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《非命下 - Anti-Fatalism III》

English translation: W. P. Mei [?] Library Resources
1 非命下:
子墨子言曰:「凡出言談,則必可而不先立儀而言。若不先立儀而言,譬之猶運鈞之上而立朝夕焉也。我以為雖有朝夕之辯,必將終未可得而從定也。是故言有三法。何謂三法?曰:有考之者,
1原之者,有用之者。惡乎考之?考先聖大王之事。惡乎原之?察眾之耳目之請?惡乎用之?發而為政乎國,察萬民而觀之。此謂三法也。
Anti-Fatalism III:
Mozi said: In order to expound a doctrine there must be established some standard of judgment. To expound without a standard is similar to determining the directions of sunrise and sunset on a potter's wheel that is turning. I should think even such obvious distinctions as that between the directions of sunrise and sunset cannot be thus determined. Therefore every doctrine must stand three tests. What are the three tests? They are the test of its basis, the test of its verifiability, and the test of its applicability. How is it to be based? It is to be based on the deeds of the early sage-kings. How is it to be verified? It is to be verified by the testimony of the ears and eyes of the multitude. How is it to be applied? It is to be applied by being adopted in government and its effects on the people being shown. These are called the three tests.

1. 有 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

2 非命下:
故昔者三代聖王禹湯文武方為政乎天下之時,曰:必務舉孝子而勸之事親,尊賢良之人而教之為善。是故出政施教,賞善罰暴。且以為若此,則天下之亂也,將屬可得而治也,社稷之危也,將屬可得而定也。若以為不然,昔桀之所亂,湯治之;紂之所亂,武王治之。當此之時,世不渝而民不易,上變政而民改俗。存乎桀紂而天下亂,存乎湯武而天下治。天下之治也,湯武之力也;天下之亂也,桀紂之罪也。若以此觀之,夫安危治亂存乎上之為政也,則夫豈可謂有命哉!故昔者禹湯文武方為政乎天下之時,曰『必使飢者得食,寒者得衣,勞者得息,亂者得治』,遂得光譽令問於天下。夫豈可以為命哉?故以為其力也!今賢良之人,尊賢而好功道術,故上得其王公大人之賞,下得其萬民之譽,遂得光譽令問於天下。亦豈以為其命哉?又以為力也!然今夫有命者,不識昔也三代之聖善人與,意亡昔三代之暴不肖人與?若以說觀之,則必非昔三代聖善人也,必暴不肖人也。然今以命為有者,昔三代暴王桀紂幽厲,貴為天子,富有天下,於此乎,不而矯其耳目之欲,而從其心意之辟,外之敺騁、田獵、畢弋,內湛於酒樂,而不顧其國家百姓之政,繁為無用,暴逆百姓,遂失其宗廟。其言不曰『吾罷不肖,吾聽治不強』,必曰『吾命固將失之』。雖昔也三代罷不肖之民,亦猶此也。不能善事親戚君長,甚惡恭儉而好簡易,貪飲食而惰從事,衣食之財不足,是以身有陷乎飢寒凍餒之憂。其言不曰『吾罷不肖,吾從事不強』,又曰『吾命固將窮。』昔三代偽民亦猶此也。
Anti-Fatalism III:
When the ancient sage-kings of the Three Dynasties, Yu, Tang, Wen, and Wu, ruled, they said: "We must promote the filial sons and encourage them in serving their parents, and we must honour the virtuous and good men and instruct them in doing good." In this way they administered the government and published instructions, rewarded the good and punished the evil. It seems in this way the confusion in the world could be reduced to order, and the danger of the state could be transformed into safety. If this is doubted, (let us recall): In ancient times, the disorder of Jie was reduced to order by Tang, that of Zhou was reduced to order by King Wu. Then the times did not change nor did the people alter. Yet when the superior changed regime the subordinates modified their conduct. With Jie and Zhou the world was chaotic, under Tang and Wu it became orderly. That the world became orderly was due to the endeavour of Tang and Wu. That the world was chaotic was due to the sin of Jie and Zhou. Judging from this, safety and danger, order and chaos all depend on the way the superior conducts the government. How can it be said, there is fate? In ancient times when Yu, Tang, Wen, and Wu ruled the empire, they said: "We must feed the hungry, clothe the cold, give the weary rest, and the disturbed peace." Thus their good name was heard all over the world. Can this be ascribed to fate? It is really due to endeavour. The virtuous and gentle of today respect virtue and pursue the ways and means (to benefit the world). Hence they are rewarded by the rulers above and praised by the people below. And their good name is heard all over the world. Can this be ascribed to fate? This is also due to their endeavour. Now, were those who believed in fate the sages of the Three Dynasties or the wicked of the Three Dynasties? Judging from the nature of this doctrine, it could not be the sages of the Three Dynasties, but must be the wicked that believed in fate. The ancient wicked kings of the Three Dynasties, Jie, Zhou, You, and Li, were honoured as emperors and possessed the whole world in wealth. Yet they could not control the sensuality of their ears and eyes, but gave rein to their passions. Going out they would race, hunt, and trap. Staying indoors they revelled in wine and music. They did not attend to the government of the country and the people, but did much that was of no use. And they oppressed and violated the people. Thus they lost their ancestral temple. They would not confess: "I am insolent and stupid. I did not attend to government diligently." But they would say: "It is but my fate that I lose it." Even the insolent people of the Three Dynasties were like this. They could not well serve their parents and their lord. They greatly hated politeness and frugality but liked licence and ease. They indulged in eating and drinking and were lazy at work. Their means of clothing and food became insufficient, and they incurred the danger of hunger and cold. They would not confess: "I am stupid and insolent, I am not diligent in my work." But they also said: "It is but my fate that I am poor." Thus the insolent people of the Three Dynasties also believed in fate.

3 非命下:
昔者暴王作之,窮
1術之,此皆疑眾遲樸,先聖王之患之也,固在前矣。是以書之竹帛,鏤之金石,琢之盤盂,傳遺後世子孫。曰何書焉存?禹之總德有之曰:『允不著,惟天民不而葆,既防凶心,天加之咎,不慎厥德,天命焉葆』?仲虺之告曰:『我聞有夏,人矯天命,于下,帝式是增,用爽厥師。』彼用無為有,故謂矯,若有而謂有,夫豈為矯哉!昔者,桀執有命而行,湯為仲虺之告以非之。太誓之言也,於去發曰:『惡乎君子!天有顯德,其行甚章,為鑑不遠,在彼殷王。謂人有命,謂敬不可行,謂祭無益,謂暴無傷,上帝不常,九有以亡,上帝不順,祝降其喪,惟我有周,受之大帝。』昔者紂執有命而行,武王為太誓、去發以非之。曰:子胡不尚考之乎商周虞夏之記,從十簡之篇以尚,皆無之,將何若者也?」
Anti-Fatalism III:
The ancient wicked kings originated it and the miserable people practised it. It was shaking the convictions of the multitudes and converting the stupid. And this was already of great concern to the ancient sage-kings. They put it down on the bamboos and silk and cut it in metal and stone and engraved it on dishes and cups to be handed down to their descendants. In what books are they embodied? "Zong De" of Yu says: "When promises are not fulfilled even a subject of Heaven will not be protected. When one has touched the evil star, Heaven will visit him with its curse. When one is not careful about one's conduct, how can fate of Heaven protect him?" "The Announcement of Zhong Hui" says: "I have heard that the man of Xia issued orders, pretending them to be fate of Heaven. God was displeased and destroyed his armies." He made use of what did not exist as if it had existed, and therefore it was called pretension. If he declared to be existent what really existed, how would this be pretension? In ancient times, Jie believed in fate and acted accordingly. Tang here showed it to be wrong through "The Announcement of Zhong Hui." "The Great Declaration " says: "Therefore the Prince Regent Fa said: 'Ah, my lords, Heaven blesses the virtuous. Its way is clear. Example need not be sought far. It is in the King of Yin. He claimed each man had his own fate, worship should not be practised, sacrifices were of no avail, and wickedness could do no harm. God withdrew his blessing and the nine districts are lost to him. God is not pleased and is visiting him with ruin. Hence it is that our Zhou (the dynasty, the empire) is given by the Great God.'" That is, Zhou believed in fate and acted accordingly. King Wu refuted him in "The Great Declaration." So, why not examine the records of Yu, Xia, Shang, and Zhou, and see that all of them held there is no fate? How would you account for this?

1. 人 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

4 非命下:
是故子墨子曰:「今天下之君子之為文學出言談也,非將勤勞其惟舌,而利其脣呡也,中實將欲為其國家邑里萬民刑政者也。今也王公大人之所以蚤朝晏退,聽獄治政,終朝均分,而不敢
1怠倦者,何也?曰:彼以為強必治,不強必亂;強必寧,不強必危,故不敢怠倦。今也卿大夫之所以竭股肱之力,殫其思慮之知,內治官府,外斂關市、山林、澤梁之利,以實官府,而不敢怠倦者,何也?曰:彼以為強必貴,不強必賤;強必榮,不強必辱,故不敢怠倦。今也農夫之所以蚤出暮入,強乎耕稼樹藝,多聚叔粟,而不敢怠倦者,何也?曰:彼以為強必富,不強必貧;強必飽,不強必飢,故不敢怠倦。今也婦人之所
2夙興夜寐,強乎紡績織紝,多治麻絲葛緒捆布縿,而不敢怠倦者,何也?曰:彼以為強必富,不強必貧,強必煖,不強必寒,故不敢怠倦。今雖毋在乎王公大人,蕢若信有命而致行之,則必怠乎聽獄治政矣,卿大夫必怠乎治官府矣,農夫必怠乎耕稼樹藝矣,婦人必怠乎紡績織紝矣。王公大人怠乎聽獄治政,卿大夫怠乎治官府,則我以為天下必亂矣。農夫怠乎耕稼樹藝,婦人怠乎紡織績紝,則我以為天下衣食之財將必不足矣。若以為政乎天下,上以事天鬼,天鬼不使;下以持養百姓,百姓不利,必離散不可得用也。是以入守則不固,出誅則不勝,故雖昔者三代暴王桀紂幽厲之所以共抎其國家,傾覆其社稷者,此也。」是故子墨子言曰:「今天下之士君子,中實將欲求興天下之利,除天下之害,當若有命者
3
,不可不強非
4也。曰:命者,暴王所作,窮人所術,非仁者之言也。今之為仁義者,將不可不察而強非者,此也。」
Anti-Fatalism III:
And Mozi said: In expounding a doctrine or elaborating a system the gentlemen of the world should not do it just to exercise their voice and tongue and practise their lips. It must aim at being applied in the government of the country, the district, and the people. Now the rulers go to court early and retire late, hearing lawsuits and attending to government and meting out justice for the whole day, and dare not be negligent. Why do they do this? They think diligence will bring about order, and negligence chaos; diligence will produce safety, and negligence danger. Therefore they dare not be negligent. The ministers and secretaries exhaust the energy in their limbs and stretch the wisdom of their minds within to look after the court and without to collect taxes from passes, markets, and products from mountains, woods, ponds, and fields to fill the treasury, and dare not be negligent. Why do they do this? They think diligence will procure honour and negligence dishonour; diligence will procure glory and negligence disgrace. Therefore they dare not be negligent. The farmers set out at daybreak and come back at dusk, diligently sowing seeds and planting trees to produce much soy beans and millet, and dare not be negligent. Why do they do this? They think diligence will result in wealth, and negligence in poverty; diligence will produce plenty, and negligence famine. Therefore they dare not be negligent. The women get up at dawn and retire in the night, diligently weaving and spinning to produce much silk, flax linen, and cloth, and dare not be negligent. Why do they do this? They think diligence will produce wealth and negligence poverty; diligence will produce warmth and negligence cold. Therefore they dare not be negligent. Now, if they should believe in fate and behave accordingly, the rulers would be negligent in hearing lawsuits and attending to government; the ministers and secretaries would be negligent in attending to court; the farmers would be negligent in sowing seeds and planting trees; the women would be negligent in weaving and spinning. When the rulers are negligent in hearing lawsuits and attending to government and the ministers and secretaries in attending to court, then I should think the world would be in chaos. When the farmers are negligent in sowing seeds and planting trees and the women in weaving and spinning, then according to my opinion clothing and food for the world will be insufficient. As to the result of the application of the doctrine of fatalism to the government of the empire, to worship Heaven and the spirits above with it Heaven and the spirits will not be pleased, and to nurture the people below with it they will not be benefited but will be demoralized and cannot be employed. And, within, defence will not be strong, and, without, attack will not be victorious. And that for which the wicked kings of the Three Dynasties, Jie, Zhou, You, and Li, lost their country and ruined their state was just this (doctrine). Therefore Mozi said: If the gentlemen of the world really desire to procure benefits for the world and destroy its calamities they cannot but vigorously refute the doctrine of fatalism. For fatalism was an invention of the wicked kings and the practice of miserable men. It was not a doctrine of the magnanimous. Therefore those who practise magnanimity and righteousness must examine it and vigorously refute it.

1. 息 : Deleted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 以 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
3. 之 : Inserted.
4. ,不可不強非 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

URN: ctp:mozi/anti-fatalism-iii