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《親士 - Befriending the Learned》

English translation: W. P. Mei [?]
Books referencing 《親士》 Library Resources
1 親士:
入國而不存其士,則亡國矣。見賢而不急,則緩其君矣。非賢無急,非士無與慮國,緩賢忘士而能以其國存者,未曾有也。
Befriending the Learned:...:
If one does not preserve the learned in a state he will be injuring the state; if one is not zealous (to recommend) the virtuous upon seeing one, he will be neglecting the ruler. Enthusiasm is to be shown only to the virtuous, and plans for the country are only to be shared with the learned. Few are those, who, neglecting the virtuous and slighting the learned, could still maintain the existence of their countries.

2 親士:
昔者文公出走而正天下,桓公去國而霸諸侯,越王句踐遇吳王之醜,而尚攝中國之賢君。三子之能達名成功於天下也,皆於其國抑而大醜也。太上無敗,其次敗而有以成,此之謂用民。
Befriending the Learned:...:
Formerly Lord Wen was once in exile and yet later became the leading feudal lord. Lord Huan was once forced to leave his state and yet later became a "tyrant" among the feudal lords. Lord Gou Jian of Yue was once brought under humiliation by the king of Wu, and yet he was later looked upon with awe by the princes of China. The reason that these three men became famous and successful in the world lies in that they were able to endure shame and humiliation within their states. The greatest men know of no defeat. The next greatest turn failure into success, and this, by the employment of the people.

3 親士:
吾聞之曰:「非無安居也,我無安心也。非無足財也,我無足心也。」是故君子自難而易彼,眾人自易而難彼,君子進不敗其志,內究其情,雖雜庸民,終無怨心,彼有自信者也。是故為其所難者,必得其所欲焉,未聞為其所欲,而免其所惡者也。是故偪臣傷君,諂下傷上。君必有弗弗之臣,上必有詻詻之下。分議者延延,而支苟者詻詻,焉可以長生保國。
Befriending the Learned:...:
I have heard it said: It is not that there is no peaceful abode but that I have no peaceful heart (over others' homelessness); it is not that my wealth is not sufficient but that my passion yearns for more (to improve others' conditions). Therefore the superior man is strict with one's self but lenient with others (in matters of conduct) while the multitude are lenient with themselves but strict with others. The superior man carries out his ambitions successfully in action and studies the situation when he is at leisure. Even when he is taken as a mediocre individual he feels no dissatisfaction. This is because he has self-confidence. Therefore, those who attempt what seems difficult to them will obtain what they desire, but few who aim at what they desire can avoid what they dislike. Therefore, artful ministers are harmful to the lord and flattering subordinates are injurious to the ruler. The lord should have uncompromising ministers; the ruler should have stern subordinates. Only when counsel is given with farsightedness and advice administered with sternness, can the life of the state be secure and permanent.

4 親士:
臣下重其爵位而不言,近臣則喑,遠臣則唫,怨結於民心,諂諛在側,善議障塞,則國危矣。桀紂不以其無天下之士邪?殺其身而喪天下。故曰:「歸國寶,不若獻賢而進士。」
Befriending the Learned:...:
If (to the contrary) the subordinates should value their positions and keep silence, the ministers near at hand would be speechless and those far away could only sigh, and the people would become bitter. When the ruler is surrounded with praises and flatteries and insulated against good counsels, then the country is in danger. Was it not because they would not employ the scholars, that Jie and Zhou lost their empire and their lives? Thus it is said : To offer the greatest treasure of the country to the ruler is not as laudable as to recommend the virtuous and introduce the learned.

5 親士:
今有五錐,此其銛,銛者必先挫。有五刀,此其錯,錯者必先靡,是以甘井近竭,招木近伐,靈龜近灼,神蛇近暴。是故比干1之殪,其抗也;孟賁之殺,其勇也;西施之沈,其美也;吳起之裂,其事也。故彼人者,寡不死其所長,故曰:「太盛難守也。」
Befriending the Learned:...:
Among the five weapons the sharpest will be broken first. Among the five swords the keenest will be first worn out. The sweet wells become sooner dry and the elegant trees are oftener felled. The tortoises that are more responsive are oftener burned and the snakes that show more magic power are more sacrificed. Thus, Bi Gan died of his uprightness; Meng Ben perished by his strength; Xi Shi paid with her life for her beauty; and Wu Qi was torn alive for his achievement. This shows that there are but few who excel other people and do not perish on account of it. Hence the saying: Position of the supreme is hard to keep.

1. 干 : Originally read: "于". Corrected by 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

6 親士:
故雖有賢君,不愛無功之臣;雖有慈父,不愛無益之子。是故不勝其任而處其位,非此位之人也;不勝其爵而處其祿,非此祿之主也。良弓難張,然可以及高入深;良馬難乘,然可以任重致遠;良才難令,然可以致君見尊。是故江河不惡小谷之滿己也,故能大。聖人者,事無辭也,物無違也,故能為天下器。是故江河之水,非一源
之水
1也。千鎰之裘,非一狐之白也。夫惡有同方取不取同而已者乎?蓋非兼王之道也。是故天地不昭昭,大水不潦潦,大火不燎燎,王德不堯堯者,乃千人之長也。
Befriending the Learned:...:
Even the kind ruler will not show favours to ministers without merit. Even the affectionate father will not love his useless sons. He who occupies a position but is not equal to the task is not the proper person for the position. He who draws emoluments but does not deserve the rank is not the proper proprietor of the emoluments. Good bows may be hard to draw, but they can reach great heights and pierce deeply. Good horses may be hard to ride on, but they can carry heavy burdens and make long journeys. Real talents may be hard to command, but they can be trusted to be envoys to the court of the emperor and to meet the nobility. Therefore the big rivers do not despise the little brooklets for tributaries. And great men do not neglect any menial task or reject any trifle, and so they become vessels for the world. The water in a river does not come from a single source, neither is the fur coat that is worth a thousand yi composed of the white fur of a single fox. Now, to discard those who agree with the right but employ those who agree with one's self is not the way to be a great ruler. (Just as) Heaven and earth do not dazzle, great bodies of water do not boil and foam, and great conflagrations do not coruscate, (so) the imperial character does not lift itself up beyond reach.

1. 之水 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

7 親士:
其直如矢,其平如砥,不足以覆萬物,是故谿陝者速涸,逝淺者速竭,墝埆者其地不育。王者淳澤不出宮中,則不能流國矣。
Befriending the Learned:...:
As to the chieftain of only a thousand people, he is straight like an arrow and smooth like a whetstone, unable to tolerate the manifold ways. For narrow gorges clog up rapidly, shallow streams are soon exhausted, and the barren land does not bear fruits. When a ruler confines his favours within his palace, then they cannot be shared by the whole country.

URN: ctp:mozi/befriending-the-learned