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Chinese Text Project
Show translation:[None] [English]

《月令 - Yue Ling》

English translation: James Legge [?]
Books referencing 《月令》 Library Resources
[Also known as: "Proceedings of Government in the Different Months"]

1 月令:
孟春之月,日在營室,昏參中,旦尾中。其日甲乙。其帝大皞,其神句芒。其蟲鱗。其音角,律中大蔟。其數八。其味酸,其臭膻。其祀戶,祭先脾。
Yue Ling:
In the first month of spring the sun is in Shi, the star culminating at dusk being Shen, and that culminating at dawn Wei. Its days are jia and yi. Its divine ruler is Dai Hao, and the (attending) spirit is Gou-mang. Its creatures are the scaly. Its musical note is Jiao, and its pitch-tube is the Dai Cu. Its number is eight; its take is sour; its smell is rank. Its sacrifice is that at the door, and of the parts of the victim the spleen has the foremost place.

2 月令:
東風解凍,蟄蟲始振,魚上冰,獺祭魚,鴻雁來。
Yue Ling:
The east winds resolve the cold. Creatures that have been torpid during the winter begin to move. The fishes rise up to the ice. Otters sacrifice fish. The wild geese make their appearance.

3 月令:
天子居青陽左个。乘鸞路,駕倉龍,載青旗,衣青衣,服倉玉,食麥與羊,其器疏以達。
Yue Ling:
The son of Heaven occupies the apartment on the left of the Qing Yang (Fane); rides in the carriage with the phoenix (bells), drawn by the azure-dragon (horses), and carrying the green flag; wears the green robes, and the (pieces of) green jade (on his cap and at his girdle pendant). He eats wheat and mutton. The vessels which he uses are slightly carved, (to resemble) the shooting forth (of plants).

4 月令:
是月也,以立春。先立春三日,大史謁之天子曰:某日立春,盛德在木。天子乃齊。立春之日,天子親帥三公、九卿、諸侯、大夫以迎春於東郊。還反,賞公卿、諸侯、大夫於朝。命相布德和令,行慶施惠,下及兆民。慶賜遂行,毋有不當。乃命大史守典奉法,司天日月星辰之行,宿離不貸,毋失經紀,以初為常。
Yue Ling:
In this month there takes place the inauguration of spring. Three days before this ceremony, the Grand recorder informs the son of Heaven, saying, 'On such and such a day is the inauguration of the spring. The energies of the season are fully seen in wood. On this the son of Heaven devotes himself to self-purification, and on the day he leads in person the three ducal ministers, his nine high ministers, the feudal princes (who are at court), and his Great officers, to meet the spring in the eastern suburb; and on their return, he rewards them all in the court. He charges his assistants to disseminate (lessons of) virtue, and harmonise the governmental orders, to give effect to the expressions of his satisfaction and bestow his favours; down to the millions of the people. Those expressions and gifts thereupon proceed, every one in proper (degree and direction). He also orders the Grand recorder to guard the statutes and maintain the laws, and (especially) to observe the motions in the heavens of the sun and moon, and of the zodiacal stars in which the conjunctions of these bodies take place, so that there should be no error as to where they rest and what they pass over; that there should be no failure in the record of all these things, according to the regular practice of early times.

5 月令:
是月也,天子乃以元日祈穀于上帝。乃擇元辰,天子親載耒耜,措之參保介之御間,帥三公、九卿、諸侯、大夫,躬耕帝藉。天子三推,三公五推,卿諸侯九推。反,執爵于大寢,三公、九卿、諸侯、大夫皆御,命曰:勞酒。
Yue Ling:
In this month the son of Heaven on the first (hsin) day prays to God for a good year; and afterwards, the day of the first conjunction of the sun and moon having been chosen, with the handle and share of the plough in the carriage, placed between the man-at-arms who is its third occupant and the driver, he conducts his three ducal ministers, his nine high ministers, the feudal princes and his Great officers, all with their own hands to plough the field of God. The son of Heaven turns up three furrows, each of the ducal ministers five, and the other ministers and feudal princes nine. When they return, he takes in his hand a cup in the great chamber, all the others being in attendance on him and the Great officers, and says, 'Drink this cup of comfort after your toil.'

6 月令:
是月也,天氣下降,地氣上騰,天地和同,草木萌動。王命布農事,命田舍東郊,皆修封疆,審端經術。善相丘陵阪險原隰土地所宜,五穀所殖,以教道民,必躬親之。田事既飭,先定準直,農乃不惑。
Yue Ling:
In this month the vapours of heaven descend and those of the earth ascend. Heaven and earth are in harmonious co-operation. All plants bud and grow. The king gives orders to set forward the business of husbandry. The inspectors of the fields are ordered to reside in the lands having an eastward exposure, and (see that) all repair the marches and divisions (of the o-round), and mark out clearly the paths and ditches. They must skilfully survey the mounds and rising grounds, the slopes and defiles, the plains and marshes, determining what the different lands are suitable for, and where the different grains will grow best. They must thus instruct and lead on the people, themselves also engaging in the tasks. The business of the fields being thus ordered, the guiding line is first put in requisition, and the husbandry is carried on without error.

7 月令:
是月也,命樂正入學習舞。乃修祭典。命祀山林川澤,犧牲毋用牝。禁止伐木。毋覆巢,毋殺孩蟲、胎、夭、飛鳥。毋麑,毋卵。毋聚大眾,毋置城郭。掩骼埋胔。
Yue Ling:
In this month orders are given to the chief director of Music to enter the college, and practise the dances (with his pupils). The canons of sacrifice are examined and set forth, and orders are given to sacrifice to the hills and forests, the streams and meres, care being taken not to use any female victims. Prohibitions are issued against cutting down trees. Nests should not be thrown down; unformed insects should not be killed, nor creatures in the Womb, nor very young creatures, nor birds just taking to the wing, nor fawns, nor should eggs be destroyed. No congregating of multitudes should be allowed, and no setting about the rearing of fortifications and walls. Skeletons should be covered up, and bones with the flesh attached to them buried.

8 月令:
是月也,不可以稱兵,稱兵必天殃。兵戎不起,不可從我始。毋變天之道,毋絕地之理,毋亂人之紀。
Yue Ling:
In this month no warlike operations should be undertaken; the undertaking of such is sure to be followed by calamities from Heaven. The not undertaking warlike operations means that they should not commence on our side. No change in the ways of heaven is allowed; nor any extinction of the principles of earth; nor any confounding of the bonds of men.

9 月令:
孟春行夏令,則雨水不時,草木蚤落,國時有恐。行秋令則其民大疫,猋風暴雨總至,藜莠蓬蒿并興。行冬令則水潦為敗,雪霜大摯,首種不入。
Yue Ling:
If in the first month of spring the governmental proceedings proper to summer were carried out, the rain would fall unseasonably, plants and trees would decay prematurely, and the states would be kept in continual fear. If the proceedings proper to autumn were carried out, there would be great pestilence among the people; boisterous winds would work their violence; rain would descend in torrents; orach, fescue, darnel, and southernwood would grow up together. If the proceedings proper to winter were carried out, pools of water would produce their destructive effects, snow and frost would prove very injurious, and the first sown seeds would not enter the ground.

10 月令:
仲春之月,日在奎,昏弧中,旦建星中。其日甲乙,其帝大皞,其神句芒。其蟲鱗。其音角,律中夾鐘。其數八。其味酸,其臭膻,其祀戶,祭先脾。
Yue Ling:
In the second month of spring, the sun is in Kui, the star culminating at dusk being Hu, and that culminating at dawn Jian-xing. Its days are jia and yi. Its divine ruler is Dai Hao, the attending spirit is Gou-mang. Its creatures are the scaly. Its musical note is Jiao, and its pitch-tube is the Jia Zhong. Its number is eight; its taste is sour; its smell is rank. Its sacrifice is that at the door, and of the parts of the victim the spleen has the foremost place.

11 月令:
始雨水,桃始華,倉庚鳴,鷹化為鳩。
Yue Ling:
The rain begins to fall. The peach tree begins to blossom. The oriole sings. Hawks are transformed into doves.

12 月令:
天子居青陽大廟,乘鸞路,駕倉龍,載青旗,衣青衣,服倉玉,食麥與羊,其器疏以達。
Yue Ling:
The son of Heaven occupies the Qing Yang Grand Fane; rides in the carriage with the phoenix bells, drawn by the azure dragon-(horses), and bearing the green flag. He is dressed in the green robes, and wears the azure gems. He eats wheat and mutton. The vessels which he uses are slightly carved, (to resemble) the bursting forth (of nature).

13 月令:
是月也,安萌芽,養幼少,存諸孤。擇元日,命民社。命有司省囹圄,去桎梏,毋肆掠,止獄訟。
Yue Ling:
In this month, they keep both the young buds and those more advanced from being disturbed; they nourish both the young animals and those not fully grown; they especially watch over all orphans. The fortunate day is chosen, and orders are given to the people to sacrifice at their altars to the spirits of the ground. Orders are given to the (proper) officers to examine the prisons; to remove fetters and handcuffs; that there shall be no unregulated infliction of the bastinado; and that efforts shall be made to stop criminal actions and litigations.

14 月令:
是月也,玄鳥至。至之日,以大牢祠于高禖。天子親往,后妃帥九嬪御。乃禮天子所御,帶以弓韣,授以弓矢,于高禖之前。
Yue Ling:
In this month the swallow makes its appearance. On the day of its arrival, the son of Heaven sacrifices to the first match-maker with a bull, a ram, and a boar. He goes to do so in person, with his queen and help-mates, attended by his nine ladies of honour. Peculiar courtesy is shown to those whom he has (lately) approached. Bow-cases have been brought, and a bow and arrows are given to each before (the altar of) the first match-maker.

15 月令:
是月也,日夜分。雷乃發聲,始電,蟄蟲咸動,啟戶始出。先雷三日,奮木鐸以令兆民曰:雷將發聲,有不戒其容止者,生子不備,必有凶災。日夜分,則同度量,鈞衡石,角斗甬,正權概。
Yue Ling:
In this month day and night are equal. Thunder utters its voice, and the lightning begins to be seen. Insects in their burrows are all in motion, opening their doors and beginning to come forth. Three days before the thunder, a bell with a wooden tongue is sounded, to give notice to all the people. 'The thunder,' it is said, 'is about to utter its voice. If any of you be not careful of your behaviour, you shall bring forth children incomplete; there are sure to be evils and calamities.' At the equinox they make uniform the measures of length and capacity; the weight of 30 catties, the steelyard, and the weight of 120 catties. They correct the peck and bushel, the steelyard weights and the bushel-scraper.

16 月令:
是月也,耕者少舍。乃修闔扇,寢廟畢備。毋作大事,以妨農之事。
Yue Ling:
In this month few of the husbandmen remain in their houses in the towns. They repair, however, their gates and doors, both of wood and wattles; and put their sleeping apartments and temples all in good repair. No great labours, which would interfere with the work of husbandry, should be undertaken.

17 月令:
是月也,毋竭川澤,毋漉陂池,毋焚山林。天子乃鮮羔開冰,先薦寢廟。上丁,命樂正習舞,釋菜。天子乃帥三公、九卿、諸侯、大夫親往視之。仲丁,又命樂正入學習舞。
Yue Ling:
In this month (the fishermen) should not let the streams and meres run dry, nor drain off all the water from the dams and ponds, (in order to catch all the fish), nor should (the hunters) fire the hills and forests. The son of Heaven at this time offers a lamb (to the ruler of cold), and opens the (reservoirs of) ice. Before (using it generally), they offer some in their principal apartment or in the ancestral temple. On the first ting day orders are given to the chief director of Music to exhibit the civil dances and unfold the offerings of vegetables (to the inventor of music). The son of Heaven, at the head of the three ducal ministers, his nine high ministers, the feudal princes (at court), and his Great officers, goes in person to see the ceremony. On the second ting day orders are given again to the same chief to enter the college, and practise music (with his pupils).

18 月令:
是月也,祀不用犧牲,用圭璧,更皮幣。
Yue Ling:
In this month at the (smaller) services of supplication they do not use victims. They use offerings of jade, square and round, and instead (of victims) skins and pieces of silk.

19 月令:
仲春行秋令,則其國大水,寒氣總至,寇戎來征。行冬令,則陽氣不勝,麥乃不熟,民多相掠。行夏令,則國乃大旱,暖氣早來,蟲螟為害。
Yue Ling:
If in this second month of spring the governmental proceedings proper to autumn were observed, there would be great floods, in the states; cold airs would be constantly coming; and plundering attacks would be frequent. If those of winter were observed, the warm and genial airs would be insufficient; the wheat would not ripen; and raids and strifes would be rife among the people. If those of summer were observed, there would be great droughts among the people; the hot airs would come too early; and caterpillars and other insects would harm the grain.

20 月令:
季春之月,日在胃,昏七星中,旦牽牛中。其日甲乙。其帝大皞,其神句芒。其蟲鱗。其音角,律中姑洗。其數八。其味酸,其臭膻。其祀戶,祭先脾。
Yue Ling:
In the last month of spring, the sun is in Wei, the constellation culminating at dusk being Qi xing, and that culminating at dawn Qian-niu. Its days are jia and yi. Its divine ruler is Dai Hao, and the attending spirit is Gou-mang. Its creatures are the scaly. Its musical note is the Jiao, and its pitch-tube is the Gu Xian. Its number is eight. Its taste is sour. Its smell is rank. Its sacrifice is that at the door, and of the parts of the victim the spleen has the foremost place.

21 月令:
桐始華,田鼠化為鴽,虹始見,萍始生。
Yue Ling:
The Elaeococca begins to flower. Moles are transformed into quails. Rainbows begin to appear. Duckweed begins to grow.

22 月令:
天子居青陽右个,乘鸞路,駕倉龍,載青旗,衣青衣,服倉玉。食麥與羊,其器疏以達。
Yue Ling:
The son of Heaven occupies the apartment on the right of the Qing Yang (Fane); rides in the carriage with the phoenix bells, drawn by the azure dragon-(horses), and bearing the green flag. He is dressed in the green robes, and wears the azure gems. He eats wheat and mutton. The vessels which he uses are slightly carved, (to resemble) the bursting forth (of nature).

23 月令:
是月也,天子乃薦鞠衣于先帝。命舟牧覆舟,五覆五反。乃告舟備具於天子焉,天子始乘舟。薦鮪于寢廟,乃為麥祈實。
Yue Ling:
In this month the son of Heaven presents robes yellow as the young leaves of the mulberry tree to the ancient divine ruler (and his queen). Orders are given to the officer in charge of the boats to turn a boat bottom up. Five times he does so, and five times he turns it back again, after which he reports that it is ready for the son of Heaven, who then gets into it for the first time (this spring). He offers a snouted sturgeon (which he has caught) in the rear apartment of the ancestral temple, and also prays that the wheat may yield its produce.

24 月令:
是月也,生氣方盛,陽氣發泄,句者畢出,萌者盡達。不可以內。天子布德行惠,命有司發倉廩,賜貧窮,振乏絕,開府庫,出幣帛,周天下。勉諸侯,聘名士,禮賢者。
Yue Ling:
In this month the influences of life and growth are fully developed; and the warm and genial airs diffuse themselves. The crooked shoots are all put forth, and the buds are unfolded. Things do not admit of being restrained. The son of Heaven spreads his goodness abroad, and carries out his kindly promptings. He gives orders to the proper officers to distribute from his granaries and vaults, giving their contents to the poor and friendless, and to relieve the needy and destitute; and to open his treasuries and storehouses, and to send abroad through all the nation the silks and other articles for presents, thus stimulating the princes of states to encourage the resort to them of famous scholars and show courtesy to men of ability and virtue.

25 月令:
是月也,命司空曰:時雨將降,下水上騰,循行國邑,周視原野,修利堤防,道達溝瀆,開通道路,毋有障塞。田獵罝罘、羅網、畢翳、餧獸之藥,毋出九門。
Yue Ling:
In this month, he charges the superintendents of works, saying, 'The rains of the season will be coming down, and the waters beneath will be swelling up. Go in order over the states and visit the towns, inspecting everywhere the low and level grounds. Put the dykes and dams in good repair, clear the ditches and larger channels, and open all paths, allowing no obstruction to exist.' The nets used in hunting animals and birds, hand nets, archers' disguises, and injurious baits should not (in this month) issue from (any of) the nine gates.

26 月令:
是月也,命野虞毋伐桑柘。鳴鳩拂其羽,戴勝降於桑。具曲植籧筐。后妃齊戒,親東鄉躬桑。禁婦女毋觀,省婦使以勸蠶事。蠶事既登,分繭稱絲效功,以共郊廟之服,無有敢惰。
Yue Ling:
In this month orders are given to the foresters throughout the country not to allow the cutting down of the mulberry trees and silk-worm oaks. About these the cooing doves clap their wings, and the crested birds light on them . The trays and baskets with the stands (for the worms and cocoons) are got ready. The queen, after vigil and fasting, goes in person to the eastern fields to work on the mulberry trees. She orders the wives and younger women (of the palace) not to wear their ornamental dresses, and to suspend their woman's-work, thus stimulating them to attend to their business with the worms. When this has been completed, she apportions the cocoons, weighs out (afterwards) the silk, on which they go to work, to supply the robes for the solstitial and other great religious services, and for use in the ancestral temple. Not one is allowed to be idle.

27 月令:
是月也,命工師令百工審五庫之量:金鐵,皮革筋,角齒,羽箭干,脂膠丹漆,毋或不良。百工咸理,監工日號;毋悖于時,毋或作為淫巧以蕩上心。
Yue Ling:
In this month orders are given to the chiefs of works, to charge the workmen of their various departments to inspect the materials in the five storehouses: those of iron and other metals; of skins and hides and sinews; of horn and ivory; of feathers, arrows and wood (for bows); and of grease, glue, cinnabar, and varnish. (They are to see) that all these things be good. The workmen then labour at their several tasks. (The chiefs) inspect their work, and daily give them their orders. They must not produce anything contrary to what the time requires; nor can they practise a licentious ingenuity, which would dissipate the minds of their superiors.

28 月令:
是月之末,擇吉日,大合樂,天子乃率三公、九卿、諸侯、大夫親往視之。
Yue Ling:
In the end of this month a fortunate day is chosen for a grand concert of music. The son of Heaven, at the head of the three ducal ministers, the nine high ministers, the feudal princes (at court), and his great officers, goes in person to witness it.

29 月令:
是月也,乃合累牛騰馬,游牝於牧。犧牲駒犢,舉,書其數。命國難,九門磔攘,以畢春氣。
Yue Ling:
In this month they collect the large, heavy bulls, and fiery stallions, and send them forth to the females in the pasture grounds. They number and make a list of the animals fit for victims, with the foals and calves. Orders are given for the ceremonies against pestilence throughout the city; at the nine gates (also) animals are torn in pieces in deprecation (of the danger): to secure the full development of the (healthy) airs of the spring.

30 月令:
季春行冬令,則寒氣時發,草木皆肅,國有大恐。行夏令,則民多疾疫,時雨不降,山林不收。行秋令,則天多沉陰,淫雨蚤降,兵革并起。
Yue Ling:
If, in this last month of spring, the governmental proceedings proper to winter were observed, cold airs would constantly be prevailing; all plants and trees would decay; and in the states there would be great terrors. If those proper to summer were observed, many of the people would suffer from pestilential diseases; the seasonable rains would not fall; and no produce would be derived from the mountains and heights. If those proper to autumn were observed, the sky would be full of moisture and gloom; excessive rains would fall early; and warlike movements would be everywhere arising.

31 月令:
孟夏之月,日在畢,昏翼中,旦婺女中。其日丙丁。其帝炎帝,其神祝融。其蟲羽。其音徵,律中中呂。其數七。其味苦,其臭焦。其祀灶,祭先肺。
Yue Ling:
In the first month of summer, the sun is in Bi; the constellation culminating at dusk being Yi, and that culminating at dawn Wu-nu. Its days are bing and ding. Its divine ruler is Yan Di, and the (attending) spirit is Gu-rong. Its creatures are the feathered. Its musical note is Zhi, and its pitch-tube is the Zhong Lu. Its number is seven. Its taste is acrid. Its smell is that of things burning. Its sacrifice is that at the furnace; and of the parts of the victim the lungs have the foremost place.

32 月令:
螻蟈鳴,蚯螾出,王瓜生,苦菜秀。
Yue Ling:
The green frogs croak. Earth-worms come forth. The royal melons grow. The sow-thistle is in seed.

33 月令:
天子居明堂左个,乘朱路,駕赤騮,載赤旗,衣朱衣,服赤玉。食菽與雞,其器高以粗。
Yue Ling:
The son of Heaven occupies the apartment on the left of the Ming Tang (Grand Fane); rides in the vermilion carriage, drawn by the red horses with black tails, and bearing the red flag. He is dressed in the red robes, and wears the carnation jade. He eats beans and fowls. The vessels which he uses are tall, (to resemble) the large growth (of things).

34 月令:
是月也,以立夏。先立夏三日,大史謁之天子曰:某日立夏,盛德在火。天子乃齊。立夏之日,天子親帥三公、九卿、大夫以迎夏於南郊。還反,行賞,封諸侯。慶賜遂行,無不欣說。乃命樂師,習合禮樂。命太尉,贊桀俊,遂賢良,舉長大,行爵出祿,必當其位。
Yue Ling:
In this month there takes place the inauguration of summer. Three days before this ceremony, the Grand recorder informs the son of Heaven, saying, 'On such-and-such a day is the inauguration of summer. The energies of the season are most fully seen in fire.' On this the son of Heaven devotes himself to self-purification; and on the day, at the head of the three ducal ministers, the nine high ministers, and his Great officers, he proceeds to meet the summer in the southern suburbs. On their return, rewards are distributed. He grants to the feudal princes (an increase of) territory. Congratulations and gifts proceed, and all are joyful and pleased. Orders are also given to the chief master of music to teach the practice of ceremonies and music together. Orders are given to the Grand Peace-maintainer to recommend men of eminence, allow the worthy and good to have free course and bring forward the tall and large. His conferring of rank and regulation of emolument must be in accordance with the position (of the individual).

35 月令:
是月也,繼長增高,毋有壞墮,毋起土功,毋發大眾,毋伐大樹。
Yue Ling:
In this month what is long should be encouraged to grow longer, and what is high to grow higher. There should be no injuring or overthrowing of anything; no commencing of works in earth; no sending forth of great multitudes (on expeditions); no cutting down of large trees.

36 月令:
是月也,天子始絺。命野虞出行田原,為天子勞農勸民,毋或失時。命司徒巡行縣鄙,命農勉作,毋休于都。
Yue Ling:
In this month the son of Heaven begins to wear thin dolichos cloth. Orders are given to the foresters throughout the country to go forth over the fields and plains, and, for the son of Heaven, to encourage the husbandmen, and stimulate them to work, and not let the season slip by unimproved. Orders are (also) given to the minister of Instruction to travel in order through the districts to the borders, charging the husbandmen to work vigorously, and not to rest in the towns.

37 月令:
是月也,驅獸毋害五穀,毋大田獵。農乃登麥,天子乃以彘嘗麥,先薦寢廟。
Yue Ling:
In this month they chase away wild animals to prevent them from doing harm to any of the (growing) grain; but they should not have a great hunting. When the husbandmen present (the first-fruits of) their wheat, the son of Heaven tastes it along with some pork, first offering a portion in the apartment behind (the hall of the) ancestral temple.

38 月令:
是月也,聚畜百藥。靡草死,麥秋至。斷薄刑,決小罪,出輕系。蠶事畢,后妃獻繭。乃收繭稅,以桑為均,貴賤長幼如一,以給郊廟之服。
Yue Ling:
In this month they collect and store up the various medicinal herbs. Delicate herbs (now) die; it is the harvest time (even) of the wheat. They decide cases for which the punishments are light; they make short work of small crimes, and liberate those who are in prison for slight offences. When the work with the silk-worms is over, the queen presents her cocoons; and the tithe-tax of cocoons generally is collected, according to the number of mulberry trees; for noble and mean, for old and young there is one law. The object is with such cocoons to provide materials for the robes to be used at the sacrifices in the suburbs and in the ancestral temple.

39 月令:
是月也,天子飲酎,用禮樂。
Yue Ling:
In this month the son of Heaven (entertains his ministers and princes) with strong drink and with (much) observance of ceremony and with music.

40 月令:
孟夏行秋令,則苦雨數來,五穀不滋,四鄙入保。行冬令,則草木蚤枯,後乃大水,敗其城郭。行春令,則蝗蟲為災,暴風來格,秀草不實。
Yue Ling:
If, in this first month of summer, the proceedings proper to autumn were observed, pitiless rains would be frequent; the five esculent plants would not grow large, and in all the borders people would have to enter the places of shelter. If those proper to winter were observed, all plants and trees would wither early, and afterwards, there would be great floods, destroying city and suburban walls. If those proper to spring were observed, there would be the calamity of locusts, violent winds would come, and plants in flower would not go on to seed.

41 月令:
仲夏之月,日在東井,昏亢中,旦危中。其日丙丁。其帝炎帝,其神祝融。其蟲羽。其音徵,律中蕤賓。其數七。其味苦,其臭焦。其祀灶,祭先肺。
Yue Ling:
In the second month of summer the sun is in the eastern Jing, the constellation culminating at dusk being Kang, and that culminating at dawn Wei. Its days are ping and ting. Its divine ruler is Yan Di, and the (attending) spirit is Gu-rong. Its creatures are the feathered. Its musical note is Zhi, and its pitch-tube is Rui Bin. Its number is seven. Its taste is acrid. Its smell is that of things burning. Its sacrifice is that at the furnace; and of the parts of the victim the lungs have the foremost place.

42 月令:
小暑至,螳蜋生。鵙始鳴,反舌無聲。
Yue Ling:
The (period of) slighter heat arrives; the praying mantis is produced; the shrike begins to give its notes; the mocking-bird ceases to sing.

43 月令:
天子居明堂太廟,乘朱路,駕赤騮,載赤旗,衣朱衣,服赤玉,食菽與雞,其器高以粗。養壯佼。
Yue Ling:
The son of Heaven occupies the Ming Tang Grand Fane; rides in the vermilion carriage, drawn by the red horses with black tails, and bearing the red flag. He is dressed in the red robes, and wears the carnation gems. He eats beans and fowls. The vessels which he uses are tall, (to resemble) the large growth (of things). They encourage the (continued) growth of what is strong and beautiful.

44 月令:
是月也,命樂師修鞀鞞鼓,均琴瑟管簫,執干戚戈羽,調竽笙篪簧,飭鐘磬柷敔。命有司為民祈祀山川百源,大雩帝,用盛樂。乃命百縣,雩祀百辟卿士有益於民者,以祈穀實。農乃登黍。
Yue Ling:
In this month orders are given to the music-masters to put in repair the hand-drums, smaller drums, and large drums; to adjust the lutes, large and small, the double flutes, and the pan-pipes; to teach the holding of the shields, pole-axes, lances, and plumes; to tune the organs, large and small, with their pipes and tongues; and to put in order the bells, sonorous stones, the instrument to give the symbol for commencing, and the stopper. Orders are given to the (proper) officers to pray for the people and offer sacrifice to the (spirits of the) hills, streams, and all springs. (After that) comes the great summer sacrifice for rain to God, when all the instruments of music are employed. Then orders are given throughout all the districts to sacrifice to the various princes, high ministers, and officers who benefited the people; praying that there may be a good harvest of grain. The husbandmen present (the first-fruits of) their millet.

45 月令:
是月也,天子乃以雛嘗黍,羞以含桃,先薦寢廟。令民毋艾藍以染,毋燒灰,毋暴布。門閭毋閉,關市毋索。挺重囚,益其食。游牝別群,則縶騰駒,班馬政。
Yue Ling:
In this month the son of Heaven partakes of it along with pullets, and with cherries set forth beside them, first offering a portion in the apartment behind the ancestral temple. The people are forbidden to cut down the indigo plant to use it in dyeing, or to burn wood for charcoal, or to bleach cloth in the sun. The gates of cities and villages should not be shut, nor should vexatious inquiries be instituted at the barrier gates or in the markets. Leniency should be shown to prisoners charged (even) with great crimes, and their allowance of food be increased. Impregnated mares are collected in herds by themselves, and the fiery stallions are tied up. The rules for the rearing of horses are given out.

46 月令:
是月也,日長至,陰陽爭,死生分。君子齊戒,處必掩身,毋躁。止聲色,毋或進。薄滋味,毋致和。節嗜欲,定心氣,百官靜事毋刑,以定晏陰之所成。鹿角解,蟬始鳴。半夏生,木堇榮。
Yue Ling:
In this month the longest day arrives. The influences in nature of darkness and decay and those 'Of brightness and growth struggle together; the tendencies to death and life are divided. Superior men give themselves to vigil and fasting. They keep retired in their houses, avoid all violent exercise, restrain their indulgence in music and beautiful sights, eschew the society of their wives, make their diet spare, use no piquant condiments, keep their desires under rule, and maintain their spirits free from excitement. The various magistrates keep things quiet and inflict no punishments - to bring about that state of settled quiet in which the influence of darkness and decay shall obtain its full development. Deer shed their horns. Cicadas begin to sing. The midsummer herb is produced. The tree hibiscus flowers.

47 月令:
是月也,毋用火南方。可以居高明,可以遠眺望,可以升山陵,可以處臺榭。
Yue Ling:
In this month fires should not be lighted (out of doors) in the southern regions (of the country). People may live in buildings high and bright. They may enjoy distant prospects. They may ascend hills and heights. They may occupy towers and lofty pavilions.

48 月令:
仲夏行冬令,則雹凍傷穀,道路不通,暴兵來至。行春令,則五穀晚熟,百螣時起,其國乃饑。行秋令,則草木零落,果實早成,民殃於疫。
Yue Ling:
If, in the second month of summer, the governmental proceedings of winter were observed, hail and told would injure the grain; the roads would not be passable; and violent assaults of war would come. If the proceedings proper to spring were observed, the grains would be late in ripening; all kinds of locusts would continually be appearing; and there would be famine in the states. If those proper to autumn were observed, herbs and plants would drop their leaves; fruits would ripen prematurely; and the people would be consumed by pestilence.

49 月令:
季夏之月,日在柳,昏火中,旦奎中。其日丙丁。其帝炎帝,其神祝融。其蟲羽。其音徵,律中林鐘。其數七。其味苦,其臭焦。其祀灶,祭先肺。
Yue Ling:
In the third month of summer the sun is in Liu, the constellation culminating at dusk being huo, and that culminating at dawn Kui. Its days are bing and ding. Its divine ruler is Yan Di, and the (assisting) spirit is Gu-rong. Its creatures are the feathered. Its musical note is Zhi, and its pitch-tube is Lin Zhong. Its number is seven. Its taste is acrid. Its smell is that of things burning. Its sacrifice is that at the furnace; and of the parts of the victim the lungs have the foremost place.

50 月令:
溫風始至,蟋蟀居壁,鷹乃學習,腐草為螢。
Yue Ling:
Gentle winds begin to blow. The cricket takes its place in the walls. (Young) hawks learn to practise (the ways of their parents). Decaying grass becomes fire-flies.

51 月令:
天子居明堂右个,乘朱路,駕赤騮,載赤旗,衣朱衣,服赤玉。食菽與雞,其器高以粗。命漁師伐蛟取鼉,登龜取黿。命澤人納材葦。
Yue Ling:
The son of Heaven occupies the apartment on the right of the Ming Thang (Fane); rides in the vermilion carriage, drawn by the red horses with black tails, and bearing the red flag. He is dressed in the red robes, and wears the carnation gems. He eats beans and fowls. The vessels which he uses are tall, (to resemble) the large growth (of things). Orders are given to the master of the Fishermen to attack the alligator, to take the gavial, to present the tortoise, and to take the great turtle. Orders are given to the superintendent of the Meres to collect and send in the rushes available for use.

52 月令:
是月也,命四監大合百縣之秩芻,以養犧牲。令民無不咸出其力,以共皇天上帝名山大川四方之神,以祠宗廟社稷之靈,以為民祈福。
Yue Ling:
In this month orders are given to the four inspectors to make a great collection over all the districts of the different kinds of fodder to nourish the sacrificial victims; and to require all the people to do their utmost towards this end - to supply what is necessary for (the worship of) God (who dwells in) the great Heaven, and for the spirits of the famous hills, great streams, and four quarters, and for the sacrifices to the Intelligences of the ancestral temple, and at the altars to the spirits of the land and grain; that prayer may be made for blessing to the people.

53 月令:
是月也,命婦官染采,黼黻文章,必以法故,無或差貸。黑黃倉赤,莫不質良,毋敢詐偽,以給郊廟祭祀之服,以為旗章,以別貴賤等給之度。
Yue Ling:
In this month orders are given by the officers of women's (work), on the subject of dyeing. (They are to see) that the white and black, the black and green, the green and carnation, the carnation and white be all according to the ancient rules, without error or change; and that their black, yellow, azure, and carnation be all genuine and good, without any presumptuous attempts at imposition. These furnish the materials for the robes used at the sacrifices in the suburbs and the ancestral temple; for flags and their ornaments; and for marking the different degrees of rank as high or low.

54 月令:
是月也,樹木方盛,乃命虞人入山行木,毋有斬伐。不可以興土功,不可以合諸侯,不可以起兵動眾,毋舉大事,以搖養氣。毋發令而待,以妨神農之事也。水潦盛昌,神農將持功,舉大事則有天殃。
Yue Ling:
In this month the trees are luxuriant; and orders are given to the foresters to go among the hills and examine the trees, and see that the people do not cut any down or lop their branches. There should not be any work in earth, (now) undertaken; nor any assembling of the princes of the states; nor any military movements, causing general excitement. There should be no undertaking of (such) great affairs, which will disturb the nourishing growth that is proceeding, nor any issuing of orders to be hereafter carried into effect. All these things will interfere with the business of husbandry, (which is specially dear to) the Spirits. The floods are now great and overflow the roads; husbandry (dear to) the Spirits has to take in hand its various tasks. The curse of Heaven will come on the undertaking of great affairs (at this time).

55 月令:
是月也,土潤溽暑,大雨時行,燒薙行水,利以殺草,如以熱湯。可以糞田疇,可以美土強。
Yue Ling:
In this month the ground lies steaming and wet beneath the heats, for great rains are (also) continually coming. They burn the grass lying cut upon the ground and bring the water over it. This is as effectual to kill the roots as hot water would be; and the grass thus serves to manure the fields of grain and hemp, and to fatten the ground which has been but just marked out for cultivation.

56 月令:
季夏行春令,則穀實鮮落,國多風咳,民乃遷徙。行秋令,則丘隰水潦,禾稼不熟,乃多女災。行冬令,則風寒不時,鷹隼蚤鷙,四鄙入保。
Yue Ling:
If, in the last month of summer, the governmental proceedings proper to spring were observed, the produce of grain would be scanty and fail; in the states there would be many colds and coughs; and the people would remove to other places. If the proceedings proper to autumn were observed, even the high grounds would be flooded; the grain that had been sown would not ripen; and there would be many miscarriages among women. If those proper to winter were observed, the winds and cold would come out of season; the hawks and falcons would prematurely attack their prey; and all along the four borders people would enter their places of shelter.

57 月令:
中央土。其日戊己。其帝黃帝,其神後土。其蟲裸,其音宮,律中黃鐘之宮。其數五。其味甘,其臭香。其祠中溜,祭先心。
Yue Ling:
Right in the middle (between. Heaven and Earth, and the other elements) is earth. Its days are Wu and ji. Its divine ruler is Huang Di, and the (attending) spirit is Hou-tu. Its creature is that without any natural covering but the skin. Its musical note is Gong, and its pitch-tube gives the gong note from the tube Huang Zhong. Its number is five. Its taste is sweet. Its smell is fragrant. Its sacrifice is that of the middle court; and of the parts of the victim the heart has the foremost place.

58 月令:
天子居大廟大室,乘大路,駕黃騮,載黃旗,衣黃衣,服黃玉,食稷與牛,其器圜以閎。
Yue Ling:
The son of Heaven occupies the Grand apartment of the Grand fane; rides in the great carriage drawn by the yellow horses with black tails, and bearing the yellow flag; is clothed in the yellow robes, and wears the yellow gems. He eats panicled millet and beef. The vessels which he uses are round, (and made to resemble) the capacity (of the earth).

59 月令:
孟秋之月,日在翼,昏建星中,旦畢中。其日庚辛。其帝少皞,其神蓐收。其蟲毛。其音商,律中夷則。其數九。其味辛,其臭腥。其祀門,祭先肝。
Yue Ling:
In the first month of autumn, the sun is in Yi the constellation culminating at dusk being Jian-xing, and that culminating at dawn Bi. Its days are geng and xin. Its divine ruler is Shao Hao, and the (attending) spirit is Ru-shou. Its creatures are the hairy. Its musical note is Shang; its pitch-tube is Yi Ze. Its number is nine. Its taste is bitter. Its smell is rank. Its sacrifice is that at the gate; and of the parts of the victim the liver has the foremost place.

60 月令:
涼風至,白露降,寒蟬鳴。鷹乃祭鳥,用始行戮。
Yue Ling:
Cool winds come; the white dew descends the cicada of the cold chirps. (Young) hawks at this time sacrifice birds, as the first step they take to killing (and eating) them.

61 月令:
天子居總章左个,乘戎路,駕白駱,載白旗,衣白衣,服白玉,食麻與犬,其器廉以深。
Yue Ling:
The son of Heaven occupies the apartment on the left of the Zong-zhang (Fane); rides in the war chariot, drawn by the white horses with black manes, and bearing the white flag. He is clothed in the white robes, and wears the white jade. He eats hemp-seeds and dog's flesh. The vessels which he uses are rectangular, and going on to be deep.

62 月令:
是月也,以立秋。先立秋三日,大史謁之天子曰:某日立秋,盛德在金。天子乃齊。立秋之日,天子親帥三公、九卿、諸侯、大夫,以迎秋於西郊。還反,賞軍帥武人於朝。天子乃命將帥,選士厲兵,簡練桀俊,專任有功,以征不義。詰誅暴慢,以明好惡,順彼遠方。
Yue Ling:
In this month there takes place the inauguration of autumn. Three days before the ceremony) the Grand recorder informs the son of Heaven, saying, 'On such-and-such a day is the inauguration of the autumn. The character of the season is fully seen in metal.' On this the son of Heaven devotes himself to self-adjustment; and on the day he leads in person the three ducal ministers, the nine high ministers, the princes of states (at court), and his Great officers, to meet the autumn in the western suburb, and on their return he rewards the general-in-chief, and the military officers in the court. The son of Heaven also orders the leaders and commanders to choose men and sharpen weapons, to select and exercise those of distinguished merit, and to give their entire trust only to men whose services have been proved - thereby to correct all unrighteousness. (He instructs them also) to make enquiries about and punish the oppressive and insolent - thereby making it clear whom he loves and whom he hates, and giving effect to (the wishes of) the people, even the most distant from court.

63 月令:
是月也,命有司修法制,繕囹圄,具桎梏,禁止奸,慎罪邪,務搏執。命理瞻傷,察創,視折,審斷。決獄訟,必端平。戮有罪,嚴斷刑。天地始肅,不可以贏。
Yue Ling:
In this month orders are given to the proper officers to revise the laws and ordinances, to put the prisons in good repair, to provide handcuffs and fetters, to repress and stop villainy, to maintain a watch against crime and wickedness, and to do their endeavour to capture criminals. Orders are (also) given to the managers (of prisons) to look at wounds, examine sores, inspect broken members, and judge particularly of dislocations. The determination of cases, both criminal and civil, must be correct and just. Heaven and earth now begin to be severe; there should be no excess in copying that severity, or in the opposite indulgence.

64 月令:
是月也,農乃登穀。天子嘗新,先薦寢廟。命百官,始收斂。完堤防,謹壅塞,以備水潦。修宮室,壞墻垣,補城郭。
Yue Ling:
In this month the husbandmen present their grain. The son of Heaven tastes it, while still new, first offering some in the apartment at the back of the ancestral temple. Orders are given to all the officers to begin their collecting and storing the contributions (from the husbandmen); to finish the embankments and dykes; to look to the dams and fillings up in preparation for the floods, and also to refit all houses; to strengthen walls and enclosures; and to repair city and suburban walls.

65 月令:
是月也,毋以封諸侯、立大官。毋以割地、行大使、出大幣。
Yue Ling:
In this month there should be no investing of princes, and no appointment of great ministers. There should be no dismemberment of any territory, no sending out on any great commission, and no issuing of great presents.

66 月令:
孟秋行冬令,則陰氣大勝,介蟲敗穀,戎兵乃來。行春令,則其國乃旱,陽氣復還,五穀無實。行夏令,則國多火災,寒熱不節,民多瘧疾。
Yue Ling:
If, in this first month of autumn, the proceedings of government proper to winter were observed, then the dark and gloomy influence (of nature) would greatly prevail; the shelly insects would destroy the grain; and warlike operations would be called for. If the proceedings proper to spring were observed, there would be droughts in the states; the bright and growing influence would return; and the five kinds of grain would not yield their fruit. If the proceedings proper to summer were observed, there would be many calamities from fire in the states; the cold and the heat would be subject to no rule; and there would be many fevers among the people.

67 月令:
仲秋之月,日在角,昏牽牛中,旦觜觿中。其日庚辛,其帝少皞,其神蓐收。其蟲毛。其音商,律中南呂。其數九。其味辛,其臭腥。其祀門,祭先肝。
Yue Ling:
In the second month of autumn the sun is in Jiao, the constellation culminating at dusk being Qian-niu, and that culminating at dawn Zi-xi. Its days are geng and xin. Its divine ruler is Shao Hao, and the (attending) spirit is Ru-shou. Its insects are the hairy. Its musical note is Shang, and its pitch-tube is Nan Lu. Its number is nine. Its taste is bitter. Its smell is rank. Its sacrifice is that of the gate; and of the parts of the victim the liver has the foremost place.

68 月令:
盲風至,鴻雁來,玄鳥歸,群鳥養羞。
Yue Ling:
Sudden and violent winds come. The wild geese arrive. The swallows return (whence they came). Tribes of birds store up provisions (for the future).

69 月令:
天子居總章大廟,乘戎路,駕白駱,載白旗,衣白衣,服白玉,食麻與犬,其器廉以深。
Yue Ling:
The son of Heaven occupies the Zong-zhang Grand Fane; rides in the war chariot, drawn by the white horses with black manes, and bearing the white flag. He is clothed in the white robes, and wears the white gems. He eats hemp-seed and dog's flesh. The vessels which he uses are rectangular or cornered, and rather deep.

70 月令:
是月也,養衰老,授几杖,行糜粥飲食。乃命司服,具飭衣裳,文繡有恒,制有小大,度有長短。衣服有量,必循其故,冠帶有常。乃命有司,申嚴百刑,斬殺必當,毋或枉橈。枉橈不當,反受其殃。
Yue Ling:
In this month they take especial care of the decaying and old; give them stools and staves, and distribute supplies of congee for food. Orders are given to the superintendent of robes to have ready the upper and lower dresses with their various ornaments. For the figures and embroidery on them there are fixed patterns. Their size, length, and dimensions must all be according to the old examples. For the caps and girdles (also) there are regular rules. Orders are given to the proper officers to revise with strict accuracy (the laws about) the various punishments. Beheading and (the other) capital executions must be according to (the crimes) without excess or defect. Excess or defect out of such proportion will bring on itself the judgment (of Heaven).

71 月令:
是月也,乃命宰祝,循行犧牲,視全具,案芻豢,瞻肥瘠,察物色。必比類,量小大,視長短,皆中度。五者備當,上帝其饗。天子乃難,以達秋氣。以犬嘗麻,先薦寢廟。
Yue Ling:
In this month orders are given to the officers of slaughter and prayer to go round among the victims for sacrifice, seeing that they are entire and complete, examining their fodder and grain, inspecting their condition as fat or thin, and judging of their looks. They must arrange them according to their classes. In measuring their size, and looking at the length (of their horns), they must have them according to the (assigned) measures. When all these points are as they ought to be, God will accept the sacrifices. The son of Heaven performs the ceremonies against pestilence, to secure development for the (healthy) airs of autumn. He eats the hemp-seed (which is now presented) along with dog's flesh, first offering some in the apartment at the back of the ancestral temple.

72 月令:
是月也,可以筑城郭,建都邑,穿竇窖,修囷倉。乃命有司,趣民收斂,務畜菜,多積聚。乃勸種麥,毋或失時。其有失時,行罪無疑。
Yue Ling:
In this month it is allowable to rear city and suburban walls, to establish cities and towns, to dig underground passages and grain-pits, and to repair granaries, round and square. Orders are given to the proper officers to be urgent with the people, and (to finish) receiving their contributions and storing them. They should do their best to accumulate (large) stores of vegetables and other things. They should (also) stimulate the wheat-sowing. (The husbandmen) should not be allowed to miss the proper time for the operation. Any who do so shall be punished without fail.

73 月令:
是月也,日夜分,雷始收聲。蟄蟲壞戶,殺氣浸盛,陽氣日衰,水始涸。日夜分,則同度量,平權衡,正鈞石,角斗甬。
Yue Ling:
In this month day and night are equal. The thunder begins to restrain its voice. Insects stop up the entrances to their burrows. The influence to decay and death gradually increases. That of brightness and growth daily diminishes. The waters begin to dry up. At the equinox, they make uniform the measures of length and capacity; equalise the steel-yards and their weights; rectify the weights of 30 and 120 catties; and adjust the pecks and bushels.

74 月令:
是月也,易關市,來商旅,納貨賄,以便民事。四方來集,遠鄉皆至,則財不匱,上無乏用,百事乃遂。凡舉大事,毋逆大數,必順其時,慎因其類。
Yue Ling:
In this month they regulate and reduce the charges at the frontier gates and in the markets, to encourage the resort of both regular and travelling traders, and the receipt of goods and money; for the convenience of the business of the people. When merchants and others collect from all quarters, and come from the most distant parts, then the resources (of the government) do not fail. There is no want of means for its use; and all things proceed prosperously. In commencing great undertakings, there should be no opposition to the great periods (for them) as defined (by the motion of the sun). They must be conformed to the times (as thereby marked out), and particular attention paid to the nature of each.

75 月令:
仲秋行春令,則秋雨不降,草木生榮,國乃有恐。行夏令,則其國乃旱,蟄蟲不藏,五穀復生。行冬令,則風災數起,收雷先行,草木蚤死。
Yue Ling:
If in this second month of autumn the proceedings proper to spring were observed, the autumnal rains would not fall; plants and trees would blossom; and in the states there would be alarms. If those proper to summer were observed, there would be droughts in the states; insects would not retire to their burrows; and the five grains would begin to grow again. If those proper to winter were observed, calamities springing from (unseasonable) winds would be constantly arising; the thunder now silent would be heard before its time; and plants and trees would die prematurely.

76 月令:
季秋之月,日在房,昏虛中,旦柳中。其日庚辛。其帝少皞,其神蓐收。其蟲毛。其音商,律中無射。其數九。其味辛,其臭腥。其祀門,祭先肝。
Yue Ling:
In the last month of autumn the sun is in Fang, the constellation culminating at dusk being Xu, and that culminating at dawn Liu. Its days are geng and xin. Its divine ruler is Shao Hao, and the (attending) spirit is Ru-shou. Its creatures are the hairy. Its musical note is Shang, and its pitch-tube is Wu Yi. Its number is nine. Its taste is bitter. Its smell is rank. Its sacrifice is that at the gate; and of the parts of the victim the liver has the foremost place.

77 月令:
鴻雁來賓,爵入大水為蛤。鞠有黃華,豺乃祭獸戮禽。
Yue Ling:
The wild geese come, (and abide) like guests. Small birds enter the great water and become mollusks. Chrysanthemums show their yellow flowers. The chai sacrifice larger animals, and kill (and devour) the smaller.

78 月令:
天子居總章右个,乘戎路,駕白駱,載白旗,衣白衣,服白玉。食麻與犬,其器廉以深。
Yue Ling:
The son of Heaven occupies the apartment on the right of the Zong-zhang (Fane); rides in the war chariot, drawn by the white horses with black manes, and bearing the white flags; is dressed in the white robes, and wears the white jade. He eats hemp-seeds and dog's flesh. The vessels which he uses are rectangular, cornered, and rather deep.

79 月令:
是月也,申嚴號令。命百官貴賤無不務內,以會天地之藏,無有宣出。乃命冢宰,農事備收,舉五穀之要,藏帝藉之收於神倉,祗敬必飭。
Yue Ling:
In this month the orders are renewed and strictly enjoined, charging the various, officers (to see) that noble and mean all exert themselves in the work of ingathering, in harmony with the storing of heaven and earth. They must not allow anything to remain out in the fields. Orders are also given to the chief minister, after the fruits of husbandry have all been gathered in, to take in hand the registers of the produce of the different grains (from all the country), and to store up the produce that has been gathered from the acres of God in the granary of the spirits; doing this with the utmost reverence and correctness.

80 月令:
是月也,霜始降,則百工休。乃命有司曰:寒氣總至,民力不堪,其皆入室。上丁,命樂正入學習吹。
Yue Ling:
In this month the hoar-frost begins to fall; and all labours cease (for a season). Orders are given to the proper officers, saying, 'The cold airs are all coming, and the people will not be able to endure them. Let all enter within their houses (for a time).' On the first ting day orders are given to the chief Director of music to enter the college, and to practise (with his pupils) on the wind instruments.

81 月令:
是月也,大饗帝、嘗,犧牲告備于天子。合諸侯,制百縣,為來歲受朔日,與諸侯所稅於民輕重之法,貢職之數,以遠近土地所宜為度,以給郊廟之事,無有所私。
Yue Ling:
In this month an announcement is made to the son of Heaven that the victims for the great sacrifice to God, and the autumnal sacrifice in the ancestral temple' are fit and ready. The princes of the states are assembled, and orders given to the officers of the various districts (in the royal domain). They receive the first days of the months for the coming year, and the laws for the taxation of the people by the princes, both light and heavy, and the amount of the regular contribution to the government, which is determined by the distance of the territories and the nature of their several productions. The object of this is to provide what is necessary for the suburban sacrifices and those in the ancestral temple. No private considerations are allowed to have place in this.

82 月令:
是月也,天子乃教於田獵,以習五戎,班馬政。命仆及七騶咸駕,載旌旐,授車以級,整設於屏外。司徒搢撲,北面誓之。天子乃厲飾,執弓挾矢以獵,命主祠祭禽于四方。
Yue Ling:
In this month the son of Heaven, by means of hunting, teaches how to use the five weapons of war, and the rules for the management of horses. Orders are given to the charioteers and the seven (classes of) grooms to see to the yoking of the several teams, to set up in the carriages the flags and various banners, to assign the carriages according to the rank (of those who were to occupy them), and to arrange and set up the screens outside (the royal tent). The minister of Instruction, with his baton stuck in his girdle, addresses all before him with his face to the north. Then the son of Heaven, in his martial ornaments, with his bow in one hand, and the arrows under the armpit of the other, proceeds to hunt. (Finally), he gives orders to the superintendent of Sacrifices, to offer some of the captured game to (the spirits of) the four quarters.

83 月令:
是月也,草木黃落,乃伐薪為炭。蟄蟲咸俯在內,皆墐其戶。乃趣獄刑,毋留有罪。收祿秩之不當、供養之不宜者。
Yue Ling:
In this month the plants and trees become yellow and their leaves fall, on which the branches are cut down to make charcoal. Insects in their burrows all try to push deeper, and from within plaster up the entrances. In accordance with (the season), they hurry on the decision and punishment of criminal cases, wishing not to leave them any longer undealt with. They call in emoluments that have been assigned incorrectly, and minister to those whose means are insufficient for their wants.

84 月令:
是月也,天子乃以犬嘗稻,先薦寢廟。
Yue Ling:
In this month the son of Heaven eats dog's flesh and rice, first presenting some in the apartment at the back of the ancestral temple.

85 月令:
季秋行夏令,則其國大水,冬藏殃敗,民多鼽嚏。行冬令,則國多盜賊,邊境不寧,土地分裂。行春令,則暖風來至,民氣解惰,師興不居。
Yue Ling:
If, in this last month of autumn, the proceedings proper to summer were observed, there would be great floods in the states; the winter stores would be injured and damaged; there would be many colds and catarrhs among the people. If those proper to winter were observed, there would be many thieves and robbers in the states; the borders would be unquiet; and portions of territory would be torn from the rest. If those proper to spring were observed, the warm airs would come; the energies of the people would be relaxed and languid; and the troops would be kept moving about.

86 月令:
孟冬之月,日在尾,昏危中,旦七星中。其日壬癸。其帝顓頊,其神玄冥。其蟲介。其音羽,律中應鐘。其數六。其味咸,其臭朽。其祀行,祭先腎。
Yue Ling:
In the first month of winter the sun is in Wei, the constellation culminating at dusk being Wei, and the constellation culminating at dawn Qi-xing. Its days are the ren and gui. Its divine ruler is Zhuan-xu, and the (attending) spirit is Xuan-ming. Its creatures are the shell-covered. Its musical note is Yu, and its pitch-tube is Ying Zhong. Its number is six. Its taste is salt. Its smell is that of things that are rotten. Its sacrifice is that at (the altar of) the path, and among the parts of the victim the kidneys have the foremost place.

87 月令:
水始冰,地始凍。雉入大水為蜃。虹藏不見。
Yue Ling:
Water begins to congeal. The earth begins to be penetrated by the cold. Pheasants enter the great water and become large mollusks. Rainbows are hidden and do not appear.

88 月令:
天子居玄堂左个,乘玄路,駕鐵驪,載玄旗,衣黑衣,服玄玉,食黍與彘,其器閎以奄。
Yue Ling:
The son of Heaven occupies the apartment on the left of the Xuan Tang (Fane); rides in the dark-coloured carriage, drawn by the iron black horses, and bearing the dark-coloured flag; is dressed in the black robes, and wears the dark-coloured jade. He eats millet and sucking-pig. The vessels which he uses are large and rather deep.

89 月令:
是月也,以立冬。先立冬三日,太史謁之天子曰:某日立冬,盛德在水。天子乃齊。立冬之日,天子親帥三公、九卿、大夫以迎冬於北郊,還反,賞死事,恤孤寡。
Yue Ling:
In this month there takes place the inauguration of winter. Three days before this ceremony, the Grand recorder informs the son of Heaven, saying, 'On such-and-such a day is the inauguration of winter. The character of the season is fully seen in water.' On this the son of Heaven devotes himself to self-adjustment; and on the day of the inauguration he leads in person the three ducal ministers, the nine high ministers, and his Great officers to meet the winter in the northern suburbs. On his return he rewards (the descendants of) those who died in the service (of the kingdom), and shows his compassion to orphans and widows.

90 月令:
是月也,命大史釁龜策,占兆審卦吉凶,是察阿黨,則罪無有掩蔽。
Yue Ling:
In this month orders are given to the Grand recorder to smear with blood the tortoise-shells and divining stalks', and by interpreting the indications of the former and examining the figures formed by the latter, to determine the good and evil of their intimations. (In this way) all flattery and partizanship in the interpretation of them (will become clear), and the crime of their operators be brought home. No concealment or deceit will be allowed.

91 月令:
是月也,天子始裘。命有司曰:天氣上騰,地氣下降,天地不通,閉塞而成冬。命百官謹蓋藏。命司徒循行積聚,無有不斂。壞城郭,戒門閭,修鍵閉,慎管龠,固封疆,備邊竟,完要塞,謹關梁,塞徯徑。飭喪紀,辨衣裳,審棺槨之厚薄,塋丘壟之大小、高卑、厚薄之度,貴賤之等級。
Yue Ling:
In this month the son of Heaven sets the example of wearing furs. Orders are issued to the proper officers in the words: 'The airs of heaven are ascended on high, and those of earth have descended beneath. There is no intercommunion of heaven and earth. All is shut up and winter is completely formed.' Orders are given to all the officers to cover up carefully the stores (of their departments). The minister of Instruction is also ordered to go round (among the people and see) that they have formed their stores, and that nothing is left ungathered. The city and suburban walls are put in good repair; the gates of towns and villages are looked after; bolts and nuts are put to rights; locks and keys are carefully attended to; the field-boundaries are strengthened; the frontiers are well secured; important defiles are thoroughly defended; passes and bridges are carefully seen after; and narrow ways and cross-paths are shut up. The rules for mourning are revised; the distinctions of the upper and lower garments are defined; the thickness of the inner and outer coffins is decided on; with the size, height and other dimensions of graves. The measures for all these things are assigned, with the degrees and differences in them according to rank.

92 月令:
是月也,命工師效功,陳祭器,按度程,毋或作為淫巧以蕩上心。必功致為上。物勒工名,以考其誠。功有不當,必行其罪,以窮其情。
Yue Ling:
In this month orders are given to the chief Director of works to prepare a memorial on the work of the artificers; setting forth especially the sacrificial vessels with the measures and capacity (of them and all others), and seeing that there be no licentious ingenuity in the workmanship which might introduce an element of dissipation into the minds of superiors; and making the suitability of the article the first consideration. Every article should have its maker's name engraved on it, for the determination of its, genuineness. When the production is not what it ought to be, the artificer should be held guilty and an end be thus put to deception.

93 月令:
是月也,大飲烝。天子乃祈來年於天宗,大割祠于公社及門閭。臘先祖五祀,勞農以休息之。天子乃命將帥講武,習射御角力。
Yue Ling:
In this month there is the great festivity when they drink together, and each of the stands bears half its animal roasted. The son of Heaven prays for (a blessing on) the coming year to the Honoured ones of heaven; sacrifices with an ox, a ram, and a boar at the public altar to the spirits of the land, and at the gates of towns and villages; offers the sacrifice three days after the winter solstice with the spoils of the chase to all ancestors, and at the five (household) sacrifices; thus cheering the husbandmen and helping them to rest from their toils. The son of Heaven orders his leaders and commanders to give instruction on military operations, and to exercise (the soldiers) in archery and chariot-driving, and in trials of strength.

94 月令:
是月也,乃命水虞漁師,收水泉池澤之賦。毋或敢侵削眾庶兆民,以為天子取怨于下。其有若此者,行罪無赦。
Yue Ling:
In this month orders are given to the superintendent of waters and the master of fishermen to collect the revenues from rivers, springs, ponds, and meres, taking care not to encroach in any way on any among the myriads of the people, so as to awaken a feeling of dissatisfaction in them against the son of Heaven. If they do this, they shall be punished for their guilt without forgiveness.

95 月令:
孟冬行春令,則凍閉不密,地氣上泄,民多流亡。行夏令,則國多暴風,方冬不寒,蟄蟲復出。行秋令,則雪霜不時,小兵時起,土地侵削。
Yue Ling:
If, in the first month of winter, the proceedings of government proper to spring were observed, the cold that shuts up all beneath it would not do so tightly; the vapours of the earth would rise up and go abroad; many of the people would wander away and disappear. If those proper to summer were observed, there would be many violent winds in the states; winter itself would not be cold; and insects would come forth again from their burrows. If those proper to autumn were observed, the snow and hoarfrost would come unseasonably; small military affairs would constantly be arising; and incursions and loss of territory would occur.

96 月令:
仲冬之月,日在斗,昏東壁中,旦軫中。其日壬癸。其帝顓頊,其神玄冥。其蟲介。其音羽,律中黃鍾。其數六。其味鹹,其臭朽。其祀行,祭先腎。
Yue Ling:
In the second month of winter the sun is in Dou, the constellation culminating at dusk being the eastern Bi, and that culminating at dawn Zhen. Its days are ren and gui. Its divine ruler is Zhuan-xu, and the (attending) spirit is Xuan-ming. Its creatures are the shell-covered. Its musical note is Yu, and its pitch-tube is Huang Zhong. Its number is six. Its taste is salt. Its smell is that of things that are rotten. Its sacrifice is that at (the altar of) the path, and of the parts of the victim the kidneys have the foremost place.

97 月令:
冰益壯,地始坼。鶡旦不鳴,虎始交。
Yue Ling:
The ice becomes more strong. The earth begins to crack or split. The night bird ceases to sing. Tigers begin to pair.

98 月令:
天子居玄堂大廟,乘玄路,駕鐵驪,載玄旗,衣黑衣,服玄玉。食黍與彘,其器閎以奄。飭死事。命有司曰:土事毋作,慎毋發蓋,毋發室屋,及起大眾,以固而閉。地氣且泄,是謂發天地之房,諸蟄則死,民必疾疫,又隨以喪。命之曰暢月。
Yue Ling:
The son of Heaven occupies the Grand Fane Xuan Tang; rides in the dark-coloured carriage, drawn by the iron black horses, and bearing the dark-coloured flag. He is dressed in the black robes, and wears the dark-coloured gems of jade. He eats millet and sucking-pig. The vessels which he uses are large and rather deep. All things relating to the dead are revised and regulated. Orders are given to the proper officer to the following effect: 'There should nothing be done in works of earth; care should be taken not to expose anything that is covered, nor to throw open apartments and houses, and rouse the masses to action; that all may be kept securely shut up. (Otherwise) the genial influences of earth will find vent, which might be called a throwing open of the house of heaven and earth. In this case all insects would die; and the people be sure to fall ill from Pestilence, and various losses would ensue.' This charge is said to be giving full development to the (idea of the) month.

99 月令:
是月也,命奄尹,申宮令,審門閭,謹房室,必重閉。省婦事毋得淫,雖有貴戚近習,毋有不禁。乃命大酋,秫稻必齊,麴蘗必時,湛熾必潔,水泉必香,陶器必良,火齊必得,兼用六物。大酋監之,毋有差貸。天子命有司祈祀四海大川名源淵澤井泉。
Yue Ling:
In this month orders are given to the Director of the eunuchs to issue afresh the orders for the palace, to examine all the doors, inner and outer, and look carefully after all the apartments. They must be kept strictly shut. All woman's-work must be diminished, and none of an extravagant nature permitted. Though noble and nearly related friends should come to visit the inmates, they must all be excluded. Orders are given to the Grand superintendent of the preparation of liquors to see that the rice and other glutinous grains are all complete; that the leaven-cakes are in season; that the soaking and heating are cleanly conducted; that the water be fragrant; that the vessels of pottery be good; and that the regulation of the fire be right. These six things have all to be attended to, and the Grand superintendent has the inspection of them, to secure that there be no error or mistake. The son of Heaven issues orders to the proper officers to pray and sacrifice to (the spirits presiding over) the four seas, the great rivers (with their) famous sources, the deep tarns, and the meres, (all) wells and springs.

100 月令:
是月也,農有不收藏積聚者、馬牛畜獸有放佚者,取之不詰。山林藪澤,有能取蔬食、田獵禽獸者,野虞教道之;其有相侵奪者,罪之不赦。
Yue Ling:
In this month, if the husbandmen have any productions in the fields, which they have not stored or collected, or if there be any horses, oxen or other animals, which have been left at large, any one may take, them without its being inquired into. If there be those who are able to take from, the hills and forests, marshes and meres. edible fruits, or to capture game by hunting, the wardens and foresters should give them the necessary information and guidance. If there be among them those who encroach on or rob the others, they should be punished without fail.

101 月令:
是月也,日短至。陰陽爭,諸生蕩。君子齊戒,處必掩身。身欲寧,去聲色,禁耆欲。安形性,事欲靜,以待陰陽之所定。蕓始生,荔挺出,蚯螾結,麋角解,水泉動。日短至,則伐木,取竹箭。
Yue Ling:
In this month the shortest day arrives. The principle of darkness and decay (in nature) struggles with that of brightness and growth. The elements of life begin to move. Superior men give themselves to self-adjustment and fasting. They keep retired in their houses. They wish to be at rest in their persons; put away all indulgence in music and beautiful sights; repress their various desires; give repose to their bodies and all mental excitements. They wish all affairs to be quiet, while they wait for the settlement of those principles of darkness and decay, and brightness and growth. Rice begins to grow. The broom-sedge rises up vigorously. Worms curl. The moose-deer shed their horns. The springs of water are (all) in movement. When the shortest day has arrived, they fell trees, and carry away bamboos, (especially) the small species suitable for arrows.

102 月令:
是月也,可以罷官之無事、去器之無用者。涂闕廷門閭,筑囹圄,此所以助天地之閉藏也。
Yue Ling:
In this month, offices in which there is no business may be closed, and vessels for which there is no use may be removed. They plaster (and repair) the pillars and gateways (of the palace), and the courtyard (within), and also doors and other gateways; rebuilding (also all) prisons, to co-operate with the tendency of nature to shut up and secure (the genial influences at this season).

103 月令:
仲冬行夏令,則其國乃旱,氛霧冥冥,雷乃發聲。行秋令,則天時雨汁,瓜瓠不成,國有大兵。行春令,則蝗蟲為敗,水泉咸竭,民多疥癘。
Yue Ling:
If in this second month of winter the proceedings of government proper to summer were observed, there would be droughts in the states; vapours and fogs would shed abroad their gloom, and thunder would utter its voice. If those proper to autumn were observed, the weather would be rainy and slushy; melons and gourds would not attain their full growth; and there would be great wars in the states. If those proper to spring were observed, locusts would work their harm; the springs would all become dry; and many of the people would suffer from leprosy and foul ulcers.

104 月令:
季冬之月,日在婺女,昏婁中,旦氐中。其日壬癸。其帝顓頊,其神玄冥。其蟲介。其音羽,律中大呂。其數六。其味鹹,其臭朽。其祀行,祭先腎。
Yue Ling:
In the third month of winter the sun is in Wu-nu, the constellation culminating at dusk being Lou, and that culminating at dawn Di. Its days are ren and gui. Its divine ruler is Zhuan-xu, and the (attendant) spirit is Xuan-ming. Its creatures are the shell-covered. Its musical note is Yu, and its pitch-tube is Da Lu. Its number is six. Its taste is salt. Its smell is that of things that are rotten. Its sacrifice is that at (the altar of) the path; and the part of the victim occupying the foremost place is the kidneys.

105 月令:
雁北鄉,鵲始巢。雉雊,雞乳。
Yue Ling:
The wild geese go northwards. The magpie begins to build. The (cock) pheasant crows. Hens hatch.

106 月令:
天子居玄堂右个。乘玄路,駕鐵驪,載玄旗,衣黑衣,服玄玉。食黍與彘,其器閎以奄。命有司大難,旁磔,出土牛,以送寒氣。征鳥厲疾。乃畢山川之祀,及帝之大臣,天子神祇。
Yue Ling:
The son of Heaven occupies the apartment on the right of the Xuan Tang (Fane); rides in the dark-coloured carriage, drawn by the iron-black horses, and bearing the dark-coloured flag. He is dressed in the black robes, and wears the dark-coloured gems of jade. He eats millet and sucking-pig. The vessels which he uses are large and rather deep. He issues orders to the proper officers to institute on a great scale all ceremonies against pestilence, to have (animals) torn in pieces on all sides, and (then) to send forth the ox of earth, to escort away the (injurious) airs of the cold. Birds of prey fly high and rapidly. They now offer sacrifices all round to (the spirits of) the hills and rivers, to the great ministers of the (ancient) deified sovereigns, and to the spirits of heaven (and earth).

107 月令:
是月也,命漁師始漁,天子親往,乃嘗魚,先薦寢廟。冰方盛,水澤腹堅。命取冰,冰以入。令告民,出五種。命農計耦耕事,修耒耜,具田器。命樂師大合吹而罷。乃命四監收秩薪柴,以共郊廟及百祀之薪燎。
Yue Ling:
In this month orders are given to the master of the Fishermen to commence the fishers' work. The son of Heaven goes in person (to look on). He partakes of the fish caught, first presenting some in the apartment at the back of the ancestral temple. The ice is now abundant: thick and strong to the bottom of the waters and meres. Orders are given to collect it, which is done, and it is carried into (the ice-houses). Orders are given to make announcement to the people to bring forth their seed of the five grains. The husbandmen are ordered to reckon up the pairs which they can furnish for the ploughing; to repair the handles and shares of their ploughs; and to provide all the other instruments for the fields. Orders are given to the chief director of Music to institute a grand concert of wind instruments; and with this (the music of the year) is, closed. Orders are given to the four Inspectors to collect and arrange the faggots to supply the wood and torches for the suburban sacrifices, those in the ancestral temple, and all others.

108 月令:
是月也,日窮於次,月窮於紀,星回於天。數將幾終,歲且更始。專而農民,毋有所使。天子乃與公、卿、大夫,共飭國典,論時令,以待來歲之宜。乃命太史次諸侯之列,賦之犧牲,以共皇天、上帝、社稷之饗。乃命同姓之邦,共寢廟之芻豢。命宰歷卿大夫至于庶民土田之數,而賦犧牲,以共山林名川之祀。凡在天下九州之民者,無不咸獻其力,以共皇天、上帝、社稷、寢廟、山林、名川之祀。
Yue Ling:
In this month the sun has gone through all his mansions; the moon has completed the number of her conjunctions; the stars return to (their places) in the heavens. The exact length (of the year) is nearly completed, and the year will soon begin again. (It is said), 'Attend to the business of your husbandmen. Let them not be employed on anything else.' The son of Heaven, along with his ducal and other high ministers and his Great officers, revises the statutes for the states, and discusses the proceedings of the different seasons; to be prepared with what is suitable for the ensuing year. Orders are given to the Grand recorder to make a list of the princes of the states according to the positions severally assigned to them, and of the victims required from them to supply the offerings for the worship of God dwelling in the great heaven, and at the altars of (the spirits of) the land and grain. Orders were also given to the states ruled by princes of the royal surname to supply the fodder and grain for the (victims used in the worship of the) ancestral temple. Orders are given, moreover, to the chief minister to make a list of (the appanages of) the various high ministers and Great officers, with the amount of the land assigned to the common people, and assess them with the victims which they are to contribute to furnish for the sacrifices to (the spirits presiding over) the hills, forests, and famous streams. All the people under the sky, within the nine provinces, must, without exception, do their utmost to contribute to the sacrifices:-to God dwelling in the great heaven; at the altars of the (spirits of the) land and grain; in the ancestral temple and the apartment at the back of it; and of the hills, forests, and famous streams.

109 月令:
季冬行秋令,則白露早降,介蟲為妖,四鄙入保。行春令,則胎夭多傷,國多固疾,命之曰逆。行夏令,則水潦敗國,時雪不降,冰凍消釋。
Yue Ling:
If, in the last month of winter, the governmental proceedings proper to autumn were observed, the white dews would descend too early; the shelly creatures would appear in monstrous forms; throughout the four borders people would have to seek their places of shelter. If those proper to spring were observed, women with child and young children would suffer many disasters; throughout the states there would be many cases of obstinate disease; fate would appear to be adverse. If those proper to summer were observed, floods would work their ruin in the states; the seasonable snow would not fall, the ice would melt, and the cold disappear.

URN: ctp:liji/yue-ling