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-> -> -> Book 10

《卷十 - Book 10》

[Warring States (475 BC - 221 BC)] English translation: A.C. Graham [?] Library Resources
Related resources

經上 - Canon I

English translation: A.C. Graham [?] Library Resources
Related resources
1 經上:
故,所得而後成也。Category: [邏輯]
經說上:
故:小故,有之不必然,無之必不然。體也,若有端。大故,有之必
然,
1
之必不
2然,若見之成見也。Category: [邏輯]
Canon I:
The gu (reason/cause) of something is what it must get before it will come about.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
'Minor reason': having this, it will not necessarily be so; lacking this, necessarily it will not be so. It is a part, like having a starting point. 'Major reason': having this, it will necessarily [be so]; lacking [this, necessarily it will not] be so. Like the appearing bringing about the seeing.

1. 然, : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 之必不 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

2 經上:
體,分於兼也。Category: [幾何學]
經說上:
體:若二之一,尺之端也。Category: [幾何學]
Canon I:
A ti (unit/individual/part) is a portion in a jian (total/collection/whole).
Exposition of Canon I:...:
For example, one of two, or the starting-point of a measured length.

3 經上:
知,材也。Category: [知識論]
經說上:
知:材,知也者。所以知也而必知。若明。Category: [知識論]
Canon I:
The zhi (intelligence/consciousness) is the capability.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
The 'intelligence': it being the means by which one knows, one necessarily does know. Like the eyesight.

4 經上:
慮,求也。Category: [知識論]
經說上:
慮:慮也者,以其知有求也,而不必得之。若睨。Category: [知識論]
Canon I:
Lu (thinking/forethought) is the seeking.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
'Thinking': by means of one's intelligence one seeks something, but does not necessarily find it. Like peering.

5 經上:
知,接也。Category: [知識論]
經說上:
知:知也者,以其知過物而能貌之。若見。Category: [知識論]
Canon I:
Zhi (knowing) is the connecting.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
'Knowing': by means of one's intelligence, having passed the thing one is able to describe it. Like seeing.

6 經上:
𢜔,明也。Category: [知識論]
經說上:
𢜔1:𢜔2也者,以其知論物而其知之也著。若明。Category: [知識論]
Canon I:
Zhi (understanding/wisdom) is the illumination.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
'Understanding': by means of one's intelligence, in discourse about the thing one's knowledge of it is apparent. Like clearness of sight.

1. 𢜔 : Originally read: "恕". Corrected by 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 𢜔 : Originally read: "恕". Corrected by 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

7 經上:
仁,體愛也。Category: [倫理]
經說上:
仁:愛己者,非為用己也。不若愛馬。
著若明。
1Category: [倫理]
Canon I:
To be ren (benevolent/humane/kind) is to love individually.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Love of oneself is not for the sake of making oneself useful. Not like loving a horse.

1. 著若明。 : Deleted. 衍文。 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

8 經上:
義,利也。Category: [倫理]
經說上:
義:志以天下為芬,而能能利之,不必用。Category: [倫理]
Canon I:
To be yi (righteous/dutiful/moral) is to benefit.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
In intent, he takes the whole world as his field; in ability, he is able to benefit it. He is not necessarily employed.

9 經上:
禮,敬也。Category: [倫理]
經說上:
禮:貴者公,賤者名,而俱有敬僈。焉等,異論也。Category: [倫理]
Canon I:
Li (manners/courtesy) is respect.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
The noble are adressed as 'Sir', the base by their given names, but in both cases one may be either respectful or rude, because modes of behaviour are different for different ranks.

10 經上:
行,為也。
經說上:
行:所為不差1名,行也;所為差2名,巧也。若為盜。
Canon I:
Xing (conduct) is doing.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
What one does, neutrally named, is one's conduct. Giving a good name to what one does is trickery. For example, to committing robbery.

1. 差 : Originally read: "善".
2. 差 : Originally read: "善".

11 經上:
實,榮也。
經說上:
實:其志氣之見也,使人知1己。不若金聲玉服。
Canon I:
To be cheng (sincere/whole-hearted) is to reveal oneself spontaneously.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
The manifestation of his intent and his zeal enables others to know him. Not like the tinkle of metal or jade pendants.

1. 知 : Originally read: "如".

12 經上:
忠,以為利而強君1也。Category: [倫理]
經說上:
忠:不利,弱子亥足將入止容。Category: [倫理]
Canon I:
To be zhong (to serve loyally/do one's utmost) is to be energetic in sustaining the responsibility when one deems something beneficial.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
...

1. 君 : Originally read: "低". Corrected by 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

13 經上:
孝,利親也。Category: [倫理]
經說上:
孝:以親為芬,而能能利親。不必得。Category: [倫理]
Canon I:
To be xiao (filial) is to benefit one's parents.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
In intent, he takes his parents as his field; in ability, he is able to benefit them. He does not necessarily succeed.

14 經上:
信,言合於意也。
經說上:
信:不以其言之當也,使人視城得金。
Canon I:
Xin (good faith/trustworthiness) is the words agreeing with the thought.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
It is not by his words fitting the fact that he makes others pay attention to them; it is because they are sure of his conduct. The frankness of his words enables him to verify them. ... the city wall and get the money.

15 經上:
佴,自作也。
經說上:
佴:與人遇,人衆,𢝺。
Canon I:
To si (?) (be in authority (?)) is to act on one's own initiative.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
When he confronts another, the multitude follows his lead.

16 經上:
𧨜,作嗛也。
經說上:
𧨜:為是為是之台彼也,弗為也。
Canon I:
To be juan (scrupulous/squeamish) is to be deficient in initiative.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
He does the right things; but when doing the right thing interferes with some other thing, he will not do it.

17 經上:
廉,作非也。
經說上:
廉:己惟為之,知其也𦖷也。
Canon I:
To be lian (honest/consciencious) is to (...?) initiative.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Although he performs it himself, he is under the authority of someone who knows the rest about it (?).

18 經上:
令,不為所作也。
經說上:
所令非身弗行。
Canon I:
To ling (command) is not to perform what one initiates.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
It is not that he is not himself the agent.

19 經上:
任,士損己而益所為也。
經說上:
任:為身之所惡,以成人之所急。
Canon I:
Ren (bearing the weight of a responsibility) is an officer working to his own loss but to the advantage of those on whose behalf he acts.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
He performs what in his own interests he dislikes in order to bring about what others need.

20 經上:
勇,志之所以敢也。
經說上:
勇:以其敢於是也,命之;不以其不敢於彼也,害之。
Canon I:
Yong (courage) is that by which intent is daring.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
One names a man 'brave' because of what he does dare; one does not raise as an objection something else that he does not dare.

21 經上:
力,刑之所以奮也。
經說上:
力:重之謂,下與重,奮1也。
Canon I:
Li (strength) is that by which the body exerts itself.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
It is of weight that it is said. Lifting a weight from below is exertion.

1. 奮 : Originally read: "舊".

22 經上:
生,刑與知處也。
經說上:
生:楹之生。商不可必也。
Canon I:
Sheng (life) is the body being located with the intelligence.

23 經上:
臥,知無知也。
經說上:
臥:
Canon I:
Wo (sleep) is the intelligence not knowing of anything.

24 經上:
夢,臥而以為然也。
經說上:
夢:
Canon I:
Meng (dreaming) is the intelligence neither desiring nor disliking anything.

25 經上:
平,知無欲惡也。
經說上:
平:惔然。
Canon I:
Ping (calm) is the intelligence neither desiring nor disliking anything.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
...tranquil.

26 經上:
利,所得而喜也。
經說上:
利:得是而喜,則是利也。其害也,非是也。
Canon I:
Li (benefit) is what one is pleased to get.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
If you are pleased to get this one, this is the beneficial one, and the harmful one is not this one.

27 經上:
害,所得而惡也。
經說上:
害:得是而惡,則是害也。其利也,非是也。
Canon I:
Hai (harm) is what one dislikes getting.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
If you dislike getting this one, this is the harmful one, and the one which is beneficial is not this one.

28 經上:
治,求得也。
經說上:
治:吾事治矣,人有治南北。
Canon I:
To zhi (deal with successfully/put in order) is to achieve what is sought.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
One's own affairs having been put in order, others also putting in order North and South...

29 經上:
譽,明美也。
經說上:
譽之必其行也。其言之忻,使人督之。
Canon I:
To yu (praise) is to make plain what is honourable.

30 經上:
誹,明惡也。
經說上:
誹:必其行也,其言之忻。
Canon I:
To fei (blame) is to make plain what is dishonourable.

31 經上:
舉,擬實也。
經說上:
1:告以之2名,舉彼實故也3
Canon I:
Ju (to refer to/pick out by name from others) is to present the analogue for the object.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Example, 'stone' explained by pointing out a stone? ... For 'like the stone' one necessarily uses what is like the name.

1. 舉 : Originally read: "譽".
2. 之 : Originally read: "文".
3. 故也 : Originally read: "也故".

32 經上:
言,出舉也。
經說上:
言也者,諸口能之,出民者也。民若畫俿也。言也謂,言猶名1致也。
Canon I:
Yan (to say/speak of/words) is to emit references.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Example, 'tiger', explained by a picture? ... To inform about this name is to refer to the other object. Therefore 'saying' is an emitting of something's characteristics of which any speaker is capable. 'If the characteristics are like the picture, it is a tiger' is saying. To say that which it is called (as in the case of 'stone'), is to communicate it.

1. 名 : Originally read: "石".

33 經上:
1,言然也。
經說上:
且:自前曰且,自後曰已。方然亦且。
若石者也。
2
Canon I:
Qie (will/about to) is declaring something to be so before the event (?).
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Before the event one says 'about to', after the event one says 'already'. The just now so too is about to be. (Like 'I'm afraid it will' and 'Let's for the moment...' (?))

1. 且 : Deleted. 衍文。
2. 若石者也。 : Deleted. 衍文。

34 經上:
君,臣萌通約也。
經說上:
君:以若名者也。
Canon I:
The jun (ruler) is the common knot tying ministers and people.

35 經上:
功,利民也。
經說上:
功:不待時,若衣裘。
功不待時,若衣裘。
1
Canon I:
Gong (achievement) is benefiting the people.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
If not at the due time, even if it is beneficial there is no achievement. (Like summer and winter clothes.)

1. 功不待時,若衣裘。 : Deleted. 衍文。

36 經上:
賞,上報下之功也。
經說上:
賞:
上報下之功也。
1
Canon I:
Shang (reward) is requital from above for achievement below.

1. 上報下之功也。 : Moved here from entry 37.

37 經上:
罪,犯禁也。
經說上:
罪:不在禁,惟害無罪,殆姑。
上報下之功也。
1
Canon I:
Zui (crime) is violation of a prohibition.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
If not covered by a prohibition, even if it is harmful there is no crime.

1. 上報下之功也。 : Moved to entry 36.

38 經上:
罰,上報下之罪也。
經說上:
罰:上報下之罪也。
Canon I:
Fa (punishment) is requital from above for crime below.

39 經上:
同,異而俱於之一也。
經說上:
侗:二人而俱見是楹也,若事君。
Canon I:
Tong (agreeing/conforming) is being different but both the same in relation to this one thing.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
They are two men but both see that this is a pillar. Like serving a ruler. The pillar's engendering of the complement is not to be treated as necessary. (?)

40 經上:
久,彌異時也。
經說上:
今久:古今且莫。
Canon I:
Jiu (duration) is pervasion of different times.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
'Present' and 'past' combine mornings and evenings.

41 經上:
宇,彌異所也。
經說上:
宇:東西家南北。
Canon I:
Yu (space/extension) is pervasion of different places.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
'East and West' covers North and South.

42 經上:
窮,或有前不容尺也。
經說上:
窮:或不容尺,有窮;莫不容尺,無窮也。
Canon I:
The qiong (limit) is wherever at the next advance there is no room for a measured length.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
If somewhere there is no room for a measured length, it is limited; if everywhere there is room for a measured length, it is limitless.

43 經上:
盡,莫不然也。Category: [邏輯]
經說上:
盡:俱1止動。Category: [邏輯]
Canon I:
Jin (exhausting/applying to all/all) is none not being so.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Something is fixed of all of them.

1. 俱 : Originally read: "但".

44 經上:
始,當時也。
經說上:
始:時或有久,或無久,始當無久。
Canon I:
To shi (commence) is to be plumb with the time.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Of times of a movement, there is one which has duration and one without duration. The commencement is plumb with the one without duration.

45 經上:
化,徵易也。
經說上:
化:若鼃為鶉。
Canon I:
Hua (transformation) is the distinguishing marks of one thing changing to the distinguishing marks of another.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
For example, a frog becoming a quail.

46 經上:
損,偏去也。
經說上:
損:偏也者兼之體1也。其體或去存,謂其存者損。
Canon I:
Sun (reduction/loss) is the removal of some without the rest.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
'Some but not the rest': it is a unit in a total. Of its units, if one is removed and the other remains, we say that the one which remains is reduced.

1. 體 : Originally read: "禮".

47 經上:
大益。
經說上:

48 經上:
1,俱柢2
經說上:
3:俱柢4也。
Canon I:
To xuan (circle round) is to swerve (?).
Exposition of Canon I:...:
It is the figure of a curve.

1. 環 : Originally read: "儇". Corrected by 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 俱柢 : Originally read: "稹秖". Corrected by 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
3. 環 : Originally read: "儇". Corrected by 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
4. 俱柢 : Originally read: "昫民". Corrected by 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

49 經上:
庫,易也。
經說上:
庫:區穴若斯貌常。
Canon I:
To yun (rotate) is to change round.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
The circumference is like a cut, the figure is constant.

50 經上:
動,或徒1也。
經說上:
動:偏祭從者,戶樞免瑟。
Canon I:
Dong (to stir/move) is to shift somewhere.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Things which shift all over the border: the hinge of a door, the louse on a hare (?).
讀此書旁行。

1. 徒 : Originally read: "從". Corrected by 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

51 經上:
止,以久也。
經說上:
止:無久之不止,當牛非馬,若矢1過楹。有久之不止,當馬非馬,若人過梁。
Canon I:
Zhi (to stay/remain fixed) is to endure as it was.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
When the one without duration does not stay, the thing fits 'ox' and 'non-horse'. Like the arrow passing the starting-post. When the one which has duration does not stay, the thing fits 'horse' and 'non-horse'. Like a man having passed over a bridge.

1. 矢 : Originally read: "夫".

52 經上:
必,不已也。
經說上:
必:謂臺執者也。若弟兄一然者一不然者,必「不必」也,是非必也。
Canon I:
Bi (the necessary/the certain) is the unending.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
It is said of cases where complements are 'matured'. For example, younger-brother and elder-brother. Of a thing so in one case, a thing not so in one case, that it stays as such (?) is unnecessary, that it is this or is not is necessary.

53 經上:
平,同高也。Category: [幾何學]
經說上:
Canon I:
Ping (level/flat) is of the same height.

54 經上:
同長,以正1相盡也。
經說上:
同:楗2與狂之同長也。
Canon I:
Tong chang (of the same length) is each when laid straight exhausting the other.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
The same lengths of door-bar and door-frame are straight.

1. 正 : Originally read: "缶".
2. 楗 : Originally read: "捷".

55 經上:
中,同長也。Category: [幾何學]
經說上:
心中:自是往相若也。Category: [幾何學]
Canon I:
The zhong (centre) is [the place from which (?)] they are the same in length.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Distances outward from this are alike.

56 經上:
厚,有所大也。Category: [幾何學]
經說上:
厚:惟無所大。Category: [幾何學]
Canon I:
Hou (having bulk/thickness/dimension) is having something than which it is bigger.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Only [the starting point (?)] has nothing than which it is bigger.

57 經上:
日中,正1南也。
經說上:
Canon I:
Ri zhong (the sun at the centre/noon) is the sun being due South.

1. 正 : Originally read: "缶".

58 經上:
直,參也。
經說上:
Canon I:
Zhi (straight/on a straight course) is in alignment.

59 經上:
圜,一中同長也。Category: [幾何學]
經說上:
圜:規寫攴也。Category: [幾何學]
Canon I:
Yuan (circular) is having the same lengths from one centre.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
The compasses draw it in the rough (?).

60 經上:
方,柱隅四讙也。
經說上:
方:矩見攴也。Category: [幾何學]
Canon I:
Fang (square) is circuiting in four from a right angle (?).
Exposition of Canon I:...:
The carpenter's square shows it in the rough (?).

61 經上:
倍,為二也。Category: [幾何學]
經說上:
倍:二尺與尺但去一。Category: [幾何學]
Canon I:
Bei (doubling) is making two of them.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
When they are 'two', measured foot and measured foot both depart from one starting-point, which is being nowhere the same.

62 經上:
端,體之無厚1而最前者也。Category: [幾何學]
經說上:
端:是無間2也。Category: [幾何學]
Canon I:
The duan (starting-point) is the unit without dimension which precedes all others.

1. 厚 : Originally read: "序".
2. 間 : Originally read: "同".

63 經上:
有間,中也。Category: [幾何學]
經說上:
有間1:謂夾之者也。Category: [幾何學]
Canon I:
You jian (having an interval/discontinuous) is [not extending to] the centre.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
It refers to the flanking ones.

1. 間 : Originally read: "聞".

64 經上:
間,不及旁也。Category: [幾何學]
經說上:
1:謂夾者也。尺前於區穴而後於端,不夾於端與區內。及及非齊之,及也。Category: [幾何學]
Canon I:
Jian (intervening/in between) is not extending to the sides.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
It refers to what is flanked. Lengths measured from starting-point to circumference are not flanked by starting-point and circumference. The two extensions are extensions of which it is not the case that they come out level with each other.

1. 間 : Originally read: "聞".

65 經上:
纑,間虛也。
經說上:
纑:
1虛也者,兩木之間,謂其無木者也。
Canon I:
Lu (...?) is the interval being empty.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
'Empty': of the interval between the two pieces of wood, it refers to where there is no wood.

1. 間 : Inserted.

66 經上:
盈,莫不有也。
經說上:
盈:無盈無厚。
Canon I:
To ying (fill) is to be nowhere absent.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
What does not fill anything is dimensionless. Along a measured length wherever you go you find the two.

67 經上:
堅白,不相外也。
經說上:
於石1無所往而不得,得二,堅。異處不相盈,相非,是相外也。
Canon I:
Jian bai (as hard to white/mutually pervasive) is not excluding each other.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Different positions do not fill each other. Not being each other is excluding each other..

1. 石 : Originally read: "尺".

68 經上:
攖,相得也。
經說上:
攖:尺與尺俱不盡,端與端俱盡。尺與或盡或不盡。堅白之攖相盡,體攖不相盡。端。
Canon I:
Ying (touching/coinciding) is occupying each other.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Of measured feet, neither is wholly covered by the other. Of starting-points, each is wholly covered by the other. Of the measured foot and the starting-point, one is wholly covered and the other is not. The hard and the white in coinciding wholly cover each other. Countable units in coinciding do not wholly cover each other.

69 經上:
1,有以相攖,有不相攖也。
經說上:
仳:兩有端而后可。
Canon I:
Pi (side by side/measured against each other/commensurate) is over part of the length coinciding and over part of it not.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
It is possible only if both proceed from a starting-point.

1. 仳 : Originally read: "似".

70 經上:
次,無間而不攖攖也。
經說上:
次:無厚而后可。
Canon I:
Ci (the next/adjacent) is without interval but not coinciding.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
It is possible only because the starting-point is dimensionless.

71 經上:
法,所若而然也。
經說上:
法:意、規、員三也,俱可以為法。
Canon I:
The fa (standard) is that in being like which something is so.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
The idea, the compasses, a circle, all three may serve as standard.

72 經上:
佴,所然也。
經說上:
佴:然也者,民若法也。
Canon I:
The yin (criterion) is that wherein it is so.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Being 'so' is the characteristics being like the standard.

73 經上:
說,所以明也。Category: [邏輯]
經說上:
Canon I:
Shuo (explaining/demonstrating) is the means by which one makes plain.

74 經上:
1,不可兩不可也。
經說上:
彼:凡牛、樞非牛,兩也。無以非也。
Canon I:
Fan (being the converse of each other) is if inadmissible then on both sides inadmissible.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
All oxen, and non-oxen marked off as a group, are the two sides. To lack what distinguishes an ox is to be a non-ox.

1. 彼 : Originally read: "攸".

75 經上:
辯,爭彼也。辯勝,當也。Category: [邏輯]
經說上:
辯:或謂之牛,或謂之非牛,是爭彼也。是不俱當。不俱當,必或不當,不若當犬。Category: [邏輯]
Canon I:
Bian (disputation) is contending over claims which are the converse of each other. Winning in disputation is fitting the fact.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
One calling it an 'ox' and the other 'non-ox' is 'contending over claims which are the converse of each other'. Such being the case they do not both fit the fact; and if they do not both fit, necessarily one of them does not fit. Not like fitting 'dog'.

76 經上:
為,窮知而𠐴於欲也。
經說上:
為:欲𩁥其指,智不知其害,是智之罪也。若智之慎文也無遺,於其害也,而猶欲𩁥之,則離之是猶食脯也。騷之利害,未知也,欲而騷,是不以所疑止所欲也。廧外之利害,未可知也,趨之而得力,則弗趨也,是以所疑止所欲也。觀「為,窮知而𠐴於欲」之理,𩁥脯而非𢜔也,𩁥指而非愚也,所為與不所與為相疑也,非謀也。
Canon I:
To wei (to be doing something for the sake of .../to have as end) is to give the most weight in relation to the desires, having taken account of all that one knows.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
If you prefer to cut off your finger, and the understanding does not recognise the harm in it, this is the understanding being at fault. If the consideration paid to it by the understanding overlooks none of the harm in it, but you still prefer to cut it off, then that things have turned out unhappily is as with eating dried meat. Whether putrid meat will benefit or harm is unknowable in advance; if you prefer to eat the meat, and it is putrid, then eating it is refusing to take the doubt as grounds for fixing which you prefer. Whether there was benefit or harm 'beyond the wall' was not knowable in advance; if by heading for it you could get money, then refusing to head for it would be taking the doubt as grounds for fixing which you prefer.
In the light of the principle that 'To be 'for' is to give the most weight in relation to the desires, having taken account of all that one knows', when you cut up dried meat it is not wisdom, when you cut off a finger it is not foolishness. When what you are for and what you are against put each other in doubt, you are failing to plan things out.

77 經上:
已,成、亡。
經說上:
已:為衣,成也;治病,亡也。
Canon I:
Yi (end/finish). To bring about, to get rid of.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Of making a coat: 'to bring about'. Of curing an illness: 'to get rid of'.

78 經上:
使,謂、故。Category: [邏輯]
經說上:
使:令,謂「謂」也,不必成。濕,「故」也,必待所為之成也。Category: [邏輯]
Canon I:
Shi (to commission/to cause). To tell. The cause.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
To give orders is 'to tell'. The thing does not necessarily come about. Dampness is a cause. It is necessarily required that what it does comes about.

79 經上:
名,達、類、私。Category: [邏輯]
經說上:
名:物,達也。有實必待之名1也。命之馬,類也。若實也者,必以是名也。命之臧,私也。是名也止於是實也。聲出口,俱有名,若姓字2灑。Category: [邏輯]
Canon I:
Ming (name). Unrestricted; classifying; private.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
'Thing' is 'unrestricted' - any object necessarily requires this name. Naming something 'horse' is 'classifying' - for 'like the object' we necessarily use this name. Naming someone 'Jack' is 'private' - this name stays confined in this object. The sounds which issue from the mouth all have the name. For example, surname and style-name.

1. 之名 : Originally read: "文多".
2. 字 : Originally read: "宇". Corrected by 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

80 經上:
謂,移、舉、加。
經說上:
謂:狗、犬,命也。狗犬,舉也。叱狗,加也。
Canon I:
Wei (call). Transfer, refer, apply.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Of naming by linking 'whelp' and 'dog: 'transfer'. Of 'whelp', of 'dog': 'refer'. Of hooting at a dog: 'apply'.

81 經上:
知,聞、說、親,名、實、合、為。Category: [知識論]
經說上:
知:傳受之,聞也;方不㢓,說也;身觀焉,親也。所以謂,名也;所謂,實也。名實耦,合也。志行,為也。Category: [知識論]
Canon I:
Zhi (know). By hearsay, by explanation, by personal experience. The name, the object, how to relate, how to act.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Having received it at second hand is knowing by 'hearsay'. Knowing that something square will not rotate is by 'explanation'. Having been a witness oneself is knowing 'by personal experience'. What something is called by is its 'name'. What is so called is the 'object'. The mating of 'name' and 'object' is 'relating'. To intend and to perform are to 'act'.

82 經上:
聞,傳、親。Category: [知識論]
經說上:
聞:或告之,傳也;身觀焉,親也。Category: [知識論]
Canon I:
Wen (hear). At second hand, in person.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Being told by someone is hearing 'at second hand'. Being a witness oneself is hearing 'in person'.

83 經上:
見,體、盡。
經說上:
見:時者,體也;二者,盡也。
Canon I:
Jian (see). Individuals, all.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
One member of a pair (?) is an individual. Two of them are 'all'.

84 經上:
合,正1、宜、必。
經說上:
2:兵立反中、志工,正也;臧之為,宜也:非彼必不有,必也。聖者用而勿必,必也者可勿疑。
Canon I:
He (relation/tallying/being together). Exact, to the one which is appropriate, necessary.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
The relations of sharing a level with (?), coinciding as the converse (?), aim and achievement, are 'exact'. The relation to wahat Jack is deemed to be is 'to the one which is appropriate'. If without something else something is necessarily absent, the relation is 'necessary'. The judges of sage, employ but do not treat as necessary. The 'necessary' accept and do not doubt. The ones which are the converse of each other, apply on both sides, not on one without the other.

1. 正 : Originally read: "缶".
2. 合 : Originally read: "古".

85 經上:
欲正1權利,且惡正2權害。
經說上:
仗者,兩而勿偏。
Canon I:
Yu (desire/be about to). Directly, weighing the benefit; be about to. Wu (dislike). Directly, weighing the harm.

1. 正 : Originally read: "缶".
2. 正 : Originally read: "缶".

86 經上:
為,存、亡、易、蕩、治、化。
經說上:
為:早臺,存也。病,亡也。買鬻,易也。霄盡,蕩也。順長,治也。鼃買,化也。
Canon I:
Wei (constitute/become/deem/make/cure/govern). Keep as it is, get rid of, exchange, dissolve, govern, transform.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Of coinciding with a complement (?): 'keep as it is'. Of illness: 'get rid of'. Of buying and selling: 'exchange'. Of sleet or ashes: 'dissolve'. Of instructing and leading: 'govern'. Of frog and quail: 'transform'.

87 經上:
同,重、體、合、類。Category: [邏輯]
經說上:
同:二名一實,重同也。不外於兼,體同也。俱處於室,合同也。有以同,類同也。Category: [邏輯]
Canon I:
Tong (same). Identical, as units, as together, of a kind.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
There being two names but one object is the sameness of 'identity'. Not being outside the total is sameness 'as units'. Both occupying the room is the sameness of being 'together'. Being the same in some respect is sameness in being 'of a kind'.

88 經上:
異,二、
1體、不合、不類。Category: [邏輯]
經說上:
異:二必異,二也。不連屬,不體也。不同所,不合也。不有同,不類也。Category: [邏輯]
Canon I:
Yi (different). Two, not units, not together, not of a kind.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
The objects if the names are two necessarily being different is being 'two'. Not connected or attached is 'not units'. Not in the same place is 'not together'. Not the same in a certain respect is 'not of a kind'.

1. 不 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

89 經上:
同異交得放有無。
經說上:
同異交得:於福家良恕,有無也。比度,多少也。免軔還園,去就也。鳥折用桐,堅柔也。劍尤甲1,死生也。處室子
2母,長少也。兩絕勝,白黑也。中央旁也。論、行
行行
3、學、實,是非也。雞4宿,成未也。兄弟,俱適也。身處志往,存亡也。霍,為姓故也。賈宜,貴賤也。
Canon I:
Sameness and difference. In interplay, having and lacking become relative.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
In interplay the following become relative: In the case of a rich family, of native intelligence, 'having and lacking'. In the case of putting side by side and measuring, 'more and less'. In the case of a louse on a hare moving this way and that (?), 'departing and approaching'. In the case of retreating the better to attack, 'hard and soft'. In the case of a sword just striking, 'dead and alive'. In the case of son, son and mother within a family, 'elder and younger'. In the case of discourse, conduct, learning an object, 'being this or not being it (right or wrong)'. In the case of raising objections to a proposal or putting off acting on it, 'proved or not yet proved'. In the case of elder-brother and younger-brother, 'both being complements'. In the case of the body being here and the thoughts on something elsewhere, 'present or absent'. In the case of what 'Crane' constitutes, 'the surname or the thing as it is in itself'. In the case of a price being right, 'dear or cheap'.

1. 甲 : Originally read: "早".
2. 子 : Deleted. 衍文。
3. 行行 : Deleted.
4. 雞 : Originally read: "難".

90 經上:
聞,耳之聰也。Category: [知識論]
經說上:

91 經上:
循所聞而得其意,心之察也。
經說上:

92 經上:
言,口之利也。
經說上:

93 經上:
執所言而意得見,心之辯也。
經說上:

94 經上:
諾,不一、利用。
經說上:
諾:超、誠1、負2、正3也。相從、相去、先知、是、可,五色。長短、前後、輕重援
正五諾,皆人於知有說;過五諾,若員,無直無說;用五諾,若自然矣。
4
Canon I:
An assent and a denial are one in the benefit and the use.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
When we 'jump the wall', the circular stays fixed. By the things which follow from each other or exclude each other, we may know 'a priori' what it is. For the five colours, long and short, before and after, light and heavy, adduce the one to which you are committed. The matching and the assent enter the consciousness together. When something is explained, and you assent to more than that they match, for example to a circle being nowhere straight, or nothing is explained and you assent on the basis of the matching, it is as though it were so of itself.

1. 誠 : Originally read: "城".
2. 負 : Originally read: "員".
3. 正 : Originally read: "止".
4. 正五諾,皆人於知有說;過五諾,若員,無直無說;用五諾,若自然矣。 : Moved here from entry 100.

95 經上:
服,執誽。
音利。
1
經說上:
執服難。成言務成之,九則求執之。
Canon I:
When someone devotes himself to a commitment, if the description takes a subtle turn, seek his reasons.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
If he raises objections to an established statement, and makes it his business to establish this commitment, seek the standard for the commitment.

1. 音利。 : Deleted. 畢沅注:「『音利』二字舊注,未詳其義」。

96 經上:
巧轉則求其故。Category: [邏輯]
經說上:

97 經上:
法同,則觀其同。Category: [邏輯]
經說上:
法:法取同,觀巧傳。Category: [邏輯]
Canon I:
If the standard is the same, examine what is the same in it.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Choose what is the same, and examine the subtle turn.

98 經上:
法異,則觀其宜。Category: [邏輯]
經說上:
法:取此擇彼,問故觀宜。以人之有黑者有不黑者也,止黑人,與以有愛於人有不愛於人,心愛人,是孰宜?Category: [邏輯]
Canon I:
If the standard differs, examine what is appropriate to it.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Choose this and pick out that, ask about reasons and examine appropriateness. Using what is black and what is not black in a man to fix 'black man', and using love of some men and failure to love other men to fix 'love of man' - of these which is appropriate?

99 經上:
止,因以別道。Category: [邏輯]
經說上:
1:彼舉然者,以為此其然也,則舉不然者而問之。Category: [邏輯]
Canon I:
Fix the criterion in order to 'separate the roads'.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
If the other man, referring to a respect in which it is not so, deems it so in the instance here, refer to respects in which it is not so and inquire about them.

1. 止 : Originally read: "心".

100 經上:
1,無非。
經說上:
若聖人有非而不非。
正五諾,皆人於知有說;過五諾,若員,無直無說;用五諾,若自然矣。
2
Canon I:
The exact nowhere is not.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
For example, the sage has respects in which he is not, yet he is.

1. 正 : Originally read: "缶".
2. 正五諾,皆人於知有說;過五諾,若員,無直無說;用五諾,若自然矣。 : Moved to entry 94.

經下 - Canon II

Library Resources
Related resources
101 經下:
止,類以行之1。說在同。Category: [邏輯]
經說下:
止:彼以此其然也,說是其然也;我以此其不然也,疑是其然也。Category: [邏輯]

1. 之 : Originally read: "人".

102 經下:
推類之難,說在之大小。Category: [邏輯]
經說下:
謂四足獸,與牛馬1與,物盡異2,大小也。此然是必然,則俱。Category: [邏輯]

1. 牛馬 : Originally read: "生鳥".
2. 異 : Originally read: "與".

103 經下:
物盡同名:二與鬥,愛,食與招,白與視,麗與,夫與履。
經說下:
1麋同名俱鬥、不俱二,二與鬥也。包肝肺,子愛也。橘、茅,食與抬也。白馬多白,視馬不多視,白與視也。為麗不必麗,不必麗與暴也,為非以人,是不為非。若為夫勇,不為夫。為屨以買衣為屨,夫與屨也。

1. 馬 : Originally read: "為".

104 經下:
一偏棄之,謂而固是也,說在因。
經說下:
二與一亡,不與一在,偏去未。有之1實也,而後謂之;無之2實也,則無謂也。不若敷與美,謂是則是固美也,謂也則是非美。無謂則報也。

1. 之 : Originally read: "文".
2. 之 : Originally read: "文".

105 經下:
不可偏去而二,說在見與俱、一與二、廣與修1
經說下:
見不見離,一二不相盈,廣修堅白。

1. 修 : Originally read: "循". Corrected by 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

106 經下:
不能而不害。說在害。
經說下:
舉不重不與箴,非力之任也;為握者之倍,非智之任也。若耳目。

107 經下:
異類不吡,說在量。Category: [邏輯]
經說下:
異:木與夜孰長?智與粟孰多?爵、親、行、賈四者孰貴?麋與霍孰高?麋與霍孰霍?𧈳與瑟孰瑟?Category: [邏輯]

108 經下:
偏去莫加少,說在故。
經說下:
偏:俱一無變。Category: [邏輯]

109 經下:
假必誖,說在不然。Category: [邏輯]
經說下:
假:假必非也而後假。狗,假霍也,猶氏霍也。Category: [邏輯]

110 經下:
物之所以然,與所以知之,與所以使人知之,不必同。說在病。Category: [知識論]
經說下:
物:或傷之,然也;見之,智也。告1之,使智也。Category: [知識論]

1. 告 : Originally read: "吉".

111 經下:
疑,說在逢、循、遇、過。
經說下:
疑:逢為務則士,為牛廬者夏寒,逢也。舉之則輕,廢之則重,非有力也。沛從削,非巧也,若石羽,循也。鬥者之敝也,以飲酒,若以日中,是不可智也,愚也。智與?以已為然也與?愚也。

112 經下:
合,與一,或復否,說在拒。
經說下:

113 經下:
歐物一體也,說在俱一、惟是。
經說下:
俱:俱一,若牛馬四足;惟是,當牛馬。數牛數馬則牛馬二;數牛馬則牛馬一。若數指,指五而五一。

114 經下:
宇:或徙,說在長宇久。
經說下:
長宇:徙而有處,宇。宇南北,在且有在莫,宇徙久。

115 經下:
不堅白,說在
無久與宇。
1
經說下:

1. 無久與宇。 : Moved here from entry 116. 高亨《墨經校詮》

116 經下:
無久與宇。
1堅白,說在因。
經說下:
無堅得白,必相盈也。

1. 無久與宇。 : Moved to entry 115. 高亨《墨經校詮》

117 經下:
在諸其所然未者然,說在於是推之。
經說下:
在:堯善治,自今在諸古也。自古在之今,則堯不能治也。

118 經下:
景不徙,說在改為。
經說下:
景:光至景亡,若在盡可1息。

1. 可 : Originally read: "古".

119 經下:
景二,說在重。
經說下:
景:二光夾一光,一光者景也。

120 經下:
景到,在午有端與景長,說在端。
經說下:
景:光之人煦若射。下者之人也高,高者之人也下。足敝下光,故成景於上。首敝上光,故成景於下。在遠近有端,與於光,故景㢓內也。

121 經下:
景迎日,說在慱。
經說下:
景日之光反燭人,則景在日與人之間。

122 經下:
景之小大,說在地正1遠近。
經說下:
景:木柂,景短大。木正,景長小。火2小於木,則景大於木。非獨小也,遠近。

1. 正 : Originally read: "缶".
2. 火 : Originally read: "大".

123 經下:
臨鑒而立,景到。多而若少,說在寡區。
經說下:
臨:正鑒景寡。貌能、白黑、遠近、柂正、異於光。鑒景當俱,就,去亦1當俱,俱用北。鑒者之臭於鑒,無所不鑒。景之臭無數而必過,正故同處,其體俱然,鑒分。

1. 亦 : Originally read: "尒". Corrected by 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

124 經下:
鑒位,景一小而易,一大而正1,說在中之外內。
經說下:
鑒:中之內,鑒者近中,則所鑒大,景亦大;遠中,則所鑒小,景亦小,而必正。起於中緣正而長其直也。中之外,鑒者近中,則所鑒大,景亦大;遠中,則所鑒小,景亦小,而必易。合於而長其直也。

1. 正 : Originally read: "缶".

125 經下:
鑑團,景一天,而必正1,說在得。
經說下:
鑒:鑒者近則所鑒大,景亦大;亣2遠,所鑒小,景亦小,而必正。景過正故招。

1. 正 : Originally read: "缶".
2. 亣 : Originally read: "亦".

126 經下:
1而不撓,說在勝。
經說下:
負:衡木加2重焉而不撓,極勝重也。右校交繩,無加焉而撓,極不勝重也。衡加重於其一旁必捶,權重相若也。相衡則本短標長,兩加焉重相若,則標必下,標得權也。

1. 負 : Originally read: "貞". Corrected by 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 加 : Originally read: "如". 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

127 經下:
契與枝板,說在薄。
經說下:
挈:有力也,引無力也。不正所挈之止於施也,繩制挈之也,若以錐刺之。挈,長重者下,短輕者上,上者愈得,下下者愈亡。繩直權重相若,則正矣。收,上者愈喪,下者愈得,上者權中盡,則遂。

128 經說下:
挈:兩輪高,兩輪為輲,車梯也。重其前,弦其前,載弦其前,載弦其軲,而縣重於其前。是梯挈且挈則行。凡重,上弗挈,下弗收,旁弗劫,則下直杝,或害之也流。梯者不得流直也。今也廢尺於平地,重不下,無旁也。若夫繩之引軲也,是猶自舟中引橫也。

129 經下:
倚者不可正,說在剃。
經說下:
倚:倍、拒、堅、䠳,倚焉則不正。

130 經下:
推之必往,說在廢材。
經說下:
誰:𥩵石、壘石耳。夾𡨦者法也。方石去地尺,關石於其下,縣絲於其上,使適至方石。不下,柱也。膠絲去石,挈也;絲絕,引也。木變而名易,收也。

131 經下:
買無貴,說在仮其賈。
經說下:
買:刀、糴相為賈。刀輕則糴不貴,刀重則糴不易。王刀無變,糴有變。歲變糴,則歲變刀。若鬻子。

132 經下:
賈宜則讐,說在盡。
經說下:
賈:盡也者,盡去其以不讎也。其所以不讎去,則讎正1。賈也宜不宜正2欲不欲,若敗邦鬻室嫁子。

1. 正 : Originally read: "缶".
2. 正 : Originally read: "缶".

133 經下:
無說而懼,說在弗心。
經說下:
無:子在軍,不必其死生;聞戰,亦不必其生。前也不懼,今也懼。

134 經下:
或,過名也,說在實。
經說下:
或:知是之非此也,有知是之不在此也,然而謂此南北,過而以已為然。始也謂此南方,故今也謂此南方。

135 經下:
知知之否之足用也誖,說在無以也。
經說下:
智:論之非智無以也。

136 經下:
謂辯無勝,必不當。說在辯。Category: [邏輯]
經說下:
謂:「所謂非同也,則異也。同則或謂之狗,其或謂之犬也;異則或謂之牛,牛或謂之馬也。俱無勝。」是不辯也。辯也者,或謂之是,或謂之非,當者勝也。Category: [邏輯]

137 經下:
無不讓也,不可。說在始。
經說下:
無:讓者酒,未讓始也。不可讓也。

138 經下:
於一,有知焉,有不知焉,說在存。
經說下:
於石一也,堅白二也,而在石。故有智焉,有不智焉,可。

139 經下:
有指於二,而不可逃,說在以二絫。
經說下:
有指:子智是,有智是吾所先舉,重則。子智是,而不智吾所先舉也,是一。謂「有智焉,有不智焉」也。若智之,則當指之智告我,則我智之,兼指之以二也。衡指之,參直之也。若曰,「必獨指吾所舉,毋舉吾所不舉」,則者固不能獨指。所欲相不傳,意若未校。且其所智是也,所不智是也,則是智是之不智也,惡得為一?謂而「有智焉,有不智焉」。

140 經下:
所知而弗能指,說在春也、逃臣、狗犬、貴者。
經說下:
所:春也,其執固不可指也。逃臣,不智其處。狗犬,不智其名也。遺者,巧弗能兩也。

141 經下:
知狗而自謂不知犬,過也,說在重。Category: [邏輯]
經說下:
智:智狗,重智犬,則過;不重,則不過。Category: [邏輯]

142 經下:
通意後對,說在不知其誰謂也。
經說下:
通:問者曰,「子智𩥡乎?」應之曰,「𩥡何謂也?」彼曰,「𩥡施。」則智之。若不問𩥡何謂,徑應以弗智,則過。且應必應問之時。若應長,應有深淺大常中在兵人長。

143 經下:
所存與者,於存與孰存,駟異說。
經說下:
所:室堂,所存也。其子,存者也。據在者而問室堂,惡可存也?主室堂而問存者,孰存也?是一主存者以問所存,一主所存以問存者。

144 經下:
五行毋常勝,說在宜。
經說下:
五:合水土火火。離。然火鑠金,火多也。金靡炭,金多也。合之府水,木離木若識麋輿魚之數,惟所利。

145 經下:
無欲惡之為益損也,說在宜。
經說下:
無:欲惡傷生損壽,說以少連。是誰愛也,嘗多粟。或者欲不有能傷也,若酒之於人也。且𢜔人利人,愛也。則唯𢜔弗治也。

146 經下:
損而不害,說在餘。
經說下:
損:飽者去餘,適足不害。能害飽,若傷麋之無脾也。且有損而后益智者,若虐病之之於虐也。

147 經下:
知而不以五路,說在久。Category: [知識論]
經說下:
智:以目見。而目以火見,而火不見。惟以五路智,久不當,以目見若以火見。Category: [知識論]

148 經下:
必熱,說在頓。
經說下:
火:謂火熱也,非以火之熱我有,若視日。

149 經下:
知其所以、不知,說在以名、取。
經說下:
智:雜所智與所不智而問之,則必曰:「是所智也,是所不智也。」取、去俱能之,是兩智之也。

150 經下:
無不必待有,說在所謂。
經說下:
無:若無焉,則有之而后無;無天陷,則無之而無。

151 經下:
擢慮不疑,說在有無。
經說下:
擢:疑,無謂也。臧,也今死,而春也得文,文死也可。且猶是也。

152 經下:
且然不可正,而不害用工,說在宜。
經說下:
且:且必然,且已、必已。且用工而後已者,必用工後已。

153 經下:
均之絕不,說在所均。
經說下:
均:髮均,縣輕;而髮絕,不均也。均,其絕也莫絕。

154 經下:
堯之義也,生於今而處於古。而異時。說在所義二。
經說下:
堯:霍,或以名視人,或以實視人。舉友富商也,是以名視人也。指是臛也,是以實視人也。堯之義也,是聲也於今,所義之實處於古。若殆於城門與於臧也。

155 經下:
狗,犬也,而殺狗非殺犬也,可。說在重。Category: [邏輯]
經說下:
狗:狗,犬也。謂之殺犬,可。若兩脾。Category: [邏輯]

156 經下:
使:殷、美,說在使。
經說下:
使:令使也。我使我,我不使,亦使我。殿戈亦使殿,不美,亦使殿。

157 經下:
荊之大,其沈淺也,說在具。
經說下:
荊:沈,荊之見也。則沈淺非荊淺也,若易五之一。

158 經下:
以檻為摶,於以為,無知也。說在意。
經說下:
以:楹之摶也,見之,其於意也不易,先智,意相也。若楹輕於秋,其於意也洋然。

159 經下:
意未可知,說在可用,過仵。
經說下:
段、椎、錐俱事於履,可用也。成繪屢過椎,與成椎過繪屢,同,過仵也。

160 經下:
一少於二而多於五,說在建住。
經說下:
一:五有一焉,一有五焉。十,二焉。

161 經下:
非半,弗𣃈,則不動。說在端。
經說下:
非:𣃈半,進前取也,前則中無為半,猶端也。前後取則「端中」也。𣃈必半,「無」與「非半」,不可斫也。

162 經下:
可無也,有之而不可去。說在嘗然。
經說下:
可無也:已給則當給,不可無也。久有窮無窮。

163 經下:
1而不可擔,說在摶。
經說下:
正:九,無所處而不中縣,摶也。

1. 正 : Originally read: "缶".

164 經下:
宇進無近,說在敷。
經說下:
傴宇不可偏舉,字也。進行者先敷近,後敷遠。

165 經下:
行循以久,說在先後。
經說下:
行:者行者必先近而後遠。遠修近修也,先後久也。民行修必以久也。

166 經下:
一法者之相與也盡,若方之相召也。說在方。
經說下:
一:方貌盡。俱有法而異,或木或石,不害其方之相合也,盡貌,猶方也。物俱然。

167 經下:
狂舉不可以知異,說在有不可。Category: [邏輯]
經說下:
牛狂與馬惟異,以牛有齒、馬有尾,說牛之非馬也,不可。是俱有,不偏有、偏無有。曰之與馬不類,用牛角、馬無角,是類不同也。若舉牛有角、馬無角,以是為類之不同也,是狂舉也,猶牛有齒,馬有尾。Category: [邏輯]

168 經下:
牛馬之非牛,與可之同,說在兼。Category: [邏輯]
經說下:
「或不非牛而『非牛也』可,則或非牛或牛而『牛也』可。故曰:『牛馬非牛也』未可,『牛馬牛也』未可。」則或可或不可,而曰「牛馬牛也,未可」亦不可。且牛不二,馬不二,而牛馬二。則牛不非牛,馬不非馬,而牛馬非牛非馬,無難。Category: [邏輯]

169 經下:
循此循此與彼此同。說在異。Category: [邏輯]
經說下:
彼:正名者彼此彼此可。彼彼止於彼,此此止於此,彼此不可。彼且此也,彼此亦可。彼此止於彼此,若是而彼此也,則彼亦且此此也。Category: [邏輯]

170 經下:
唱和同患,說在功。
經說下:
唱無過,無所周,若粺。和無過,使也,不得已。唱而不和,是不學也。智少而不學,必寡。和而不唱,是不教也。智而不教,功適息。使人奪人衣,罪或輕或重;使人予人酒,或厚或薄。

171 經下:
聞所不知若所知,則兩知之,說在告。Category: [知識論]
經說下:
聞:在外者所不知也。或曰,「在室者之色若是其色」,是所不智若所智也。猶白若黑也,誰勝?是若其色也,若白者必白。今也智其色之若白也,故智其白也。夫名以所明正所不智,不以所不智疑所明。若以尺度所不智長。外,親智也;室中,說智也。Category: [知識論]

172 經下:
以言為盡誖,誖。說在其言。Category: [邏輯]
經說下:
以:誖,不可也。出入之言可,是不誖,則是有可也。之人之言不可,以當必不審。Category: [邏輯]

173 經下:
惟吾謂非名也,則不可。說在仮。
經說下:
惟:謂是霍,可。而猶之非夫霍也,謂彼是是也,不可。謂者毋惟乎其謂。彼猶惟乎其謂,則吾謂不行。彼若不惟其謂,則不行也。

174 經下:
無窮不害兼,說在盈否。
經說下:
無:「南者有窮則可盡,無窮則不可盡。有窮無窮未可智,則可盡不可盡不可盡未可智。人之盈之否未可智,而必人之可盡不可盡亦未可智,而必人之可盡愛也,誖。」人若不盈先窮,則人有窮也,盡有窮無難。盈無窮,則無窮盡也,盡有窮無難。

175 經下:
不知其數而知其盡也,說在明者。
經說下:
不:「二智其數,惡智愛民之盡文也?或者遺乎?」其問也盡問人,則盡愛其所問。若不智其數而智愛之盡文也,無難。

176 經下:
不知其所處,不害愛之。說在喪子者。
經說下:

177 經下:
仁義之為內外也,內,說在仵顏。Category: [倫理]
經說下:
仁:仁,愛也;義,利也。愛利,此也,所愛所利,彼也。愛利不相為內外,所愛利亦不相為內外。其為仁,內也,義,外也,舉愛與所利也,是狂舉也。若左目出,右目入。Category: [倫理]

178 經下:
學之益也,說在誹者。
經說下:
學:也以為不知學之無益也,故告之也。是使智學之無益也,是教也。以學為無益也教,誖。

179 經下:
誹之可否,不以眾寡。說在可非。Category: [邏輯]
經說下:
論誹誹之可不可以理,之可誹,雖多誹,其誹是也。其理不可誹,雖少誹,非也。今也謂多誹者不可,是猶以長論短。Category: [邏輯]

180 經下:
非誹者諄,說在弗非。Category: [邏輯]
經說下:
不:誹非,己之誹也。不非誹,非可非也,不可非也。是不非誹也。Category: [邏輯]

181 經下:
物甚不甚,說在若是。
經說下:
物:甚長、甚短,莫長於是,莫短於是。是之是也,非是也者,莫甚於是。

182 經下:
取下以求上也,說在澤。
經說下:
取:高下以善不善為度,不若山澤。處下善於處上,下所請上也。

183 經下:
是是與是同,說在不州。Category: [邏輯]
經說下:
不是:是則是且是焉。今是不文於是而不於是,故是不之是。不文則是而不文焉。今是文於是而文與是,故文與是不文同說也。Category: [邏輯]

URN: ctp:mozi/book-10