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《盡心下 - Jin Xin II》

English translation: James Legge [?]
Books referencing 《盡心下》 Library Resources
47 盡心下:
孟子曰:「不仁哉,梁惠王也!仁者以其所愛及其所不愛,不仁者以其所不愛及其所愛。」
Jin Xin II:
Mencius said, 'The opposite indeed of benevolent was the king Hui of Liang! The benevolent, beginning with what they care for, proceed to what they do not care for. Those who are the opposite of benevolent, beginning with what they do not care for, proceed to what they care for.'
公孫丑問曰:「何謂也?」
Gong Sun Chou said, 'What do you mean?'
「梁惠王以土地之故,糜爛其民而戰之,大敗,將復之,恐不能勝,故驅其所愛子弟以殉之,是之謂以其所不愛及其所愛也。」
Mencius answered, 'The king Hui of Liang, for the matter of territory, tore and destroyed his people, leading them to battle. Sustaining a great defeat, he would engage again, and afraid lest they should not be able to secure the victory, urged his son whom he loved till he sacrificed him with them. This is what I call "beginning with what they do not care for, and proceeding to what they care for."'

48 盡心下:
孟子曰:「《春秋》無義戰。彼善於此,則有之矣。征者上伐下也,敵國不相征也。」
Jin Xin II:
Mencius said, 'In the "Spring and Autumn" there are no righteous wars. Instances indeed there are of one war better than another. "Correction" is when the supreme authority punishes its subjects by force of arms. Hostile States do not correct one another.'

49 盡心下:
孟子曰:「盡信《》,則不如無《》。吾於《武成》,取二三策而已矣。仁人無敵於天下。以至仁伐至不仁,而何其血之流杵也?」
Jin Xin II:
Mencius said, 'It would be better to be without the Book of History than to give entire credit to it. In the "Completion of the War," I select two or three passages only, which I believe. "The benevolent man has no enemy under heaven. When the prince the most benevolent was engaged against him who was the most the opposite, how could the blood of the people have flowed till it floated the pestles of the mortars?"'

50 盡心下:
孟子曰:「有人曰:『我善為陳,我善為戰。』大罪也。國君好仁,天下無敵焉。南面而征北狄怨,東面而征西夷怨。曰:『奚為後我?』武王之伐殷也,革車三百兩,虎賁三千人。王曰:『無畏!寧爾也,非敵百姓也。』若崩厥角稽首。征之為言正也,各欲正己也,焉用戰?」
Jin Xin II:
Mencius said, 'There are men who say "I am skilful at marshalling troops, I am skilful at conducting a battle!" They are great criminals. If the ruler of a State love benevolence, he will have no enemy in the kingdom. When Tang was executing his work of correction in the south, the rude tribes on the north murmured. When he was executing it in the east, the rude tribes on the west murmured. Their cry was "Why does he make us last?" When king Wu punished Yin, he had only three hundred chariots of war, and three thousand life-guards. The king said, "Do not fear. Let me give you repose. I am no enemy to the people!" On this, they bowed their heads to the earth, like the horns of animals falling off. "Royal correction" is but another word for rectifying. Each State wishing itself to be corrected, what need is there for fighting?'

51 盡心下:
孟子曰:「梓匠輪輿能與人規矩,不能使人巧。」
Jin Xin II:
Mencius said, 'A carpenter or a carriage-maker may give a man the circle and square, but cannot make him skilful in the use of them.'

52 盡心下:
孟子曰:「舜之飯糗茹草也,若將終身焉;及其為天子也,被袗衣,鼓琴,二女果,若固有之。」
Jin Xin II:
Mencius said, 'Shun's manner of eating his parched grain and herbs was as if he were to be doing so all his life. When he became sovereign, and had the embroidered robes to wear, the lute to play, and the two daughters of Yao to wait on him, he was as if those things belonged to him as a matter of course.'

53 盡心下:
孟子曰:「吾今而後知殺人親之重也:殺人之父,人亦殺其父;殺人之兄,人亦殺其兄。然則非自殺之也,一閒耳。」
Jin Xin II:
Mencius said, 'From this time forth I know the heavy consequences of killing a man's near relations. When a man kills another's father, that other will kill his father; when a man kills another's elder brother, that other will kill his elder brother. So he does not himself indeed do the act, but there is only an interval between him and it.'

54 盡心下:
孟子曰:「古之為關也,將以禦暴。今之為關也,將以為暴。」
Jin Xin II:
Mencius said, 'Anciently, the establishment of the frontier-gates was to guard against violence. Nowadays, it is to exercise violence.'

55 盡心下:
孟子曰:「身不行道,不行於妻子;使人不以道,不能行於妻子。」
Jin Xin II:
Mencius said, 'If a man himself do not walk in the right path, it will not be walked in even by his wife and children. If he order men according to what is not the right way, he will not be able to get the obedience of even his wife and children.'

56 盡心下:
孟子曰:「周于利者,凶年不能殺;周于德者,邪世不能亂。」
Jin Xin II:
Mencius said, 'A bad year cannot prove the cause of death to him whose stores of gain are large; an age of corruption cannot confound him whose equipment of virtue is complete.'

57 盡心下:
孟子曰:「好名之人,能讓千乘之國;苟非其人,簞食豆羹見於色。」
Jin Xin II:
Mencius said, 'A man who loves fame may be able to decline a State of a thousand chariots; but if he be not really the man to do such a thing, it will appear in his countenance, in the matter of a dish of rice or a platter of soup.'

58 盡心下:
孟子曰:「不信仁賢,則國空虛。無禮義,則上下亂。無政事,則財用不足。」
Jin Xin II:
Mencius said, 'If men of virtue and ability be not confided in, a State will become empty and void. Without the rules of propriety and distinctions of right, the high and the low will be thrown into confusion. Without the great principles of government and their various business, there will not be wealth sufficient for the expenditure.'

59 盡心下:
孟子曰:「不仁而得國者,有之矣;不仁而得天下,未之有也。」
Jin Xin II:
Mencius said, 'There are instances of individuals without benevolence, who have got possession of a single State, but there has been no instance of the throne's being got by one without benevolence.'

60 盡心下:
孟子曰:「民為貴,社稷次之,君為輕。是故得乎丘民而為天子,得乎天子為諸侯,得乎諸侯為大夫。諸侯危社稷,則變置。犧牲既成,粢盛既潔,祭祀以時,然而旱乾水溢,則變置社稷。」
Jin Xin II:
Mencius said, 'The people are the most important element in a nation; the spirits of the land and grain are the next; the sovereign is the lightest. Therefore to gain the peasantry is the way to become sovereign; to gain the sovereign is the way to become a prince of a State; to gain the prince of a State is the way to become a great officer. When a prince endangers the altars of the spirits of the land and grain, he is changed, and another appointed in his place. When the sacrificial victims have been perfect, the millet in its vessels all pure, and the sacrifices offered at their proper seasons, if yet there ensue drought, or the waters overflow, the spirits of the land and grain are changed, and others appointed in their place.'

61 盡心下:
孟子曰:「聖人,百世之師也,伯夷、柳下惠是也。故聞伯夷之風者,頑夫廉,懦夫有立志;聞柳下惠之風者,薄夫敦,鄙夫寬。奮乎百世之上。百世之下,聞者莫不興起也。非聖人而能若是乎,而況於親炙之者乎?」
Jin Xin II:
Mencius said, 'A sage is the teacher of a hundred generations - this is true of Bo Yi and Hui of Liu Xia. Therefore when men now bear the character of Bo Yi, the corrupt become pure, and the weak acquire determination. When they hear the character of Hui of Liu Xia, the mean become generous, and the niggardly become liberal. Those two made themselves distinguished a hundred generations ago, and after a hundred generations, those who hear of them, are all aroused in this manner. Could such effects be produced by them, if they had not been sages? And how much more did they affect those who were in contiguity with them, and felt their inspiring influence!'

62 盡心下:
孟子曰:「仁也者,人也。合而言之,道也。」
Jin Xin II:
Mencius said, 'Benevolence is the distinguishing characteristic of man. As embodied in man's conduct, it is called the path of duty.'

63 盡心下:
孟子曰:「孔子之去魯,曰:『遲遲吾行也。』去父母國之道也。去齊,接淅而行,去他國之道也。」
Jin Xin II:
Mencius said, 'When Confucius was leaving Lu, he said, "I will set out by-and-by;" - this was the way in which to leave the State of his parents. When he was leaving Qi, he strained off with his hand the water in which his rice was being rinsed, took the rice, and went away - this was the way in which to leave a strange State.'

64 盡心下:
孟子曰:「君子之戹於陳蔡之閒,無上下之交也。」
Jin Xin II:
Mencius said, 'The reason why the superior man was reduced to straits between Chen and Cai was because neither the princes of the time nor their ministers sympathized or communicated with him.'

65 盡心下:
貉稽曰:「稽大不理於口。」
Jin Xin II:
Mo Qi said, 'Greatly am I from anything to depend upon from the mouths of men.'
孟子曰:「無傷也。士憎茲多口。《》云:『憂心悄悄,慍于群小。』孔子也。『肆不殄厥慍,亦不隕厥問。』文王也。」
Mencius observed, 'There is no harm in that. Scholars are more exposed than others to suffer from the mouths of men. It is said, in the Book of Poetry, "My heart is disquieted and grieved, I am hated by the crowd of mean creatures." This might have been said by Confucius. And again, "Though he did not remove their wrath, He did not let fall his own fame." This might be said of king Wen.'

66 盡心下:
孟子曰:「賢者以其昭昭,使人昭昭;今以其昬昬,使人昭昭。」
Jin Xin II:
Mencius said, 'Anciently, men of virtue and talents by means of their own enlightenment made others enlightened. Nowadays, it is tried, while they are themselves in darkness, and by means of that darkness, to make others enlightened.'

67 盡心下:
孟子謂高子曰:「山徑之蹊閒,介然用之而成路。為閒不用,則茅塞之矣。今茅塞子之心矣。」
Jin Xin II:
Mencius said to the disciple Gao, 'There are the footpaths along the hills; if suddenly they be used, they become roads; and if, as suddenly they are not used, the wild grass fills them up. Now, the wild grass fills up your mind.'

68 盡心下:
高子曰:「禹之聲,尚文王之聲。」
Jin Xin II:
The disciple Gao said, 'The music of Yu was better than that of king Wen.'
孟子曰:「何以言之?」
Mencius observed, 'On what ground do you say so?'
曰:「以追蠡。」
And the other replied, 'Because at the pivot the knob of Yu's bells is nearly worn through.'
曰:「是奚足哉?城門之軌,兩馬之力與?」
Mencius said, 'How can that be a sufficient proof? Are the ruts at the gate of a city made by a single two-horsed chariot?'

69 盡心下:
齊饑。陳臻曰:「國人皆以夫子將復為發棠,殆不可復。」
Jin Xin II:
When Qi was suffering from famine, Chen Zhen said to Mencius, 'The people are all thinking that you, Master, will again ask that the granary of Tang be opened for them. I apprehend you will not do so a second time.'
孟子曰:「是為馮婦也。晉人有馮婦者,善搏虎,卒為善士。則之野,有眾逐虎。虎負嵎,莫之敢攖。望見馮婦,趨而迎之。馮婦攘臂下車。眾皆悅之,其為士者笑之。」
Mencius said, 'To do it would be to act like Feng Fu. There was a man of that name in Jin, famous for his skill in seizing tigers. Afterwards he became a scholar of reputation, and going once out to the wild country, he found the people all in pursuit of a tiger. The tiger took refuge in a corner of a hill, where no one dared to attack him, but when they saw Feng Fu, they ran and met him. Feng Fu immediately bared his arms, and descended from the carriage. The multitude were pleased with him, but those who were scholars laughed at him.'

70 盡心下:
孟子曰:「口之於味也,目之於色也,耳之於聲也,鼻之於臭也,四肢之於安佚也,性也,有命焉,君子不謂性也。仁之於父子也,義之於君臣也,禮之於賓主也,智之於賢者也,聖人之於天道也,命也,有性焉,君子不謂命也。」
Jin Xin II:
Mencius said, 'For the mouth to desire sweet tastes, the eye to desire beautiful colours, the ear to desire pleasant sounds, the nose to desire fragrant odours, and the four limbs to desire ease and rest - these things are natural. But there is the appointment of Heaven in connexion with them, and the superior man does not say of his pursuit of them, "It is my nature." The exercise of love between father and son, the observance of righteousness between sovereign and minister, the rules of ceremony between guest and host, the display of knowledge in recognising the talented, and the fulfilling the heavenly course by the sage - these are the appointment of Heaven. But there is an adaptation of our nature for them. The superior man does not say, in reference to them, "It is the appointment of Heaven."'

71 盡心下:
浩生不害問曰:「樂正子,何人也?」
Jin Xin II:
Hao Sheng Bu Hai asked, saying, 'What sort of man is Yue Zheng?'
孟子曰:「善人也,信人也。」
Mencius replied, 'He is a good man, a real man.'
「何謂善?何謂信?」
'What do you mean by "A good man," "A real man?"'
曰:「可欲之謂善,有諸己之謂信。充實之謂美,充實而有光輝之謂大,大而化之之謂聖,聖而不可知之之謂神。樂正子,二之中,四之下也。」
The reply was, 'A man who commands our liking is what is called a good man. He whose goodness is part of himself is what is called real man. He whose goodness has been filled up is what is called beautiful man. He whose completed goodness is brightly displayed is what is called a great man. When this great man exercises a transforming influence, he is what is called a sage. When the sage is beyond our knowledge, he is what is called a spirit-man. Yue Zheng is between the two first characters, and below the four last.'

72 盡心下:
孟子曰:「逃墨必歸於楊,逃楊必歸於儒。歸,斯受之而已矣。今之與楊墨辯者,如追放豚,既入其苙,又從而招之。」
Jin Xin II:
Mencius said, 'Those who are fleeing from the errors of Mo naturally turn to Yang, and those who are fleeing from the errors of Yang naturally turn to orthodoxy. When they so turn, they should at once and simply be received. Those who nowadays dispute with the followers of Yang and Mo do so as if they were pursuing a stray pig, the leg of which, after they have got it to enter the pen, they proceed to tie.'

73 盡心下:
孟子曰:「有布縷之征,粟米之征,力役之征。君子用其一,緩其二。用其二而民有殍,用其三而父子離。」
Jin Xin II:
Mencius said, 'There are the exactions of hempen-cloth and silk, of grain, and of personal service. The prince requires but one of these at once, deferring the other two. If he require two of them at once, then the people die of hunger. If he require the three at once, then fathers and sons are separated.'

74 盡心下:
孟子曰:「諸侯之寶三:土地,人民,政事。寶珠玉者,殃必及身。」
Jin Xin II:
Mencius said, 'The precious things of a prince are three: the territory, the people, the government and its business. If one value as most precious pearls and jade, calamity is sure to befall him.'

75 盡心下:
盆成括仕於齊。孟子曰:「死矣盆成括!」
Jin Xin II:
Pen Cheng Kuo having obtained an official situation in Qi, Mencius said, 'He is a dead man, that Pen Cheng Kuo!'
盆成括見殺。門人問曰:「夫子何以知其將見殺?」
Pen Cheng Kuo being put to death, the disciples asked, saying, 'How did you know, Master, that he would meet with death?'
曰:「其為人也小有才,未聞君子之大道也,則足以殺其軀而已矣。」
Mencius replied, 'He was a man, who had a little ability, but had not learned the great doctrines of the superior man. He was just qualified to bring death upon himself, but for nothing more.'

76 盡心下:
孟子之滕,館於上宮。有業屨於牖上,館人求之弗得。或問之曰:「若是乎從者之廀也?」
Jin Xin II:
When Mencius went to Teng, he was lodged in the Upper palace. A sandal in the process of making had been placed there in a window, and when the keeper of the place came to look for it, he could not find it. On this, some one asked Mencius, saying, 'Is it thus that your followers pilfer?'
曰:「子以是為竊屨來與?」
Mencius replied, 'Do you think that they came here to pilfer the sandal?'
曰:「殆非也。夫子之設科也,往者不追,來者不距。苟以是心至,斯受之而已矣。」
The man said, 'I apprehend not. But you, Master, having arranged to give lessons, do not go back to inquire into the past, and you do not reject those who come to you. If they come with the mind to learn, you receive them without any more ado.'

77 盡心下:
孟子曰:「人皆有所不忍,達之於其所忍,仁也;人皆有所不為,達之於其所為,義也。人能充無欲害人之心,而仁不可勝用也;人能充無穿踰之心,而義不可勝用也。人能充無受爾汝之實,無所往而不為義也。士未可以言而言,是以言餂之也;可以言而不言,是以不言餂之也,是皆穿踰之類也。」
Jin Xin II:
Mencius said, 'All men have some things which they cannot bear; extend that feeling to what they can bear, and benevolence will be the result. All men have some things which they will not do; extend that feeling to the things which they do, and righteousness will be the result. If a man can give full development to the feeling which makes him shrink from injuring others, his benevolence will be more than can be called into practice. If he can give full development to the feeling which refuses to break through, or jump over, a wall, his righteousness will be more than can be called into practice. If he can give full development to the real feeling of dislike with which he receives the salutation, "Thou," "Thou," he will act righteously in all places and circumstances. When a scholar speaks what he ought not to speak, by guile of speech seeking to gain some end; and when he does not speak what he ought to speak, by guile of silence seeking to gain some end; both these cases are of a piece with breaking through a neighbour's wall.'

78 盡心下:
孟子曰:「言近而指遠者,善言也;守約而施博者,善道也。君子之言也,不下帶而道存焉。君子之守,修其身而天下平。人病舍其田而芸人之田,所求於人者重,而所以自任者輕。」
Jin Xin II:
Mencius said, 'Words which are simple, while their meaning is far-reaching, are good words. Principles which, as held, are compendious, while their application is extensive, are good principles. The words of the superior man do not go below the girdle, but great principles are contained in them. The principle which the superior man holds is that of personal cultivation, but the kingdom is thereby tranquillized. The disease of men is this: that they neglect their own fields, and go to weed the fields of others, and that what they require from others is great, while what they lay upon themselves is light.'

79 盡心下:
孟子曰:「堯舜,性者也;湯武,反之也。動容周旋中禮者,盛德之至也;哭死而哀,非為生者也;經德不回,非以干祿也;言語必信,非以正行也。君子行法,以俟命而已矣。」
Jin Xin II:
Mencius said, 'Yao and Shun were what they were by nature; Tang and Wu were so by returning to natural virtue. When all the movements, in the countenance and every turn of the body, are exactly what is proper, that shows the extreme degree of the complete virtue. Weeping for the dead should be from real sorrow, and not because of the living. The regular path of virtue is to be pursued without any bend, and from no view to emolument. The words should all be necessarily sincere, not with any desire to do what is right. The superior man performs the law of right, and thereby waits simply for what has been appointed.'

80 盡心下:
孟子曰:「說大人,則藐之,勿視其巍巍然。堂高數仞,榱題數尺,我得志弗為也;食前方丈,侍妾數百人,我得志弗為也;般樂飲酒,驅騁田獵,後車千乘,我得志弗為也。在彼者,皆我所不為也;在我者,皆古之制也,吾何畏彼哉?」
Jin Xin II:
Mencius said, 'Those who give counsel to the great should despise them, and not look at their pomp and display. Halls several times eight cubits high, with beams projecting several cubits; these, if my wishes were to be realized, I would not have. Food spread before me over ten cubits square, and attendants and concubines to the amount of hundreds; these, though my wishes were realized, I would not have. Pleasure and wine, and the dash of hunting, with thousands of chariots following after me; these, though my wishes were realized, I would not have. What they esteem are what I would have nothing to do with; what I esteem are the rules of the ancients. Why should I stand in awe of them?'

81 盡心下:
孟子曰:「養心莫善於寡欲。其為人也寡欲,雖有不存焉者,寡矣;其為人也多欲,雖有存焉者,寡矣。」
Jin Xin II:
Mencius said, 'To nourish the mind there is nothing better than to make the desires few. Here is a man whose desires are few - in some things he may not be able to keep his heart, but they will be few. Here is a man whose desires are many - in some things he may be able to keep his heart, but they will be few.'

82 盡心下:
曾皙嗜羊棗,而曾子不忍食羊棗。公孫丑問曰:「膾炙與羊棗孰美?」
Jin Xin II:
Mencius said, 'Zeng Xi was fond of sheep-dates, and his son, the philosopher Zeng, could not bear to eat sheep-dates.' Gong Sun Chou asked, saying, 'Which is best, minced meat and broiled meat, or sheep-dates?'
孟子曰:「膾炙哉!」
Mencius said, 'Mince and broiled meat, to be sure.'
公孫丑曰:「然則曾子何為食膾炙而不食羊棗?」
Gong Sun Chou went on, 'Then why did the philosopher Zeng eat mince and broiled meat, and would not eat sheep-dates?'
曰:「膾炙所同也,羊棗所獨也。諱名不諱姓,姓所同也,名所獨也。」
Mencius answered, 'For mince and broiled meat there is a common liking, while that for sheep-dates was peculiar. We avoid the name, but do not avoid the surname. The surname is common; the name is peculiar.'

83 盡心下:
萬章問曰:「孔子在陳曰:『盍歸乎來!吾黨之士狂簡,進取,不忘其初。』孔子在陳,何思魯之狂士?」
Jin Xin II:
Wan Zhang asked, saying, 'Confucius, when he was in Chen, said: "Let me return. The scholars of my school are ambitious, but hasty. They are for advancing and seizing their object, but cannot forget their early ways." Why did Confucius, when he was in Chen, think of the ambitious scholars of Lu?'
孟子曰:「孔子『不得中道而與之,必也狂獧乎!狂者進取,獧者有所不為也』。孔子豈不欲中道哉?不可必得,故思其次也。」
Mencius replied, 'Confucius not getting men pursuing the true medium, to whom he might communicate his instructions, determined to take the ardent and the cautiously-decided. The ardent would advance to seize their object; the cautiously-decided would keep themselves from certain things. It is not to be thought that Confucius did not wish to get men pursuing the true medium, but being unable to assure himself of finding such, he therefore thought of the next class.'
「敢問何如斯可謂狂矣?」
'I venture to ask what sort of men they were who could be styled "The ambitious?"'
曰:「如琴張、曾皙、牧皮者,孔子之所謂狂矣。」
'Such,' replied Mencius, 'as Qin Zhang, Zeng Xi, and Mu Pi, were those whom Confucius styled "ambitious."'
「何以謂之狂也?」
'Why were they styled "ambitious?"'
曰:「其志嘐嘐然,曰『古之人,古之人』。夷考其行而不掩焉者也。狂者又不可得,欲得不屑不潔之士而與之,是獧也,是又其次也。孔子曰:『過我門而不入我室,我不憾焉者,其惟鄉原乎!鄉原,德之賊也。』」
The reply was, 'Their aim led them to talk magniloquently, saying, "The ancients!" "The ancients!" But their actions, where we fairly compare them with their words, did not correspond with them. When he found also that he could not get such as were thus ambitious, he wanted to get scholars who would consider anything impure as beneath them. Those were the cautiously-decided, a class next to the former.' Zhang pursued his questioning, 'Confucius said, "They are only your good careful people of the villages at whom I feel no indignation, when they pass my door without entering my house. Your good careful people of the villages are the thieves of virtue."'
曰:「何如斯可謂之鄉原矣?」
'What sort of people were they who could be styled "Your good careful people of the villages?"'
曰:「『何以是嘐嘐也?言不顧行,行不顧言,則曰:古之人,古之人。行何為踽踽涼涼?生斯世也,為斯世也,善斯可矣。』閹然媚於世也者,是鄉原也。」
Mencius replied, 'They are those who say, "Why are they so magniloquent? Their words have not respect to their actions and their actions have not respect to their words, but they say, "The ancients! The ancients! Why do they act so peculiarly, and are so cold and distant? Born in this age, we should be of this age, to be good is all that is needed." Eunuch-like, flattering their generation - such are your good careful men of the villages.'
萬子曰:「一鄉皆稱原人焉,無所往而不為原人,孔子以為德之賊,何哉?」
Wan Zhang said, 'Their whole village styles those men good and careful. In all their conduct they are so. How was it that Confucius considered them the thieves of virtue?'
曰:「非之無舉也,刺之無刺也;同乎流俗,合乎汙世;居之似忠信,行之似廉潔;眾皆悅之,自以為是,而不可與入堯舜之道,故曰德之賊也。孔子曰:『惡似而非者:惡莠,恐其亂苗也;惡佞,恐其亂義也;惡利口,恐其亂信也;惡鄭聲,恐其亂樂也;惡紫,恐其亂朱也;惡鄉原,恐其亂德也。』君子反經而已矣。經正,則庶民興;庶民興,斯無邪慝矣。」
Mencius replied, 'If you would blame them, you find nothing to allege. If you would criticise them, you have nothing to criticise. They agree with the current customs. They consent with an impure age. Their principles have a semblance of right-heartedness and truth. Their conduct has a semblance of disinterestedness and purity. All men are pleased with them, and they think themselves right, so that it is impossible to proceed with them to the principles of Yao and Shun. On this account they are called "The thieves of virtue." Confucius said, "I hate a semblance which is not the reality. I hate the darnel, lest it be confounded with the corn. I hate glib-tonguedness, lest it be confounded with righteousness. I hate sharpness of tongue, lest it be confounded with sincerity. I hate the music of Chang, lest it be confounded with the true music. I hate the reddish blue, lest it be confounded with vermilion. I hate your good careful men of the villages, lest they be confounded with the truly virtuous." The superior man seeks simply to bring back the unchanging standard, and, that being correct, the masses are roused to virtue. When they are so aroused, forthwith perversities and glossed wickedness disappear.'

84 盡心下:
孟子曰:「由堯舜至於湯,五百有餘歲,若禹、皋陶,則見而知之;若湯,則聞而知之。由湯至於文王,五百有餘歲,若伊尹、萊朱則見而知之;若文王,則聞而知之。由文王至於孔子,五百有餘歲,若太公望、散宜生,則見而知之;若孔子,則聞而知之。由孔子而來至於今,百有餘歲,去聖人之世,若此其未遠也;近聖人之居,若此其甚也,然而無有乎爾,則亦無有乎爾。」
Jin Xin II:
Mencius said, 'From Yao and Shun down to Tang were 500 years and more. As to Yu and Gao Yao, they saw those earliest sages, and so knew their doctrines, while Tang heard their doctrines as transmitted, and so knew them. From Tang to king Wen were 500 years and more. As to Yi Yin, and Lai Zhu, they saw Tang and knew his doctrines, while king Wen heard them as transmitted, and so knew them. From king Wen to Confucius were 500 years and more. As to Tai Gong Wang and San Yi Sheng, they saw Wen, and so knew his doctrines, while Confucius heard them as transmitted, and so knew them. From Confucius downwards until now, there are only 100 years and somewhat more. The distance in time from the sage is so far from being remote, and so very near at hand was the sage's residence. In these circumstances, is there no one to transmit his doctrines? Yea, is there no one to do so?'

URN: ctp:mengzi/jin-xin-ii