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《非儒下 - Anti-Confucianism II》

English translation: W. P. Mei [?] Library Resources
1 非儒下:
儒者曰:「親親有術,尊賢有等。」言親疏尊卑之異也。其禮曰:「喪父母三年,妻,後子三年,伯父叔父弟兄庶子其,戚族人五月。」若以親疏為歲月之數,則親者多而疏者少矣,是妻後子與父同也。若以尊卑為歲月數,則是尊其妻子與父母同,而親伯父宗兄而卑子也,逆孰大焉。其親死,列尸弗
1,登屋窺井,挑鼠穴,探滌器,而求其人矣。以為實在則贛愚甚矣;如其亡也必求焉,偽亦大矣!取妻,身迎,袨端為僕,秉轡授綏,如仰嚴親,昏禮威儀,如承祭祀。顛覆上下,悖逆父母,下則妻子,妻子上侵事親,若此可謂孝乎?儒者:「迎妻,妻之奉祭祀,子將守宗廟,故重之。」應之曰:「此誣言也,其宗兄守其先宗廟數十年,死喪之其,兄弟之妻奉其先之祭祀弗散,則喪妻子三年,必非以守奉祭祀也。夫憂妻子以大負絫,有曰『所以重親也』,為欲厚所至私,輕所至重,豈非大姦也哉!」
Anti-Confucianism II:...:
The Confucianist says: Love among relations should depend upon the degree of relationship, and honour to the virtuous should be graded. This is to advocate a discrimination among the near and the distant relations and among the respectable and the humble. But, according to his code of propriety: Mourning for the death of the parent should be three years; for the wife or the eldest son three years; for an uncle, a brother, or one of the other sons, a year; and for a near relative, five months. If the periods are based on the degree of relationship, evidently mourning for the closer relative should be longer and for the more distant shorter. Thus the wife and the eldest son are the same as the parents (in nearness). If the periods are based on degrees of respect which are severally due then it means that the wife and the eldest son are respected as much as the parents, and the uncles and brothers are placed on the same level with the other sons. What perversity can be greater than this? When his parent dies he first lets him lie there without dressing him for burial. He climbs on the roof, looks into the well, reaches into the rat holes, and searches in the washing basins to look for the dead man. Assuming that the man still exists this procedure is certainly stupid. If he does not exist this insistent search is the height of hypocrisy. When a Confucianist takes a wife, he has to escort her in person, dressed in ceremonial garments as a servant. He drives the cart himself, as if waiting on a revered parent. The dignity and solemnity of the marriage ceremony compare with that of sacrifice and worship. High and low are turned upside down. Father and mother are disobeyed. Parents are brought down to the level of the wife and the wife is exalted to interfere with service to parents. Can such conduct be called filial? The Confucianist tells us: "A wife is taken to share in continuing the worship and sacrifice (to ancestors) and the son will attend to the ancestral temple, therefore they are highly regarded." We answer him: This is all false representation. For, his brothers attend to the ancestral temple for tens of years. Yet when they die he will mourn for them only one year. The brothers' wives continue the worship and sacrifice of his ancestors. Yet, there is no mourning (upon their death) whatsoever. Then the three years' mourning for the death of his wife and eldest son is evidently not for the reason of their attending to the ancestral temple and continuing the worship and sacrifice. Now, to be partial to one's wife and son is already quite wayward. Yet the Confucianist pretends it to be for the sake of the parents. This is partiality to the most favourite but neglect of the most important. Isn't this great perversity?

1. 斂 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

2 非儒下:
有強執有命以說議曰:「壽夭貧富,安危治亂,固有天命,不可損益。窮達賞罰幸否有極,人之知力,不能為焉。」群吏信之,則怠於分職;庶人信之,則怠於從事。
1不治則亂,農事緩則貧,貧且亂政之本,而儒者以為道教,是賊天下之人者也。
Anti-Confucianism II:...:
Further, he holds tenaciously to the dogma of fate and argues: "Old age or early death, poverty or wealth, safety or danger, order or chaos are destined by the fate of Heaven and cannot be modified. Failure or success, reward or punishment, luck or adversity, are all settled; the wisdom and power of man can do nothing." When the different officers believe this they will neglect their several duties. When the common people believe this they will neglect their work. Lax government will lead to disorder; inefficient agriculture will lead to poverty. And poverty is the root of disorder and insurrections. Yet the Confucianists take this teaching about fate to be the Dao and the principle of life. This is to destroy the people of the empire.

1. 吏 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

3 非儒下:
且夫繁飾禮樂以淫人,久喪偽哀以謾親,立命緩貧而高浩居,倍本棄事而安怠傲,貪於飲食,惰於作務,陷於飢寒,危於凍餒,無以違之。是若人氣,鼸鼠藏,而羝羊視,賁彘起。君子笑之。怒曰:「散人!焉知良儒。」夫夏乞麥禾,五穀既收,大喪是隨,子姓皆從,得厭飲食,畢治數喪,足以至矣。因人之家翠,以為,恃人之野以為尊,富人有喪,乃大說,喜曰:「此衣食之端也。」
Anti-Confucianism II:...:
Moreover, the Confucianist glosses over the elaborate ceremonials and music to make man extravagant; he extends mourning and pretends grief to cheat his parents. He introduces fate and causes poverty, and lives in idleness. He overthrows the fundamentals and avoids work, and is indolent and proud. Self-indulgent in drinking and eating and too lazy to work, he often suffers from hunger and cold and is in danger of freezing and starvation, without ability to avert them. He behaves like a beggar; grasps food like a hamster, gazes at things like a he-goat, and rises up like a wild boar. The gentlemen all laugh at him. He becomes angry and exclaims: "What does the undisciplined man know about the good Confucianist?" In spring and summer he begs for grains. When the five grains are all gathered in he resorts to the funerals. All the sons and grandsons are taken along and are filled with drink and food. It is sufficient for him to manage but a few funerals. He depends on others' houses for his wealth and uses others' fields to uphold his dignity. When a death takes place in a rich family he will rejoice greatly, for it is his opportunity for clothing and food.

4 非儒下:
儒者曰:「君子必服古言然後仁。」應之曰:「所謂古之
言服
1者,皆嘗新矣,而古人
言之,
2服之,則
3君子也。然則必服非君子之服,言非君子之言,而後仁乎?」
Anti-Confucianism II:...:
The Confucianist says: "The superior man must be ancient in mode of speech and in dress before be can be magnanimous." We answer him: The so-called ancient speech and dress were all modern once. When the ancients first used that speech and wore that dress they would not be superior men (according to the Confucianists' criteria). Do you therefore mean to say that one has to wear the dress of the non-superior man and speak the speech of the non-superior man before he can be magnanimous?

1. 言服 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 言之, : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
3. 非 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

5 非儒下:
又曰:「君子循而不作。」應之曰:「古者羿作弓,伃作甲,奚仲作車,巧垂作舟,然則今之鮑函車匠皆君子也,而羿、伃、奚仲、巧垂皆小人邪?且其所循人必或作之,然則其所循皆小人道也?」
Anti-Confucianism II:...:
Again, the Confucianist says: "The superior man conforms to the old but does not make innovations." We answer him: In antiquity Yi invented the bow, Yu invented armour, Xi Zhong invented vehicles, and Qiao Cui invented boats. Would he say, the tanners, armourers, and carpenters of to-day are all superior men, whereas Yi, Yu, Xi Zhong, and Qiao Cui were all ordinary men? Moreover, some of those whom he follows must have been inventors. Then his instructions are after all the ways of the ordinary men.

6 非儒下:
又曰:「君子勝不逐奔,揜函弗射,施則助之胥車。」應之曰:「若皆仁人也,則無說而相與。仁人以其取舍是非之理相告,無故從有故也,弗知從有知也,無辭必服,見善必遷,何故相?若兩暴交爭,其勝者欲不逐奔,掩函弗射,施則助之胥車,雖盡能猶且不得為君子也。意暴殘之國也,聖將為世除害,興師誅罰,勝將因用儒術令士卒曰毋逐奔,揜函勿射,施則助之胥車。」暴亂之人也得活,天下害不除,是為群殘父母,而深賤世也,不義莫大焉!」
Anti-Confucianism II:...:
Again he says: "When the superior man is victorious he does not pursue the fleeing enemy. When the enemy is kept at bay he does not shoot. When the enemy retreat he will help them pushing their carts." We answer him: If the magnanimous are here referred to, they have no occasion for strife. The magnanimous remind each other of the principle of right and wrong and of what is to be accepted and what is to be rejected. He who has no cause follows him who has it. He who has no knowledge follows him who has knowledge. Running short of argument he would acknowledge defeat, seeing good he would be converted. How can there be any strife? If the contestants are both wicked, though the victor does not pursue the fleeing enemy, though he does not shoot the enemy at bay, though he helps pushing the enemy's carts in retreat - though he does all these, still he cannot be a superior man. On the other hand, suppose a sage starts out to destroy a curse on behalf of the empire. He raises an army to punish the wicked and cruel state. When he is victorious, let us suppose him to follow the Confucian way and command his army: "Don't pursue the fleeing enemy. Don't shoot when the enemy is at bay. Help them pushing the carts when they retreat." The wicked men will thus be set free and the curse of the world will not yet be removed. This is to harm the parents of the multitudes and greatly to ruin the world. Nothing can be more unrighteous!

7 非儒下:
又曰:「君子若鍾,擊之則鳴,弗擊不鳴。應之曰:「夫仁人事上竭忠,事親得孝,務善則美,有過則諫,此為人臣之道也。今擊之則鳴,弗擊不鳴,隱知豫力,恬漠待問而後對,雖有君親之大利,弗問不言,若將有大寇亂,盜賊將作,若機辟將發也,他人不知,己獨知之,雖其君親皆在,不問不言。是夫大亂之賊也!以是為人臣不忠,為子不孝,事兄不弟,交,遇人不貞良。夫執後不言之朝物,見利使己雖恐後言,君若言而未有利焉,則高拱下視,會噎為深,曰:『唯其未之學也。』用誰急,遺行遠矣。夫一道術學業仁義者,皆大以治人,小以任官,遠施周偏,近以脩身,不義不處,非理不行,務興天下之利,曲直周旋,利則止,此君子之道也。以所聞孔丘之行,則本與此相反謬也。」
Anti-Confucianism II:...:
Again the Confucianist says: "The superior man is like a bell. It will sound when it is struck. It will remain silent when it is not struck." We answer him: The magnanimous, in serving his superior, should be loyal, and in serving his parents, should be filial. When there is excellence (in the superior) he should adore, when there is fault he should give counsel. This is the way of a minister. Now, if one sounds only when struck, and remains silent when not struck, then he will hide his knowledge and spare his efforts, waiting to be questioned before he answers. Even if there is some great advantage at stake to the lord or parents, he will not speak up without being asked. And, if a great invasion or insurrection is approaching or a conspiracy is afoot, and none know it but he; yet even in the presence of his lord and parents he will not speak up without being questioned. What a criminal, producing confusion! Such a man will not be loyal as a minister, filial as a son, respectful in serving an elder brother or gentle in treating the people. When benefit is in sight, the only fear should be that counsel may be late. When the ruler starts something not beneficial, one should fold his hands high on the breast and look down and utter with difficulty: "This I have not learned." Upon emergency one should withdraw and set out on a long journey. For, every principle, doctrine, and standard of magnanimity and righteousness are to be used on the large scale to rule men and on the small scale to hoId office; widely, to exercise a universal influence and, narrowly, to cultivate one's person. What is not righteous should not be tolerated; what is not according to principle should not be practised. One should endeavour to procure benefits for the empire directly and indirectly, avoiding that which brings no profit: such is the way of the superior man. But what we hear of the conduct of Kong Qiu is diametrically opposed to this.

8 非儒下:
齊景公問晏子曰:「孔子為人何如?」晏子不對,公又復問,不對。景公曰:「以孔丘語寡人者眾矣,俱以賢人也。今寡人問之,而子不對,何也?」晏子對曰:「嬰不肖,不足以知賢人。雖然,嬰聞所謂賢人者,入人之國必務合其君臣之親,而弭其上下之怨。孔丘之荊,知白公之謀,而奉之以石乞,君身幾滅,而白公僇。嬰聞賢人得上不虛,得下不危,言聽於君必利人,教行下必於上,是以言明而易知也,行明而易1從也,行義可明乎民,謀慮可通乎君臣。今孔丘深慮同謀以奉賊,勞思盡知以行邪,勸下亂上,教臣殺君,非賢人之行也;入人之國而與人之賊,非義之類也;知人不忠,趣之為亂,非仁義之也。逃人而後謀,避人而後言,行義不可明於民,謀慮不可通於君臣,嬰不知孔丘之有異於白公也,是以不對。」景公曰:「嗚乎!貺寡人者眾矣,非夫子,則吾終身不知孔丘之與白公同也。」
Anti-Confucianism II:...:
Lord Jing of Qi asked Yanzi: "What kind of a man is Confucius?" Yanzi answered not. The Lord reiterated the question and there was still no answer. Lord Jing said: "Many have told me about Kong Qiu and all said he was a virtuous man. Now that I am asking you about him, why should you not answer?" Yanzi replied: "Ying is not wise and cannot know virtuous men. Yet Ying has heard that a virtuous man must be one who, upon entering a state, will endeavour to bring about friendly relations between the ruler and the ministers and dissolve the grudges between superior and subordinates. This man Confucius once visited the state of Jing. He heard of the plans of Duke Bo and told them to Shi Qi. As a result, the lord almost perished and Duke Bo was executed. Ying has also heard that the virtuous man does not obtain confidence of the superior by flattery or that of the subordinates by threat. If his counsels are listened to by the lord they will benefit the people, if his instructions are followed by the subordinates they will benefit the superior. His speech is plain and easy to understand and his conduct is plain and easy to follow. His righteous conduct enlightens the people and his thoughtful counsel convinces the lord and his ministers. Now, this man Confucius with elaborate plans conspired with the rebels and with devious plots committed depravity. To persuade the subordinates to plot against their superior and tell the ministers to assassinate their lord is not the conduct of a virtuous man. To enter a country and join with its traitors is not akin to the righteous. To urge those who are known to be disloyal to revolt does not fit the way of the magnanimous. Plotting against one at a distance and condemning one behind his back, his conduct enlightening not the people and his counsel convincing not the lord - how Confucius is different from Duke Bo, your servant Ying does not see. This is why I did not answer you." Lord Jing said: "Oh! I have been benefited. If it were not for you, I would never in my life understand Kong Qiu to be of the same kind as Duke Bo."

1. 明而易 : Originally read: "易而". Corrected by 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

9 非儒下:
孔丘之齊見景公,景公說,欲封之以尼谿,以告晏子。晏子曰:「不可夫儒浩居而自順者也,不可以教下;好樂而淫人,不可使親治;立命而怠事,不可使守職;宗喪循哀,不可使慈民;機服勉容,不可使導眾。孔丘盛容脩飾以蠱世,弦歌鼓舞以聚徒,繁登降之禮以示儀,務趨翔之節以觀眾,博學不可使議世,勞思不可
以補民
1,絫壽不能盡其學,當年不能行其禮,積財不能贍其樂,繁飾邪術以營世君,盛為聲樂以淫遇民,其道不可以期世,其學不可以導眾。今君封之,以利齊俗,非所以導國先眾。」
公曰:
2「善!」於是
厚其
3禮,留其封,敬見而不問其道。孔丘乃恚,怒於景公與晏子,乃樹鴟夷子皮於田常之門,告南郭惠子以所欲為,歸於魯。有頃,閒齊將伐魯,告子貢曰:「賜乎!舉大事於今之時矣!」乃遣子貢之齊,因南郭惠子以見田常,勸之伐吳,以教高、國、鮑、晏,使毋得害田常之亂,勸越伐吳。三年之內,齊、吳破國之難,伏尸以言術數。孔丘之誅也。
Anti-Confucianism II:...:
Kong Qiu visited the state of Qi and saw Lord Jing. Lord Jing was pleased and was going to assign Ni Xi to him. He told Yanzi about it. Yanzi said: "Please do not. A scholar of his school would sit crouching and take things easy, therefore he cannot be made to teach the subordinates. He likes music and will corrupt the people, and therefore cannot be trusted to govern. He believes in fate and will neglect his duty, therefore be cannot be given an office. He lays emphasis on mourning, and makes much of grief, therefore he cannot be made to take care of the people. He will be formal in dress and affected in manners, therefore he cannot lead the multitudes. Kong Qiu dresses elaborately and puts on adornments to mislead the people, promotes music and dancing to attract the multitudes, performs elaborate ceremonies of going up and coming down the steps, and practises the etiquette of rushing and soaring to dazzle the multitudes. With all his extensive learning he cannot plan for the world; with all his laborious thought he cannot help the people. A whole lifetime cannot exhaust his learning; the grown man cannot observe his ceremonies; and even the wealthy cannot enjoy his music. He elaborates and adorns his improper ways to keep the lords busy; he profusely furnishes sounds and music to corrupt the people. His principles cannot instruct the world; his learning cannot lead the multitudes. Now you, my lord, commission him to change the customs of Qi. It really is not the way to lead a country and bring forward the multitudes." The Lord said: "This is well." Thereupon the Lord gave him valuable gifts but retained the commission, received him with respect but did not inquire into his teaching. Kong Qiu became angry, angry with Lord Jing and Yanzi. So, he placed Chi Yi Ze Pi in the following of Tian Chang, and communicated his plans to Hui-tzu of the South City. Then he returned to Lu. Before long, Qi desired to attack Lu. He remarked to Zi Gong: "Oh, Ci, now is the time to do the great deed." Thereupon he sent Zi Gong to Qi and, through the introduction of Huizi of the South City, saw Tian Chang. Zi Gong persuaded him to attack Wu (instead of Lu). He also told Gao Guo Bao Yan not to interfere with Tian Chang's insurrection. Then he went on and persuaded Yue to attack Wu. For three years, both Qi and Wu were threatened with ruin. The bodies of those killed amounted to hundreds of thousands. And this was the revenge of Kong Qiu.

1. 以補民 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 公曰: : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
3. 厚其 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

10 非儒下:
孔丘為魯司寇,舍公家而奉季孫。季孫相魯君而走,季孫與邑人爭門關,決植。
Anti-Confucianism II:...:
Kong Qiu was once the Chief Justice of Lu. But he abandoned the cause of the lord and entered the service of Jisun. Jisun was the Chancellor of Lu but deserted his trust and ran away. As he was trying to force the gate against the guards, Kong Qiu lifted the beam (for him).

11 非儒下:
孔丘窮於蔡陳之閒,藜羹不糝,十日,子路為享豚,孔丘不問肉之所由來而食;號人衣以酤酒,孔丘不問酒之所由來而飲。哀公迎孔子,席不端弗坐,割不正弗食,子路進,請曰:「何其與陳、蔡反也?」孔丘曰:「來!吾語女,曩與女為苟
生,今與女為苟
1義。」夫飢約則不辭妄取,以活身,贏飽
2偽行以自飾,汙邪詐偽,孰大於此!
Anti-Confucianism II:...:
Once, Kong Qiu was in straits between Cai and Chen having only vegetable soup without even rice to eat. After ten days of this, Zi Lu cooked a pig for him. Kong Qiu did not inquire whence the meat came, and ate. Zi Lu robbed some one of his garment and exchanged it for wine. Kong Qiu did not inquire whence the wine came, and drank. But when Lord Ai received Confucius, Confucius would not sit on a mat that was not placed straight and would not eat meat that was not cut properly. Zi Lu went to him and asked: "Why the reverse to what you did on the borders of Chen and Cai? Kong Qiu answered: "Come, let me tell you. Then, our goal was to keep alive. Now our goal is to behave righteously." Now when hunger-stricken he was not scrupulous about the means of keeping alive, and when satiated he acted hypocritically to appear refined. What foolery, perversion, villainy, and pretension can be greater than this!

1. 生,今與女為苟 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 則 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

12 非儒下:
孔丘與其門弟子閒坐,曰:「夫舜見瞽叟孰然1,此時天下圾乎!周公旦非其人也邪?何為舍其家室而託寓也?」孔丘所行,心術所至也。其徒屬弟子皆效孔丘。子貢、季路輔孔悝
2乎衛,陽貨亂乎齊,佛肸以中牟叛,桼雕刑殘,莫大焉。夫為弟子後生,其師,必脩其言,法其行,力不足,知弗及而後已。今孔丘之行如此,儒士則可以疑矣。
Anti-Confucianism II:...:
Kong Qiu was lounging with his disciples. He remarked: "When Shun saw Gu Sou, he felt uneasy. The empire at the time must be in danger. Was not Dan, the Duke of Zhou, unmagnanimous? Why did he resign from his public office and retire to his private home? This shows Kong Qiu's conduct and the attitude of his mind. His followers and disciples all imitated him: Zi Gong and Ji Lu assisted Kong Li and committed high treason against the state of Wei. Yang Huo rebelled against Qi. Bi Xi was entrusted with Zhong Mou and became independent. Qi Diao had a ferocious appearance. Nothing can be more... than this! Of course the disciples and pupils, following a teacher, will advocate his doctrines and imitate his conduct. Only, they are not as powerful and not as clever. Now, since such was the conduct of Kong Qiu, the Confucian scholars are naturally to be objects of suspicion.

1. 孰然 : Originally read: "然就". Corrected by 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 亂 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

URN: ctp:mozi/anti-confucianism-ii