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-> -> -> Book 2

《卷二 - Book 2》

English translation: W. P. Mei [?] Library Resources

尚賢上 - Exaltation of the Virtuous I

English translation: W. P. Mei [?] Library Resources
1 尚賢上:
子墨子言曰:「今1者王公大人為政於國家者,皆欲國家之富,人民之眾,刑政之治,然而不得富而得貧,不得眾而得寡,不得治而得亂,則是本失其所欲,得其所惡,是其故何也?」
Exaltation of the Virtuous...:
Mozi said: Now, all the rulers desire their provinces to be wealthy, their people to be numerous, and their jurisdiction to secure order. But what they obtain is not wealth but poverty, not multitude but scarcity, not order but chaos - this is to lose what they desire and obtain what they avert. Why is this?

1. 今 : Originally read: "古". Corrected by 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

2 尚賢上:
子墨子言曰:「是在王公大人為政於國家者,不能以尚賢事能為政也。是故國有賢良之士眾,則國家之治厚,賢良之士寡,則國家之治薄。故大人之務,將在於眾賢而己。」
Exaltation of the Virtuous...:
Mozi said: This is because the rulers have failed to exalt the virtuous and to employ the capable in their government. When the virtuous are numerous in the state, order will be stable; when the virtuous are scarce, order will be unstable. Therefore the task of the lords lies nowhere but in multiplying the virtuous.

3 尚賢上:
曰:「然則眾賢之術將柰何哉?」
Exaltation of the Virtuous...:
But what is the way to multiply the virtuous?

4 尚賢上:
子墨子言曰:「譬若欲眾其國之善射御之士者,必將富之,貴之,敬之,譽之,然后國之善射御之士,將可得而眾也。況又有賢良之士厚乎德行,辯乎言談,博乎道術者乎,此固國家之珍,而社稷之佐也,亦必且富之,貴之,敬之,譽之,然后國之良士,亦將可得而眾也。
Exaltation of the Virtuous...:
Mozi said: Supposing it is desired to multiply good archers and good drivers in the country, it will be only natural to enrich them, honour them, respect them, and commend them; then good archers and good drivers can be expected to abound in the country. How much more should this be done in the case of the virtuous and the excellent who are firm in morality, versed in rhetoric, and experienced in statecraft - since these are the treasures of the nation and props of the state? They should also be enriched, honoured, respected, and commended in order that they may abound.

5 尚賢上:
是故古者聖王之為政
1,言曰:「不義不富,不義不貴,不義不親,不義不近。」是以國之富貴人聞之,皆退而謀曰:『始我所恃者,富貴也,今上舉義不辟貧賤,然則我不可不為義。』親者聞之,亦退而謀曰:『始我所恃者親也,今上舉義不辟
2疏,然則我不可不為義。』近者聞之,亦退而謀曰:『始我所恃者近也,今上舉義不避遠,然則我不可不為義。』遠者聞之,亦退而謀曰:『我始以遠為無恃,今上舉義不辟遠,然則我不可不為義。』逮至遠鄙郊外之臣,門庭庶子,國中之眾、四鄙之萌人聞之,皆競為義。是其故何也?曰:上之所以使下者,一物也,下之所以事上者,一術也。譬之富者有高牆深宮,牆立既,謹上為鑿一門,有盜人入,闔其自入而求之,盜其無自出。是其故何也?則上得要也。
Exaltation of the Virtuous...:
When the ancient sage-kings administered the government they declared: "The unrighteous will not be enriched, the unrighteous will not be honoured, the unrighteous will not be favoured, the unrighteous will not be placed near." Upon hearing this, the rich and honoured of the country all began to deliberate, saying: "What I have been depending on was wealth and honour. Now the Lord promotes the righteous without discrimination against the poor and humble. Hence I may not do unrighteousness." Upon hearing this, the favoured also began to deliberate, saying: "What I have been depending on was favour. Now the Lord promotes the righteous without discrimination against those thus far neglected. Hence I may not do unrighteousness." Upon hearing this, those placed near began to deliberate, saying: "What I have been depending on was intimacy. Now the Lord promotes the righteous without discrimination against the distant. Hence I may not do unrighteousness." Upon hearing this, the distant also began to deliberate, saying : "I used to think, being distant I had nothing to depend on. Now the Lord promotes the righteous without discrimination against the distant. Hence I may not do unrighteousness." Vassals of distant districts as well as youths in the palace, and multitudes within the state boundaries as well as the rustics living on the four borders, upon hearing this, all competed in doing righteousness. Now what is the reason for all this? It is only with material goods that the superior can employ his subordinates, and it is only with statecraft that the subordinates can serve their lord. Take, for example, the rich man who built his walls high and left only one gate. When the burglar had entered, the man closed the gate and searched for him, and the burglar had no more exit. Why? Because the man had the vantage-point.

1. 也 : Inserted.
2. 親 : Deleted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

6 尚賢上:
故古者聖王之為政,列德而尚賢,雖在農與工肆之人,有能則舉之,高予之爵,重予之祿,任之以事,斷予之令,曰:「爵位不高則民弗敬,蓄祿不厚則民不信,政令不斷則民不畏」,舉三者授之賢者,非為賢賜也,欲其事之成。故當是時,以德就列,以官服事,以勞殿賞,量功而分祿。故官無常貴,而民無終賤,有能則舉之,無能則下之,舉公義,辟私怨,此若言之謂也。故古者堯舉舜於服澤之陽,授之政,天下平;禹舉益於陰方之中,授之政,九州成;湯舉伊尹於庖廚之中,授之政,其謀得;文王舉閎夭泰顛於罝罔之中,授之政,西土服。故當是時,雖在於厚祿尊位之臣,莫不敬懼而施,雖在農與工肆之人,莫不競勸而尚意。故士者所以為輔相承嗣也。故得士則謀不困,體不勞,名立而功成,美章1而惡不生,則由得士也。」
Exaltation of the Virtuous...:
Therefore in administering the government, the ancient sage-kings ranked the morally excellent high and exalted the virtuous. If capable, even a farmer or an artisan would be employed - commissioned with high rank, remunerated with liberal emoluments, trusted with important charges, and empowered to issue final orders. For, if his rank were not high, people would not respect him; if his emoluments were not liberal, people would not have confidence in him; if his orders were not final, people would not stand in awe before him. To place these three (honours) upon the virtuous is not so much to reward virtue, as to bring about the success of the enterprise (of government). Therefore ranks should be standardized according to virtue, tasks assigned according to office, and rewards given according to labour spent. When emoluments are distributed in proportion to achievements, officials cannot be in constant honour, and people in eternal humility. If a person is capable promote him, if incapable, lower his rank. Give prominence to public approval and keep back private grudges (in the matter of selecting men). Here, then, is the principle. So, in days of old, Yao brought forward Shun from Fuzi and entrusted him with the government, and the world had peace. Yu brought forward Yi from Yin Fang and entrusted him with the government, and the nine districts became organized. Tang brought forward Yi Yin from the kitchen and entrusted him with the government and his plans were successful. King Wen brought forward Hung Yao and Tai Tian from their rabbit nets and entrusted them with the government and the Western land showed respect. Therefore, during those days the officials of high rank and liberal emoluments all carefully and anxiously executed their duties; and the farmers and artisans all encouraged one another in exalting virtue. Therefore, the scholars are really to be officials and governors. As long as there were scholars (in government), the plans (of the ruler) were not defeated and he had no hardships to endure; his name was established and success achieved; his excellence became known and yet evils were not spread. This is all due to the employment of the scholars.

1. 成,美章 : Originally read: "業彰". Corrected by 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

7 尚賢上:
是故子墨子言曰:「得意賢士不可不舉,不得意賢士不可不舉,尚欲祖述堯舜禹湯之道,將不可以不尚賢。夫尚賢者,政之本也。」
Exaltation of the Virtuous...:
Therefore Mozi said: The virtuous who are prosperous must be exalted, and the virtuous who are not prosperous must be exalted too. If it is desired to continue the ways of Yao and Shun, to exalt the virtuous is indispensable. Now, exaltation of the virtuous is the root of government.

尚賢中 - Exaltation of the Virtuous II

English translation: W. P. Mei [?] Library Resources
1 尚賢中:
子墨子言曰:「今王公大人之君人民,主社稷,治國家,欲脩保而勿失,故不察尚賢為政之本也。何以知尚賢之為政本也?曰自貴且智者,為政乎愚且賤者,則治;自愚且賤者,為政乎貴且智者,則亂。是以知尚賢之為政本也。故古者聖王甚尊尚賢而任使能,不黨父兄,不偏貴富,不嬖顏色,賢者舉而上之,富而貴之,以為官長;不肖者抑而廢之,貧而賤之以為徒役,是以民皆勸其賞,畏其罰,相率而為賢。者以賢者眾,而不肖者寡,此謂進賢。然後聖人聽其言,跡其行,察其所能,而慎予官,此謂事能。故可使治國者,使治國,可使長官者,使長官,可使治邑者,使治邑。凡所使治國家,官府,邑里,此皆國之賢者也。
Exaltation of the Virtuous...:
Mozi said: Now, in caring for the people, ruling the state, and governing the country, the rulers desire permanency and stability. But why do they not learn that exaltation of the virtuous is the foundation of government? How do we know exaltation of the virtuous is the foundation of government? When the honourable and wise run the government, the ignorant and humble remain orderly; but when the ignorant and humble run the government, the honourable and wise become rebellious. Therefore we know exaltation of the virtuous is the foundation of government. The ancient sage-kings greatly emphasized the exaltation of the virtuous and the employment of the capable. Without special consideration for relatives, for the rich and honoured, or for the good-looking, they exalted and promoted the virtuous, enriched and honoured them, and made them governors and leaders. The vicious they kept back and banished, depossessed and degraded, and made labourers and servants. Thereupon people were all encouraged by rewards and threatened by punishments and strove with each other after virtue. Thus the virtuous multiplied and the vicious diminished in number. Such is exaltation of the virtuous. Then the sage-kings watched their words and observed their conduct, found out their capabilities and carefully assigned them their offices. Such is employment of the capable. Accordingly those who were capable to govern the country were made to govern the country, those who were capable to administer the court were made to administer the court, and those who were capable in managing the districts were made to manage the districts. All those who had charge of the country, the court, and the districts were then the virtuous of the land.

2 尚賢中:
賢者之治國者也,蚤朝晏退,聽獄治政,是以國家治而刑法正。賢者之長官也,夜寢夙興,收斂關市、山林、澤梁之利,以實官府,是以官府實而財不散。賢者之治邑也,蚤出莫入,耕稼、樹藝、聚菽粟,是以菽粟多而民足乎食。故國家治則刑法正,官府實則萬民富。上有以絜為酒醴栥盛,以祭祀天鬼;外有以為皮幣,與四鄰諸侯交接,內有以食飢息勞,將養其萬民。外有以懷天下之賢人。是故上者天鬼富之,外者諸侯與之,內者萬民親之,賢人歸之,以此謀事則得,舉事則成,入守則固,出誅則彊。故唯昔三代聖王堯、舜、禹、湯、文、武,之所以王天下正諸侯者,此亦其法已。
Exaltation of the Virtuous...:
When the virtuous rules the country, he starts the day early and retires late, hearing lawsuits and attending to the government. As a result, the country is well governed and laws are justly administered. When the virtuous administers the court he retires late and wakes up early, collecting taxes from passes, markets, and on products from mountains, woods, waters, and land to fill the court. As a result, the court is filled and wealth is not wasted. When the virtuous manages the districts, he goes out before sunrise and comes back after sunset, plowing and sowing, planting and cultivating, and gathering harvests of grains. As a result, grains are in plenty and people are sufficiently supplied with food. Therefore when the country is well governed the laws are well administered, and when the court is filled the people are wealthy. For the higher sphere, the rulers had wherewith to make wine and cakes to do sacrifice and libation to Heaven and the spirits. For the countries outside, they had wherewith to provide the furs and money to befriend neighbouring feudal lords. For the people within, they had wherewith to feed the hungry and give rest to the tired. Above all these, they had means to cherish the virtuous. Therefore from above, Heaven and the spirits enrich them from without, the feudal lords submit themselves to them from within, the people show them affection, and the virtuous become loyal to them. Hence they could have satisfaction in planning and success in execution. In defence they are strong and in attack victorious. Now the way that enabled the sage-kings of the Three Dynasties, namely Yao, Shun, Yu, Tang, Wen and Wu, to rule the empire and head the feudal lords was no other than this (principle of exaltation of the virtuous).

3 尚賢中:
既曰若法,未知所以行之術,則事猶若未成,是以必為置三本。何謂三本?曰爵位不高則民不敬也,蓄祿不厚則民不信也,政令不斷則民不畏也。故古聖王高予之爵,重予之祿,任之以事,斷予之令,夫豈為其臣賜哉,欲其事之成也。《》曰:『告女憂卹,誨女予爵,孰能執熱,鮮不用濯。』則此語古者國君諸侯之不可以不執善,承嗣輔佐也。譬之猶執熱之有濯也。將休其手焉。古者聖王唯毋得賢人而使之,般爵以貴之,裂地以封之,終身不厭。賢人唯毋得明君而事之,竭四肢之力以任君之事,終身不倦。若有美善則歸之上,是以美善在上而所怨謗在下,寧樂在君,憂慼在臣,故古者聖王之為政若此。
Exaltation of the Virtuous...:
However, if there is only the principle while the technique of its application is not known, then it would seem to be still incomplete. Therefore there should be laid down three rules. What are the three rules? They are: (1) when their rank (that of the virtuous) is not high, people would not show them respect; (2) when their emoluments are not liberal, people would not place confidence in them; (3) when their orders are not final, people would not stand in awe before them. So the ancient sage-kings placed them high in rank, gave them liberal emoluments, trusted them with important charges, and decreed their orders to be final. And all this was done not merely to reward their subordinates; it was to fulfil their trust. Thus runs an Ode: "I am instructing you to take worries and cares of the world as your own; I am teaching the order of ranks for the virtuous and talented. Who can handle heat without rinsing his hands (in cold water)?" This is to show how in the past the rulers could not do without befriending subordinates and helpers. It was like the necessity of rinsing in handling hot objects to relieve the hands. The ancient sage-kings concentrated on acquiring, and employing the virtuous - honouring them with high ranks, and assigning land to them--unwearied to the end of their lives. The virtuous men on the other hand only hoped to find an enlightened ruler to serve - exhausting all the powers of the four limbs to attend to the king's business - untired to the end of their lives. When there were any excellences and virtues they were attributed to the emperor. Thus excellences and virtues belonged to the emperor while complaints and slanders were directed against the subordinates. Peace and joy abode with the king while worries and sorrows were lodged with the officials. This was how the ancient sage-kings administered the government.

4 尚賢中:
今王公大人亦欲效人以尚賢使能為政,高予之爵,而祿不從也。夫高爵而無祿,民不信也。曰:『此非中實愛我也,假藉而用我也。』夫假藉之民,將豈能親其上哉!故先王言曰:『貪於政者「不能分人以事,厚於貨者不能分人以祿。」事則不與,祲則不分,請問天下之賢人將何自至乎王公大人之側哉?若苟賢者不至乎王公大人之側,則此不肖者在左右也。不肖者在左右,則其所譽不當賢,而所罰不當暴,王公大人尊此以為政乎國家,則賞亦必不當賢,而罰亦必不當暴。若苟賞不當賢而罰不當暴,則是為賢者不勸而為暴者不沮矣。是以入則不慈孝父母,出則不長弟鄉里,居處無節,出入無度,男女無別。使治官府則盜竊,守城則倍畔,君有難則不死,出亡則不從,使斷獄則不中,分財則不均,與謀事不得,舉事不成,入守不固,出誅不彊。故雖昔者三代暴王桀紂幽厲之所以失措其國家,傾覆其社稷者,已此故也。何則?皆以明小物而不明大物也。
Exaltation of the Virtuous...:
The present ruler, imitating the ancients, also want to employ the virtuous in government by exalting them. Ranks given them are very high, but the emoluments do not follow proportionally. Now, to be high in rank but receive small emoluments will not inspire people's confidence. The virtuous would say to themselves: "This is not real love for me, but only to make use of me as a means." Now, how can people be affectionate to their superiors' when they are only (treated as) means? Therefore an ancient king said: "He who is too ambitious in government will not share his tasks with others. He who over-treasures wealth will not offer big emoluments to others." When tasks are not assigned and emoluments are not given, it may be asked wherefrom would the virtuous come to the side of the rulers? And when the virtuous are not at the side of the rulers, the vicious will be on their right and left. When the vicious are on the right and left, then commendations will not fall on the virtuous and punishments will not be upon the wicked. If the rulers follow these in governing the states, in the same way rewards will not go to the virtuous and punishment not to the wicked. When rewards really do not go to the virtuous and punishment not to the wicked, then the virtuous will find no encouragement, neither the wicked any obstruction. At home the vicious are not filial to their parents, and, having left their home town, they would not recognize their elders. They move about without restraint and disregard the rules of propriety about sexes. When trusted with the administration of the court, they would steal; when trusted to defend a city, they would raise an insurrection. When the lord meets with death, they would not follow him and commit suicide; when the lord has to flee the country, they would not accompany him in banishment. In judging lawsuits they are not just, and in dividing property they are partial. In planning they are not helpful, in execution they are inefficient. Neither in defence are they strong, nor in attack are they victorious. Now, the reason that the wicked kings of the Three Dynasties, namely, Jie, Zhou, You, and Li, misruled the country and upset their states was no other than this (employment of the vicious). Why is this so? Because they understood petty affairs but were ignorant about things of importance.

5 尚賢中:
今王公大人,有一衣裳不能制也,必藉良工;有一牛羊不能殺也,必藉良宰。故當若之二物者,王公大人未知以尚賢使能為政也。逮至其國家之亂,社稷之危,則不知使能以治之,親戚則使之,無故富貴、面目佼好則使之。夫無故富貴、面目佼好則使之,豈必智且有慧哉!若使之治國家,則此使不智慧者治國家也,國家之亂既可得而知已。且夫王公大人有所愛其色而使,其心不察其知而與其愛。是故不能治百人者,使處乎千人之官,不能治千人者,使處乎萬人之官。此其故何也?曰處若官者爵高而祿厚,故愛其色而使之焉。夫不能治千人者,使處乎萬人之官,則此官什倍也。夫治之法將日至者也,日以治之,日不什脩,知以治之,知不什益,而予官什倍,則此治一而棄其九矣。雖日夜相接以治若官,官猶若不治,此其故何也?則王公大人不明乎以尚賢使能為政也。故以尚賢使能為政而治者,夫若言之謂也,以下賢為政而亂者,若吾言之謂也。
Exaltation of the Virtuous...:
When the rulers cannot get a coat made they will employ able tailors. When they cannot have an ox or a sheep killed they will employ able butchers. In these two instances they do know they should exalt the virtuous and employ the capable for business. But when it comes to the disorder of the country and danger of the state, they do not know they should exalt the virtuous and employ the capable for government. Rather, they would employ their relatives, they would employ the rich without merit, and the good-looking. But as to the employment of the rich without merit and the good-looking -- will these necessarily prove themselves wise and intelligent? To let these rule the country is to let the unwise and unintelligent rule the country. And disorder can then be predicted. Moreover, the rulers employ their minds by the attractiveness of their appearance, and show them favour without finding out their knowledge. As a result, those who are not capable to rule a hundred men are assigned to posts over a thousand, and those who are not capable to rule a thousand are assigned to posts over ten thousand. What is the reason for this? Why, such positions are high in rank and rich in emoluments. Therefore the specially favoured are picked for them. But to make those incapable of ruling a thousand men rule ten thousand is to increase their duty tenfold. The business of the government comes daily. It is to be attended to every day, yet the day cannot be lengthened by tenfold. To govern, again, requires knowledge. When knowledge is not increased by ten times, while a tenfold task is assigned, it will evidently result in attending to one and neglecting nine. Though the task be attended to day and night, still it cannot be well executed. And the reason for this is because the rulers do not understand that they should exalt the virtuous and employ the capable in government. Thus exaltation of the virtuous and employment of the capable with the consequent success in government is presented above in the earlier paragraphs. And the depreciation of the virtuous with the resulting confusion in government is presented here in these paragraphs.

6 尚賢中:
今王公大人中實將欲治其國家,欲脩保而勿失,胡不察尚賢為政之本也?且以尚賢為政之本者,亦豈獨子墨子之言哉!此聖王之道,先王之書距年之言也。傳曰:『求聖君哲人,以裨輔而身』,《湯誓》云:『聿求元聖,與之戮力同心,以治天下。』則此言聖之不失以尚賢使能為政也。故古者聖王唯能審以尚賢使能為政,無異物雜焉,天下皆得其利。古者舜耕歷山,陶河瀕,漁雷澤,堯得之服澤之陽,舉以為天子,與接天下之政,治天下之民。伊摯,有莘氏女之私臣,親為庖人,湯得之,舉以為己相,與接天下之政,治天下之民。傅說被褐帶索。庸築乎傅巖,武丁得之,舉以為三公,與接天下之政,治天下之民。此何故始賤卒而貴,始貧卒而富?則王公大人明乎以尚賢使能為政。是以民無飢而不得食,寒而不得衣,勞而不得息,亂而不得治者。
Exaltation of the Virtuous...:
If the rulers now want to govern their states so that they will be permanent and unshakeable, why do they not learn that exaltation of the virtuous is the foundation of government? Besides, is this principle merely a conception of Mozi? It is the way of the sage-kings and the tenet of "Ju Nian," a book of an ancient king. And, thus it is recorded: "(He) sought out the wise men to protect and aid you." And thus states the "Oath of Tang": "I then sought for the Great Sage, with whom I might unite my strength and mind to govern the empire." All these show how the sage-kings never failed to exalt the virtuous and employ the capable in government. The sage-kings of old comprehended onlv this -- to exalt the virtuous and employ the capable in government and nobody else; so the whole world was benefited. In times of old, Shun cultivated land at Mt. Li made pottery by the River, and was engaged in fishing in Lake Lei. Yao discovered him at Fuze. Exalting him, Yao made him Emperor and handed to him the government of the empire and the rule over the people. Yi Zhi once served in the bridal party of the daughter of the Prince of Xin, and later voluntarily served Tang as his cook. Tang discovered him. Exalting him, Tang made him his Prime Minister and handed to him the government of the empire and the rule over the people. Fu Yue once wore garments of coarse cloth tied with ropes, working as an artisan at Fu Yan. Wu Ding discovered him. Exalting him, Wu Ding made him High Duke and handed to him the government of the empire and the rule over the people. Why is it that these people starting in humility arrived at honour, starting in poverty arrived at wealth? It is because these rulers understood the importance of exalting the virtuous and employing the capable in government. Therefore, none of the people were hungry yet without food, cold yet without clothing, tired yet without rest, disturbed yet without peace.

7 尚賢中:
故古聖王以審以尚賢使能為政,而取法於天。雖天亦不辯貧富、貴賤、遠邇、親疏、賢者舉而尚之,不肖者抑而廢之。然則富貴為賢,以得其賞者誰也?曰若昔者三代聖王堯、舜、禹、湯、文、武者是也。所以得其賞何也?曰其為政乎天下也,兼而愛之,從而利之,又率天下之萬民以尚尊天、事鬼、愛利萬民,是故天鬼賞之,立為天子,以為民父母,萬民從而譽之曰『聖王』,至今不已。則此富貴為賢,以得其賞者也。然則富貴為暴,以得其罰者誰也?曰若昔者三代暴王桀、紂、幽、厲者是也。何以知其然也?曰其為政乎天下也,兼而憎之,從而賊之,又率天下之民以詬天侮鬼,賊傲萬民,是故天鬼罰之,使身死而為刑戮,子孫離散,室家喪滅,絕無後嗣,萬民從而非之曰「暴王」,至今不已。則此富貴為暴,而以得其罰者也。然則親而不善,以得其罰者誰也?曰若昔者伯鯀,帝之元子,廢帝之德庸,既乃刑之于羽之郊,乃熱照無有及也,帝亦不愛。則此親而不善以得其罰者也。然則天之所使能者誰也?曰若昔者禹、稷、皋陶是也。何以知其然也?先王之書呂刑道之曰:『皇帝清問下民,有辭有苗。曰群后之肆在下,明明不常,鰥寡不蓋,德威維威,德明維明。乃名三后,恤功於民,伯夷降典,哲民維刑。禹平水土,主名山川。稷隆播種,農殖嘉穀。三后成功,維假於民。』則此言三聖人者,謹其言,慎其行,精其思慮,索天下之隱事遺利,以上事天,則天鄉其德,下施之萬民,萬民被其利,終身無已。故先王之言曰:『此道也,大用之天下則不窕,小用之則不困,脩用之則萬民被其利,終身無已。』周頌道之曰:『聖人之德,若天之高,若地之普,其有昭於天下也。若地之固,若山之承,不坼不崩。若日之光,若月之明,與天地同常。』則此言聖人之德,章明博大,埴固,以脩久也。故聖人之德蓋總乎天地者也。
Exaltation of the Virtuous...:
And, the ancient sage-kings in exalting the virtuous and employing the capable in government were following the ways of Heaven. Even Heaven does not discriminate among the poor and the rich, the honourable and the humble, the distant and the near, and the related and the unrelated (to those in power). The virtuous were promoted and exalted; the vicious were kept back and banished. Now, who were those that, possessing wealth and position, still strove after virtues and were rewarded ? They were the sage-kings of the Three Dynasties, namely, Yao, Shun, Yu, Tang, Wen and Wu (12). How were they rewarded? When they governed the empire, they loved all the people universally and benefited them, and led them in doing honour to Heaven and service to the spirits. As they loved and benefited the people, Heaven and the spirits rewarded them, appointing them to be Sons of Heaven, and parents of the people. And, thereupon people praised them, calling them sage-kings even unto this day. These then were those that, possessing wealth and position, still strove after virtues and were rewarded. Now, who were those that, possessing wealth and position, yet practiced evil and were punished? They were the wicked kings of the Three Dynasties, namely, Jie, Zhou, You, and Li. How do we know they were those ? When they governed the empire they disliked all the people inclusively and oppressed them and led them to curse Heaven and the spirits. Oppressing and destroying the people, they were punished by Heaven and the spirits; their corpses were mangled and lacerated, their children and grandchildren were scattered and dispersed, their family hearths were extinguished and descendants exterminated. And, thereupon the people railed at them, calling them wicked kings even unto this day. These, then, are those that, possessing wealth and position, yet practised evil and were punished. Now, who were those that were related (to the ruler) but not virtuous and were visited by punishment? Count Gun was of direct royal descent but had degenerated in the royal virtues. So he was banished to the wilderness of Yu Yu where (in the prison) light could not reach him, neither did the emperor show any favour. Such was he who was related but not virtuous and was visited by punishment. Now, who were those that were employed by Heaven because of their capability? Yu, Ji, and Gao Tao were they. How do we know that? It is found in the " Penal Code of Lu," a book of an early king, thus: "The Emperor (Yao) inquired among his subjects, and complaints were made against the Miaos (barbarians)." Again, "As the feudal lords have been appointed without insight, even the widows and the widowers are not protected. Dignity is revered only when it is accompanied with magnanimity; enlightenment is respected only when it is accompanied with magnanimity. Thereupon three chiefs were commissioned to care for and consolate the people: (1) Bo Yi delivered the laws and statutes and taught therewith the people; (2) Yu reduced the Flood and recovered the land, and gave names to hills and rivers; (3) Ji descended (from his rank) and sowed seeds to encourage good farming. The benefits of the achievements of these three chiefs all fell upon the people." This is to say that the three sages were careful in speech, vigilant in conduct, penetrating in thought, studying and planning for every detail and benefit of the world--with this to do service to Heaven on high, Heaven will bless their virtue; to bestow it to the people below, the people will be visited by its benefits lasting beyond their lifetime. Thus said the ancient kings: "Now, this way, when followed broadly to govern the world, will not be found to be too slender; when followed narrowly, will not be too unwieldly; when followed with discretion, will benefit the people beyond their lifetime." Referring to it, the "Eulogy of Zhou" sings: "The virtue of the sage shining upon the world is lofty as Heaven, wide as earth, high as the mountain, unbreakable and infallible; luminating as the sun, brilliant as the moon, eternal with heaven and earth." This is to describe how enlightening and all-embracing, deep-rooted and, therefore, permanent is the virtue of the sage. Therefore the virtue of the sage is really inclusive of heaven and earth.

8 尚賢中:
今王公大人欲王天下,正諸侯,夫無德義將何以哉?其說將必挾震威彊。今王公大人將焉取挾震威彊哉?傾者民之死也。民生為甚欲,死為甚憎,所欲不得而所僧屢至,自古及今未嘗能有以此王天下、正諸侯者也。今大人欲王天下,正諸侯,將欲使意得乎天下,名成乎後世,故不察尚賢
1政之本也。此聖人之厚行也。」
Exaltation of the Virtuous...:
Now, the rulers want to be lord over the empire and be head of the feudal lords. But how can it be done without virtue and righteousness? Their way must be by overpowering and overawing. But what makes them adopt this? It simply pursues the people to death. But life is what the people eagerly desire, and death what they greatly dread. What is desired is not obtained, but what is dreaded befalls them ever so often. From antiquity to the present, none has yet been able to be lord over the empire and head of the feudal lords by this way. Now the rulers desire to be lord of the world and head of the feudal lords and want to have their ideas prevail all over the world, and their names established in posterity. But why do they not learn that exaltation of the virtuous is the foundation of government? This was the actual conduct of the sages.

1. 為 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

尚賢下 - Exaltation of the Virtuous III

English translation: W. P. Mei [?] Library Resources
1 尚賢下:
子墨子言曰:「天下之王公大人皆欲其國家之富也,人民之眾也,刑法之治也,然而不識以尚賢為政其國家百姓,王公大人本失尚賢為政之本也。若苟王公大人本失尚賢為政之本也,則不能毋舉物示之乎?今若有一諸侯於此,為政其國家也,曰:『凡我國能射御之士,我將賞貴之,不能射御之士,我將罪賤之。』問於若國之士,孰喜孰懼?我以為必能射御之士喜,不能射御之士懼。我賞因而誘之矣,曰:『凡我國之忠信之士,我將賞貴之,不忠信之士,我將罪賤之。』問於若國之士,孰喜孰懼?我以為必忠信之士喜,不忠不信之士懼。今惟毋以尚賢為政其國家百姓,使國為善者勸,為暴者沮,大以為政於天下,使天下之為善者勸,為暴者沮。然昔吾所以貴堯舜禹湯文武之道者,何故以哉?以其唯毋臨眾發政而治民,使天下之為善者可而勸也,為暴者可而沮也。然則此尚賢者也,與堯舜禹湯文武之道同矣。
Exaltation of the Virtuous...:
Mozi said: All the rulers in the world desire their states to be wealthy, their people to be many, and their government and jurisdiction to be orderly. But they do not understand to govern their states and people by exaltation of the virtuous. They have missed, indeed, the foundation of government. But can we not point this out to them by means of parallels? Now, supposing, in governing his state, a feudal lord should proclaim: "All those who can shoot (with an arrow) and drive (a chariot) well I shall reward and honour; all those who cannot I shall punish and disgrace." If, then, we should inquire among the people of the state as to who would rejoice and who would be afraid, I suppose naturally those who could shoot and drive would rejoice and those who could not would be afraid. I have followed this (line of argument) and led them supposedly to proclaim: "All the loyal and faithful I shall reward and honour; all the disloyal and unfaithful I shall punish and disgrace." If now we should inquire among the people of the state as to who would rejoice and who would be afraid, I suppose naturally the loyal and faithful would rejoice and the disloyal and unfaithful would be afraid. Therefore the state and the people are to be governed by exalting the virtuous, so that those in the state that do good will be encouraged and those that do evil will be obstructed. To govern the empire seems then to consist of encouraging the good and obstructing the evil. But why is it that I have esteemed the way of Yao, Shun, Yu, Tang, Wen, and Wu? Because they administered the government in such a way that those in the empire that did good would be encouraged and those that did evil would be obstructed. So, then, the principle of exaltation of the virtuous is identical with the way of Yao, Shun, Yu, Tang, Wen, and Wu.

2 尚賢下:
而今天下之士君子,居處言語皆尚賢,逮至其臨眾發政而治民,莫知尚賢而使能,我以此知天下之士君子,明
1小而不明於大也。何以知其然乎?今王公大人,有一牛羊之財不能殺,必索良宰;有一衣裳之財不能制,必索良工。當王公大人之於此也,雖有骨肉之親,無故富貴、面目美好者,實知其不能也,不使之也,是何故?恐其敗財也。當王公大人之於此也,則不失尚賢而使能。王公大人有一罷馬不能治,必索良醫;有一危弓不能張,必索良工。當王公大人之於此也,雖有骨肉之親,無故富貴、面目美好者,實知其不能也,必不使。是何故?恐其敗財也。當王公大人之於此也,則不失尚賢而使能。逮至其國家則不然,王公大人骨肉之親,無故富貴、面目美好者,則舉之,則王公大人之親其國家也,不若親其一危弓、罷馬、衣裳、牛羊之財與。我以此知天下之士君子皆明於小,而不明於大也。此譬猶瘖者而使為行人,聾者而使為樂師。
Exaltation of the Virtuous...:
The gentlemen of to-day all exalt the virtuous in their private speech and conduct. But when it comes to the administration of the government for the public, they fail to exalt the virtuous and employ the capable. Then I know the gentlemen understand only trifles and not things of significance. How do I know it is so? Suppose the ruler had a cow or a sheep which he could not have killed, he would surely look for a skilful butcher. Or if he wanted a garment which he could not have made, he would surely look for a skilful tailor. For these, the ruler would not employ his relatives, the rich without merit, and the good-looking, because he knew clearly they were incapable. He was afraid they would spoil the things to be attended to. So, in these, the rulers do not fail to exalt the virtuous and employ the capable. Again, if the ruler had a sick horse that he could not have cured, he would surely look for an experienced veterinary doctor. Or if he had a tight bow which he could not draw, he would surely look for a skilful workman. For these, the ruler would not employ his relatives, the rich without merit, and the good-looking, because he knew clearly they were incapable. He was afraid they would spoil the things to be attended to. So, in these matters the rulers do not fall to exalt the virtuous and employ the capable. But when it comes to the affairs of the state all is different. The relations of the rulers, the rich without merit, and the good-looking are all promoted. Then does it not seem that the rulers love their states not even as much as they love a tight bow, a sick horse, a garment, or a cow or a sheep? Therefore I know the gentlemen of the world understand only trifles and not things of significance. This is like trying to make messengers of the dumb and musical directors of the deaf.

1. 於 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

3 尚賢下:
是故古之聖王之治天下也,其所富,其所貴,未必王公大人骨肉之親、無故富貴、面目美好者也。是故昔者舜耕於歷山,陶於河瀕,漁於雷澤,灰於常陽。堯得之服澤之陽,立為天子,使接天下之政,而治天下之民。昔伊尹為莘氏女師僕,使為庖人,湯得而舉之,立為三公,使接天下之政,治天下之民。昔者傅說居北海之洲,圜土之上,衣褐帶索,庸築於傅巖之城,武丁得而舉之,立為三公,使之接天下之政,而治天下之民。是故昔者堯之舉舜也,湯之舉伊尹也,武丁之舉傅說也,豈以為骨肉之親、無故富貴、面目美好者哉?惟法其言,用其謀,行其道,上可而利天,中可而利鬼,下可而利人,是故推而上之。
Exaltation of the Virtuous...:
To the contrary, in governing the empire the sage-kings of old enriched and honoured those who were not necessarily their relatives, the rich without merit, or the good-looking. At one time Shun cultivated land at Mt. Li, made pottery by the River, engaged in fishing in Lake Lei, and went peddling in Changyang. Yao discovered him at Fuze, made him emperor, and handed him the government of the empire and the rule over the people. Yi Yin once took part in the bridal party of the daughter of the Prince of Xin, and then was employed as a cook. Tang discovered him and exalted him to be High Duke, handing him the government of the empire and the rule over the people. Once Fu Yue lived in the District of Beihai and built the prison walls. His clothing was of coarse cloth and tied with ropes. Wu Ding discovered him and exalted him to be High Duke, handing him the government of the empire and the rule over the people. Now, when Yao exalted Shun, Tang exalted Yi Yin, and Wu Ding exalted Fu Yue was it because they were their relatives, the rich without merit, or the good-looking? It was only because that by adopting their views, carrying out their plans, and following their ways, Heaven on high would be blessed, the spirits in the middle would be blessed, and the people below would be blessed. Therefore they were promoted and exalted.

4 尚賢下:
古者聖王既審尚賢欲以為政,故書之竹帛,琢之槃盂,傳以遺後世子孫。於先王之書呂刑之書然,王曰:『於!來!有國有土,告女訟刑,在今而安百姓,女何擇言人,何敬不刑,何度不及。』能擇人而敬為刑,堯、舜、禹、湯、文、武之道可及也。是何也?則以尚賢及之,於先王之書豎年之言然,曰:『晞夫聖、武、知人,以屏輔而身。』此言先王之治天下也,必選擇賢者以為其群屬輔佐。曰今也天下之士君子,皆欲富貴而惡貧賤。曰然。女何為而得富貴而辟貧賤?莫若為賢。為賢之道將柰何?曰有力者疾以助人,有財者勉以分人,有道者勸以教人。若此則飢者得食,寒者得衣,亂者得治。若飢則得食,寒則得衣,亂則得治,此安生生。
Exaltation of the Virtuous...:
Having understood the principle of exalting the virtuous in government, the ancient sage-kings inscribed it on bamboos and silk and engraved it on the dishes and vases, to hand it down to their descendants. Thus we find in the "Penal Code of Lu", a book of an ancient king, the following: "The king said: 'Ho! come, ye rulers of states and territories, I will tell you how to make punishments a blessing. Now it is yours to give repose to the people: - what should you be most concerned about the choosing of? Should it not be proper men? What should you deal with the most reverently? Should it not be punishments? What should you calculate the most? Should it not be to whom they should reach?'" (This is to say) with insight in choosing men and considerateness in meting punishments, you can catch up with the ways of Yao, Shun, Yu, Tang, Wen, and Wu. How? By exaltation of the virtuous. Again in the book "Shu Nian", another book of an ancient king, we find: "He looked for wise men to protect and aid you." This is to say, when the ancient kings reigned over the empire they invariably selected the virtuous and made them officials and aids. The gentlemen in the world like riches and honour, and dislike poverty and humility. Now how can you obtain the former and avoid the latter? There is no better way than to practise virtue. What then is the way to practise virtue ? Let him who has strength be alert to help others, let him who has wealth endeavour to share it with others, let him who possesses the Dao (the way of nature and life) teach others persuasively. With this, the hungry will be fed, the cold will be clothed, the disturbed will have order. When the hungry are fed, the cold are clothed, and the disturbed have order - this is procuring abundant life.

5 尚賢下:
今王公大人其所富,其所貴,皆王公大人骨肉之親,無故富貴、面目美好者也。今王公大人骨肉之親,無故富貴、面目美好者,焉故必知哉!若不知,使治其國家,則其國家之亂可得而知也。今天下之士君子皆欲富貴而惡貧賤。然女何為而得富貴,而辟貧賤哉?曰莫若為王公大人骨肉之親,無
故富貴、面目美好者
1。王公大人骨肉之親,無故富貴、面目美好者,此非可學能者也。使不知辯,德行之厚若禹、湯、文、武不加得也,王公大人骨肉之親,躄、瘖、聾,暴為桀、紂,不加失也。是故以賞不當賢,罰不當暴,其所賞者已無故矣,其所罰者亦無罪。是以使百姓皆攸心解體,沮以為善,垂其股肱之力而不相勞來也;腐臭餘財,而不相分資也,隱慝良道,而不相教誨也。若此,則飢者不
得食,寒者
2不得衣,亂者不得治
3推而上之以。
Exaltation of the Virtuous...:
But those whom the rulers now are enriching and honouring are all their relatives, the rich without merit, and the good-looking. What can there be that guarantees these to be wise? When the unwise are charged with the government of the country, disorder in the country can be predicted. Now the gentlemen of the world like riches and honour, and dislike poverty and humility. But how can you obtain the former and avoid the latter? There seems to be no other way than to be the rulers' relatives, the rich without merit, and the good-looking. Evidently one cannot become these by learning. So, when the art of judging is not understood, although some virtuous people may even compare with Yu, Tang, Wen, and Wu, there will be no commendation. And, although a relative of the ruler may be lame and dumb, deaf and blind, and evil like Jie and Zhou, there will be no condemnation. Therefore reward does not fall on the virtuous or punishment on the evil. As those rewarded are without merit, those punished are naturally without guilt. And so, people all became disintegrated in heart and dissipated in body, and despairing in doing good. With all their strength unused, they would not help one another ; with all unused supplies rotting and fermenting, they would not share with one another; hiding the excellent Dao they would not show it to others. As a result of this, the hungry are not fed, the cold are not clothed, and the disturbed are not given order.

1. 故富貴、面目美好者 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 推而上之以 : Deleted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
3. 得食,寒者不得衣,亂者不得治 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

6 尚賢下:
是故昔者堯有舜,舜有禹,禹有皋陶,湯有小臣,武王有閎夭、泰顛、南宮括、散宜生,
而天下和,庶民阜,是以近者安之,遠者歸之。日月之所照,舟車之所及,雨露之所漸,粒食之所養,
1得此不勸譽。且今天下之王公大人士君子,中實將欲為仁義,求為士,上欲中聖王之道,下欲中國家百姓之利,
而天下和,庶民阜,是以近者安之,遠者歸之。日月之所照,舟車之所及,雨露之所漸,粒食之所養,
2故尚賢之為說,而不可不察此者也。尚賢者,天鬼百姓之利,而政事之本也。」
Exaltation of the Virtuous...:
In the days of old, Yao had Shun, Shun had Yu, Yu had Gao Yao, Tang had Yi Yin, King Wu had Hong Yao, Tai Dian, Nangong Kuo and San Yisheng -- therefore the world was harmonious and people were prosperous. And those near felt contented and those distant were attracted. Wherever the sun and the moon shone, boats and vehicles could reach, rain and dew visited, and life depended on grains; few were not converted (to good) by this. Hence if the rulers in the world now desire to do magnanimity and righteousness and be superior men, and desire to strike the way of the sage-kings on the one hand and work for the benefit of the country and the people on the other; then it is indispensable that the principle of Exaltation of the Virtuous be understood. Now, exaltation of the virtuous is indeed the blessing of Heaven, the spirits, and the people, as well as the foundation of government.

1. 而天下和,庶民阜,是以近者安之,遠者歸之。日月之所照,舟車之所及,雨露之所漸,粒食之所養, : Moved here from entry 6. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 而天下和,庶民阜,是以近者安之,遠者歸之。日月之所照,舟車之所及,雨露之所漸,粒食之所養, : Moved to entry 6. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

URN: ctp:mozi/book-2