三寸,其殺六分而去一。
Yu Zao:
For his memorandum-tablet, the son of Heaven used a piece of sonorous jade; the prince of a state, a piece of ivory; a Great officer, a piece of bamboo, ornamented with fishbone; ordinary officers might use bamboo, adorned with ivory at the bottom. When appearing before the son of Heaven, and at trials of archery, there was no such thing as being without this tablet. It was contrary to rule to enter the Grand temple without it. During the five months' mourning, it was not laid aside. When engaged in the performance of some business, and wearing the cincture, one laid it aside. When he had put it in his girdle, the bearer of it was required to wash his hands; but afterwards, though he had something to do in the court, he did not wash them (again). When one had occasion to point to or draw anything before the ruler, he used the tablet. When he went before him and received a charge, he wrote it down on it. For all these purposes the tablet was used, and therefore it was ornamental. The tablet was 2 cubits and 6 inches long. Its width at the middle was 3 inches; and it tapered away to 2.5 inches (at the ends).

25 玉藻:
鞸,君朱,大夫素,士爵韋。圜殺直,天子直,公侯前後方,大夫前方後挫角,士前後正。
Yu Zao:
The knee-covers of a ruler were of vermilion colour; those of a Great officer, white; and of another officer, purple - all of leather; and might be rounded, slanting, and straight. Those of the son of Heaven were straight (and pointed at all the corners); of the prince of a state, square both at bottom and top; of a Great officer, square at the bottom, with the corners at the top rounded off; and of another officer, straight both at bottom and top.

26 玉藻:
鞸,下廣二尺,上廣一尺,長三尺,其頸五寸,肩革帶博二寸。
Yu Zao:
The width of these covers was 2 cubits at bottom, and 1 at top. Their length was 3 cubits. On each side of (what was called) the neck were 5 inches, reaching to the shoulders or corners. From the shoulders to the leathern band were 2 inches.

27 玉藻:
一命縕韍幽衡,再命赤韍幽衡,三命赤韍蔥衡。
Yu Zao:
(An officer) who had received his first commission wore a cover of reddish-purple, with a black supporter for his girdle-pendant. One who had received the second commission wore a scarlet cover, (also) with a black supporter for the pendant; and one who had received the third commission, a scarlet cover, with an onion-green supporter for the pendant.

28 玉藻:
天子素帶朱里終辟,而素帶終辟,大夫素帶辟垂,士練帶率下辟,居士錦帶,弟子縞帶。
Yu Zao:
The son of Heaven wore a girdle of plain white silk, with vermilion lining, and ornamented ends. (A ruler) wore a plain white girdle of silk, with ornamented ends; a Great officer, a similar girdle, with the ends hanging down; an ordinary officer, one of dyed silk, with the edges tucked in, and the ends hanging down; a scholar waiting to be employed, one of embroidered silk; and young lads, one of white silk.

29 玉藻:
并紐約,用組、三寸,長齊於帶,紳長制,士三尺,有司二尺有五寸。子游曰:「參分帶下,紳居二焉,紳韍結三齊。」
Yu Zao:
(The cords that formed the loops and buttons) were 3 inches long, equal to the breadth of the girdle. The rule for the length of the sash (descending from the girdle) was, that, for an officer, it should be 3 cubits; for one discharging a special service, 2.5. Zi-you said, 'Divide all below the girdle into three parts, and the sash will be equal to two of them., The sash, the knee-covers, and the ties are all of equal length.'

30 玉藻:
大夫大帶四寸。雜帶,君朱綠;大夫玄華,士緇辟,二寸,再繚四寸。凡帶,有率無箴功,肆束及帶勤者,有事則收之,走則擁之。
Yu Zao:
The great girdle of a Great officer was 4 inches (wide). In variegated girdles, the colours for a ruler were vermilion and green; for a Great officer, cerulean and yellow; for an (ordinary) officer, a black border Of 2 inches, and this, when carried round the body a second time, appeared to be 4 inches. On all girdles which were tucked in there was no needlework.

31 玉藻:
王后褘衣,夫人揄狄;君命屈狄,再命褘衣,一命襢衣,士褖衣。唯世婦命於奠繭,其他則皆從男子。
Yu Zao:
The queen wore a robe with white pheasants embroidered on it; (a prince's) wife, one with green pheasants. (The wife of a count or baron) who had received a degree of honour from the ruler wore a pheasant cut out in silk on her robe; (the wife of the Great officer of a count or baron), who had received two degrees, wore a robe of fresh yellow; (the wife of a Great officer), who had received one degree, a robe of white; and the wife of an ordinary officer, a robe of black. Only the ladies of honour received their degree of appointment, when they presented their cocoons. The others all wore the dresses proper to them as the wives of their husbands.

32 玉藻:
凡侍於君,紳垂,足如履齊,頤溜垂拱,視下而聽上,視帶以及袷,聽鄉任左。
Yu Zao:
All (officers) in attendance on the ruler let the sash hang down till their feet seemed to tread on the lower edge (of their skirt). Their chins projected like-the eaves of a house, and their hands were clasped before them low down. Their eyes were directed downwards, and their ears were higher than the eyes. They saw (the ruler) from his girdle up to his collar. They listened to him with their ears turned to the left.

33 玉藻:
凡君召,以三節:二節以走,一節以趨。在官不俟屨,在外不俟車。
Yu Zao:
When the ruler called (an officer) to his presence, he might send three tokens. If two of them came to him, he ran (to answer the message); if (only) one, he yet walked quickly. If in his office, he did not wait for his shoes; if he were outside elsewhere, he did not wait for his carriage.

34 玉藻:
士於大夫,不敢拜迎而拜送;士於尊者,先拜進面,答之拜則走。
Yu Zao:
When an officer received a visit from a Great officer, he did not venture to bow (when he went) to meet him; but be did so when escorting him on his departure. When he went to visit one of higher rank than himself, he first bowed (at the gate) and then went into his presence. If the other bowed to him in replying, he hurried on one side to avoid (the honour).

35 玉藻:
士於君所言,大夫沒矣,則稱謚若字,名士。與大夫言,名士字大夫。於大夫所,有公諱無私諱。凡祭不諱,廟中不諱,教學臨文不諱。
Yu Zao:
When an officer was speaking before the ruler, if he had occasion to speak of a Great officer who was dead, he called him by his posthumous epithet, or by the designation of his maturity; if of an officer (who was similarly dead), he called him by his name. When speaking with a Great officer, he mentioned officers by their name, and (other) Great officers by their designation. In speaking at a Great officer's, he avoided using the name of the (former) ruler, but not that of any of his own dead. At all sacrifices and in the ancestral temple, there was no avoiding of names. In school there was no avoiding of any character in the text.

36 玉藻:
古之君子必佩玉,右徵角,左宮羽。
Yu Zao:
Anciently, men of rank did not fail to wear their girdle-pendants with their precious stones, those on the right giving the notes Zhi and Jiao, and those on the left Gong and Yu.

37 玉藻:
趨以《采齊》,行以《肆夏》,周還中規,折還中矩,進則揖之,退則揚之,然後玉鏘鳴也。故君子在車,則聞鸞和之聲,行則鳴佩玉,是以非辟之心,無自入也。
Yu Zao:
When (the king or ruler) was walking quickly (to the court of audience), he did so to the music of the Cai Qi; when walking more quickly (back to the reception-hall), they played the Si Xia. When turning round, he made a complete circle; when turning in another direction, he did so at a right angle. When advancing, he inclined forward a little; he held himself up straight; and in all these movements, the pieces of jade emitted their tinklings. So also the man of rank, when in his carriage, heard the harmonious sounds of its bells; and, when walking, those of his pendant jade-stones; and in this way evil and depraved thoughts found no entrance into his mind.

38 玉藻:
君在不佩玉,左結佩,右設佩,居則設佩,朝則結佩,齊則綪結佩而爵韍。
Yu Zao:
When the ruler was present, (his son and heir) did not wear the pendant of jade-stones. He tied it up on the left of his girdle, and left free the pendant (of useful things) on the right. When seated at ease, he wore the (jade) pendant; but in court, he tied it up. In fasting and vigil they wore it, but the strings were turned round, and fastened at the girdle. They wore then the purple knee-covers.

39 玉藻:
凡帶必有佩玉,唯喪否。佩玉有沖牙;君子無故,玉不去身,君子於玉比德焉。天子佩白玉而玄組綬,公侯佩山玄玉而朱組綬,大夫佩水蒼玉而純組綬,世子佩瑜玉而綦組綬,士佩瓀玟而縕組綬。孔子佩象環五寸,而綦組綬。
Yu Zao:
All wore the jade-stone pendant at the girdle, excepting during the mourning rites. (At the end of the middle string) in it was the tooth-like piece, colliding with the others. A man of rank was never without this pendant, excepting for some sufficient reason; he regarded the pieces of jade as emblematic of the virtues (which he should cultivate). The son of Heaven had his pendant composed of beads of white jade, hung on dark-coloured strings; a duke or marquis, his of jade-beads of hill-azure, on vermilion strings; a Great officer, his of beads of aqua-marine, on black strings; an heir-son, his of beads of Yu jade, on variegated strings; an ordinary officer, his of beads of jade-like quartz, on orange-coloured strings. Confucius wore at his pendant balls of ivory, five inches (round), on gray strings.

40 玉藻:
童子之節也,緇布衣錦緣,錦紳,并紐錦,束發皆朱錦也。童子不裘不帛,不屨絇,無緦服。聽事不麻,無事則立主人之北面,見先生從人而入。
Yu Zao:
According to the regulations for (the dress of) a lad, his upper garment was of black linen, with an embroidered edging. His sash was embroidered, and (also) the strings for the button-loops (of his girdle). With such a string he bound up his hair. The embroidered border and strings were all red. When the ends of fastening strings reached to the girdle, if they had any toilsome business to do, they put them aside. If they were running, they thrust them in the breast. A lad did not wear furs, nor silk, nor the ornamental points on his shoes. He did not wear the three months' mourning. He did not wear the hempen band, when receiving any orders. When he had nothing to do (in mourning rites), he stood on the north of the principal mourner, with his face to the south. When going to see a teacher, he followed in the suite of others, and entered his apartment.

41 玉藻:
侍食於先生異爵者,後祭先飯。客祭,主人辭曰:「不足祭也。」客飧,主人辭以疏。主人自置其醬,則客自徹之。一室之人,非賓客,一人徹。壹食之人,一人徹。凡燕食,婦人不徹。
Yu Zao:
When one was sitting at a meal with another older than himself, or of a different (and higher) rank, he was the last to put down the offering, but the first to taste the food. When the guest put down the offering, the host apologised, saying that the food was not worthy of such a tribute. When the guest was enjoying the viands, the host apologised for their being scanty and poor. When the host himself put down the pickle (for the guest), the guest himself removed it. When the members of a household ate together, not being host and guests, one of them removed the dishes; and the same was done When a company had eaten together. At all festival meals, the women (of the house) did not remove the dishes.

42 玉藻:
食棗桃李,弗致于核,瓜祭上環,食中棄所操。凡食果實者後君子,火孰者先君子。有慶,非君賜不賀。
Yu Zao:
When eating dates, peaches, or plums, they did not cast the stones away (on the ground). They put down the first slice of a melon as an offering, ate the other slices, and threw away the part by which they held it. When others were eating fruits with a man of rank, they ate them after him; cooked viands they ate before him. At meetings of rejoicing, if there were not some gift from the ruler, they did not congratulate one another; at meetings of sorrow, ...

43 玉藻:
孔子食於季氏,不辭,不食肉而飧。
Yu Zao:
When Confucius was eating with (the head of) the Ji family, he made no attempt to decline anything, but finished his meal with the rice and liquid added to it, without eating any of the flesh.

44 玉藻:
君賜車馬,乘以拜賜;衣服,服以拜賜;君未有命,弗敢即乘服也。君賜,稽首,據掌致諸地;酒肉之賜,弗再拜。凡賜,君子與小人不同日。
Yu Zao:
When the ruler sent (to an officer) the gift of a carriage and horses, he used them in going to give thanks for them. When the gift was of clothes, he wore them on the same occasion. (In the case of similar gifts to a commissioner from the king), until his (own) ruler had given him orders to use them, he did not dare at once to do so. When the ruler's gift reached him, he bowed his head to the ground with his two hands also, laying one of them over the other. A gift of liquor and flesh did not require the second expression of thanks (by the visit). Whenever a gift was conferred on a man of rank, nothing was given to a small man on the same day.

45 玉藻:
凡獻於君,大夫使宰,士親,皆再拜稽首送之。膳於君,有葷桃茢,於大夫去茢,於士去葷,皆造於膳宰。大夫不親拜,為君之答己也。
Yu Zao:
In all cases of presenting offerings to a ruler, a Great officer sent his steward with them, and an. ordinary officer went with them himself. In both cases they did obeisance twice, with their heads to the ground as they sent the things away; and again the steward and the officer did the same at the ruler's. If the offerings were of prepared food for the ruler, there were the accompaniments of ginger and other pungent vegetables, of a peach-wood and a sedge-broom. A Great officer dispensed with the broom, and the officer with the pungent vegetables. (The bearers) went in with all the articles to the cook. The Great officer did not go in person to make obeisance, lest the ruler should come to respond to him.

46 玉藻:
大夫拜賜而退,士待諾而退,又拜,弗答拜。大夫親賜士,士拜受,又拜於其室。衣服,弗服以拜。敵者不在,拜於其室。
Yu Zao:
When a Great officer went (next day) to do obeisance for the ruler's gift, he retired after performing the ceremony. An officer, (doing the same), waited to receive the ruler's acknowledgment (of his visit), and then retired, bowing again as he did so; but (the ruler) did not respond to his obeisance. When a Great officer gave anything in person to an ordinary officer, the latter bowed on receiving it; and also went to his house to repeat the obeisance. He did not, however, wear the clothes (which might have been the gift), in going to make that obeisance. In interchanges between) equals, if (the recipient) were in the house (when the gift arrived), he went and made his obeisance in the house (of the donor).

47 玉藻:
凡於尊者有獻,而弗敢以聞。士於大夫不承賀,下大夫於上大夫承賀。親在,行禮於人稱父,人或賜之,則稱父拜之。
Yu Zao:
When any one presented an offering to his superior in rank, he did not dare to say directly that it was for him. An ordinary officer did not presume to receive the congratulations of a Great officer; but a Great officer of the lowest grade did so from one of the highest. When one was exchanging courtesies with another, if his father were alive, he would appeal to his authority; if the other gave him a gift, he would say, in making obeisance for it, that he did so for his father.

48 玉藻:
禮不盛,服不充,故大裘不裼,乘路車不式。
Yu Zao:
If the ceremony were not very great, the (beauty of the) dress was not concealed. In accordance with this, when the great robe of fur was worn, it was without the appendage of one of thin silk to display it, and when (the king) rode in the grand carriage, he did not bend forward to the cross-bar (to show his reverence for any one beyond the service he was engaged on).

49 玉藻:
父命呼,唯而不諾,手執業則投之,食在口則吐之,走而不趨。親老,出不易方,復不過時。親癠色容不盛,此孝子之疏節也。
Yu Zao:
When a father's summons came to him, a son reverently obeyed it without any delay. Whatever work he had in hand, he laid aside. He ejected the meat that was in his mouth, and ran, not contenting himself with a measured, though rapid pace. When his parents were old and he had gone away, he did not go to a second place, nor delay his return beyond the time agreed on; when they were ailing, his looks and manner appeared troubled - these were less-important observances of a filial son.

50 玉藻:
父歿而不能讀父之書,手澤存焉爾;母歿而杯圈不能飲焉,口澤之氣存焉爾。
Yu Zao:
When his father died, he could not (bear to) read his books - the touch of his hand seemed still to be on them. When his mother died, he could not (bear to) drink from the cups and bowls that she had used - the breath of her mouth seemed still to be on them.

51 玉藻:
君入門,介拂闑,大夫中棖與闑之間,士介拂棖。賓入不中門,不履閾,公事自闑西,私事自闑東。
Yu Zao:
When a ruler, (visiting another ruler), was about to enter the gate, the attendant dusted the low post (at the middle of the threshold). The Great officers stood midway between the side-posts and this short post (behind their respective rulers). An officer, acting as an attendant, brushed the side-posts. (A Great officer) on a mission from another court, did not enter at the middle of (either half of) the gate, nor tread on the threshold. If he were come on public business, he entered on the west of the short post; if on his own business, on the east of it.

52 玉藻:
君與尸行接武,大夫繼武,士中武,徐趨皆用是。疾趨則欲發而手足毋移,圈豚行不舉足,齊如流,席上亦然。端行,頤溜如矢,弁行,剡剡起屨,執龜玉,舉前曳踵,蹜蹜如也。
Yu Zao:
A ruler and a representative of the dead brought their feet together step by step when they walked; a Great officer stepped along, one foot after the other; an ordinary officer kept the length of his foot between his steps. In walking slowly, they all observed these rules. In walking rapidly, while they wished to push on (and did so), they were not allowed to alter the motion either of hands or feet. In turning their feet inwards or outwards, they did not lift them up, and the edge of the lower garment dragged along, like the water of a stream. In walking on the mats it was the same. When walking erect, (the body was yet bent, and) the chin projected like the eaves of a house, and their advance was straight as an arrow. When walking rapidly, the body had the appearance of rising constantly with an elevation of the feet. When carrying a tortoise-shell or (a symbol of) jade, they raised their toes and trailed their heels, presenting an appearance of carefulness.

53 玉藻:
凡行容愓愓,廟中齊齊,朝庭濟濟翔翔。君子之容舒遲,見所尊者齊遫。足容重,手容恭,目容端,口容止,聲容靜,頭容直,氣容肅,立容德,色容莊,坐如尸,燕居告溫溫。
Yu Zao:
In walking (on the road), the carriage of the body was straight and smart; in the ancestral temple, it was reverent and grave; in the court, it was exact and easy. The carriage of a man of rank was easy, but somewhat slow; grave and reserved, when he saw any one whom he wished to honour. He did not move his feet lightly, nor his hands irreverently. His eyes looked straightforward, and his mouth was kept quiet and composed. No sound from him broke the stillness, and his head was carried upright. His breath came without panting or stoppage, and his standing gave (the beholder) an impression of virtue. His looks were grave, and he sat like a personator of the dead. When at leisure and at ease, and in conversation, he looked mild and bland.

54 玉藻:
凡祭,容貌顏色,如見所祭者。喪容纍纍,色容顛顛,視容瞿瞿梅梅,言容繭繭,戎容暨暨,言容詻詻,色容厲肅,視容清明。立容辨,卑毋諂,頭頸必中,山立時行,盛氣顛實,揚休玉色。
Yu Zao:
At all sacrifices, the bearing and appearance (of the worshippers) made it appear as if they saw those to whom they were sacrificing. When engaged with the mourning rites, they had a wearied look, and an aspect of sorrow and unrest. Their eyes looked startled and dim, and their speech was drawling and low. The carriage of a martialist was bold and daring; his speech had a tone of decision and command; his face was stern and determined; and his eyes were clear and bright. He stood with an appearance of lowliness, but with no indication of subserviency. His head rose straight up from the centre of the neck. He stood (firm) as a mountain, and his movements were well timed. His body was well filled with the volume of his breath, which came forth powerfully like that of nature. His complexion showed (the beauty and strength of) a piece of jade.

55 玉藻:
凡自稱:天子曰予一人,伯曰天子之力臣。諸侯之於天子曰某土之守臣某,其在邊邑,曰某屏之臣某。其於敵以下曰寡人,小國之君曰孤,擯者亦曰孤。上大夫曰下臣,擯者曰寡君之老,下大夫自名,擯者曰寡大夫。世子自名,擯者曰寡君之適,公子曰臣孽。士曰傳遽之臣,於大夫曰外私。大夫私事使,私人擯則稱名,公士擯則曰寡大夫、寡君之老。大夫有所往,必與公士為賓也。
Yu Zao:
When they spoke of themselves, the style of the son of Heaven was, 'I, the One man;' a chief of regions described himself as 'The strong minister of the son of Heaven;' the relation of a feudal lord expressed itself by 'So and So, the guardian of such and such a territory.' If the fief were on the borders, he used the style, 'So and So, the minister in such and such a screen.' Among his equals and those below him, he called himself 'The man of little virtue.' The ruler of a small state called himself 'The orphan.' The officer who answered for him (at a higher court) also styled him so. A Great officer of the highest grade (at his own court), called himself 'Your inferior minister;' (at another court), his attendant who answered for him, described him as 'The ancient of our poor ruler.' A Great officer of the lowest grade (at his own court), called himself by his name; (at another court), his attendant described him as 'Our unworthy Great officer.' The son and heir of a feudal prince (at his own court), called himself by his name; (at another court), his attendant described him as 'The rightful son of our unworthy ruler.' A ruler's son (by an inferior lady) called himself 'Your minister, the shoot from the stock.' An (ordinary) officer styled himself 'Your minister, the fleet courier;' to a Great officer, he described himself as 'The outside commoner.' When a Great officer went on a mission about private affairs, a man of his private establishment went with him as his spokesman, and called him by his name. When an officer belonging to the ruler's establishment acted (at another court for a Great officer), he spoke of him as 'Our unworthy Great officer,' or 'The ancient of our unworthy ruler.' When a Great officer went on any mission, it was the rule that he should have such an officer from the ruler's establishment with him, to answer for him.

URN: ctp:liji/yu-zao