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-> -> -> Book 7

《卷七 - Book 7》

English translation: W. P. Mei [?] Library Resources

天志上 - Will of Heaven I

English translation: W. P. Mei [?] Library Resources
1 天志上:
子墨子言曰:「今天下之士君子,知小而不知大。何以知之?以其處家者知之。若處家得罪於家長,猶有鄰家所避逃之。然且親戚兄弟所知識,共相儆戒,皆曰:『不可不戒矣!不可不慎矣!惡有處家而得罪於家長,而可為也!』非獨處家者為然,雖處國亦然。處國得罪於國君,猶有鄰國所避逃之,然且親戚兄弟所知識,共相儆戒皆曰:『不可不戒矣!不可不慎矣!誰亦有處國得罪於國君,而可為也』!此有所避逃之者也,相儆戒猶若此其厚,況無所避逃之者,相儆戒豈不愈厚,然後可哉?且語言有之曰:『焉而晏日焉而得罪,將惡避逃之?』曰無所避逃之。夫天不可為林谷幽門無人,明必見之。然而天下之
1君子
之於
2天也,忽然不知以相儆戒,此我所以知天下士君子知小而不知大也。
Will of Heaven I:
Mozi said: The gentlemen of the world all understand only trifles but not things of importance. How do we know? We know this from one's conduct in the family. If one should offend the patriarch of the family, there are still the homes of the neighbours in which to seek shelter. Yet parents, brothers, and friends all keep on reminding one to be obedient and careful. For, how can one offend the patriarch and stay in the family? Not only is this true about conduct in the family, but also in the state. If one should offend the lord of the state there are still the neighbouring states whither he may flee. Yet parents, brothers, and friends all keep on reminding one to be obedient and careful. For, how can one offend the lord of the state and stay in it? From these there are yet shelters to flee to, yet there are such constant counsels. Should there not be more counsels in a case from which there is nowhere to flee? As the saying goes: "Sinning in broad daylight, whither can one flee?" Really there is nowhere to flee. For, Heaven clearly discerns it even if it be in the woods, valleys, or solitary caves where there is no man. But, contrary to our expectation, regarding Heaven, the gentlemen of the world do not understand mutually to give counsel. This is how we know the gentlemen in the world understand only trifles and not things of importance.

1. 士 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 之於 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

2 天志上:
然則天亦何欲何惡?天欲義而惡不義。然則率天下之百姓以從事於義,則我乃為天之所欲也。我為天之所欲,天亦為我所欲。然則
1何欲何惡?我欲福祿而惡禍祟。
若我不為天之所欲,而為天之所不欲,
2然則我率天下之百姓,以從事於禍祟中也。然則何
3知天之欲義而惡不義?曰天下有義則生,無義則死;有義則富,無義則貧;有義則治,無義則亂。然則天欲其生而惡其死,欲其富而惡其貧,欲其治而惡其亂,此我所以知天欲義而惡不義也。
Will of Heaven I:
Now, what does Heaven desire and what does it abominate? Heaven desires righteousness and abominates unrighteousness. Therefore, in leading the people in the world to engage in doing righteousness I should be doing what Heaven desires. When I do what Heaven desires, Heaven will also do what I desire. Now, what do I desire and what do I abominate? I desire blessings and emoluments, and abominate calamities and misfortunes. When I do not do what Heaven desires, neither will Heaven do what I desire. Then I should be leading the people into calamities and misfortunes. But how do we know Heaven desires righteousness and abominates unrighteousness? For, with righteousness the world lives and without it the world dies; with it the world becomes rich and without it the world becomes poor; with it the world becomes orderly and without it the world becomes chaotic. And if Heaven likes to have the world live and dislikes to have it die, likes to have it rich and dislikes to have it poor, and likes to have it orderly and dislikes to have it disorderly. Therefore we know Heaven desires righteousness and abominates unrighteousness.

1. 我 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 若我不為天之所欲,而為天之所不欲, : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
3. 以 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

3 天志上:
曰且夫義者政也,無從下之政上,必從上之政下。是故庶人竭力從事,未得次己而為政,有士政之;士竭力從事,未得次己而為政,有將軍大夫政之;將軍大夫竭力從事,未得次己而為政,有三公諸侯政之;三公諸侯竭力聽治,未得次己而為政,有天子政之;天子未得次己而為政,有天政之。天子為政於三公、諸侯、士、庶人,天下之士君子固明知,天之為政於天子,天下百姓未得之明知也。故昔三代聖王禹湯文武,欲以天之為政於天子,明說天下之百姓,故莫不犓牛羊,豢犬彘,潔
為粢
1盛酒醴,以祭祀上帝鬼神,而求祈福於天。我未嘗聞天下之所求祈福於天子者也,我所以知天之為政於天子者也。
Will of Heaven I:
Moreover, righteousness is the standard. A standard is not to be given by the subordinates to the superior but by the superior to the subordinates. Therefore, while the common people should spare no pains at work they may not make the standard at will. There are the scholars to give them the standard. While the scholars should spare no pains at work, they may not make the standard at will. There are the ministers and secretaries to give them the standard. While the ministers and secretaries should spare no pains at work, they may not make the standard at will. There are the high duke and feudal lords to give them the standard. While the high duke and the feudal lords should spare no pains at work, they may not make the standard at will. There is the emperor to give them the standard. The emperor may not make the standard at will (either). There is Heaven to give him the standard. That the emperor gives the standard to the high dukes, to the feudal lords, to the scholars, and to the common people, the gentlemen in the world clearly understand. But that Heaven gives the standard to the emperor, the people do not know well. Therefore the ancient sage-kings of the Three Dynasties, Yu, Tang, Wen, and Wu, desiring to make it clear to the people that Heaven gives the standard to the emperor, fed oxen and sheep with grass, and pigs and dogs with grain, and cleanly prepared the cakes and wine to do sacrifice to God on High and the spirits, and invoked Heaven's blessing. But I have not yet heard of Heaven invoking the emperor for blessing. So I know Heaven gives the standard to the emperor.

1. 為粢 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

4 天志上:
故天子者,天下之窮貴也,天下之窮富也,故於富且貴者,當天意而不可不順,順天意者,兼相愛,交相利,必得賞。反天意者,別相惡,交相賊,必得罰。然則是誰順天意而得賞者?誰反天意而得罰者?」子墨子言曰:「昔三代聖王禹湯文武,此順天意而得賞也。昔三代之暴王桀紂幽厲,此反天意而得罰者也。然則禹湯文武其得賞何以也?」子墨子言曰:「其事上尊天,中事鬼神,下愛人,故天意曰:『此之我所愛,兼而愛之;我所利,兼而利之。愛人者此為博焉,利人者此為厚焉。』故使貴為天子,富有天下,業萬世子孫,傳稱其善,方施天下,至今稱之,謂之聖王。」然則桀紂幽厲得其罰何以也?」子墨子言曰:「其事上詬天,中詬鬼,下賊人,故天意曰:『此之我所愛,別而惡之,我所利,交而賊之。惡人者此為之博也,賊人者此為之厚也。』故使不得終其壽,不歿其世,至今毀之,謂之暴王。
Will of Heaven I:
The emperor is the most honourable of the world and the richest of the world. So, the honoured and the rich cannot but obey the will of Heaven. He who obeys the will of Heaven, loving universally and benefiting others, will obtain rewards. He who opposes the will of Heaven, by being partial and unfriendly and harming others, will incur punishment. Now, who were those that obeyed the will of Heaven and obtained rewards, and who were those that opposed the will of Heaven and incurred punishment? Mozi said: The ancient sage-kings of the Three Dynasties, Yu, Tang, Wen, and Wu, were those that obeyed the will of Heaven and obtained reward. And the wicked kings of the Three Dynasties, Jie, Zhou, You, and Li, were those that opposed the will of Heaven and incurred punishment. How did Yu, Tang, Wen, and Wu obtain their reward? Mozi said: In the highest sphere they revered Heaven, in the middle sphere they worshipped the spirits, and in the lower sphere they loved the people. Thereupon the will of Heaven proclaimed: "All those whom I love these love also, and all those whom I benefit these benefit also. Their love to men is all-embracing and their benefit to men is most substantial." And so, they were raised to the honour of Sons of Heaven and enriched with the heritage of the empire. They were succeeded by descendants for ten thousand generations to continue the spread of their righteousness all over the world. And people praise them unto this day, calling them righteous sage-kings. How did Jie, Zhou, You, and Li incur their punishment? Mozi said: In the highest sphere they blasphemed against Heaven, in the middle sphere they blasphemed against the spirits, and in the sphere below they oppressed the people. Thereupon the will of Heaven proclaimed: "From those whom I love these turn away and hate, and those whom I want to benefit they oppress. Their hate of men is without limit and their oppression of men the most severe." And, so, they were not permitted to finish out their lives, or to survive a single generation. And people condemn them unto this day, calling them wicked kings.

5 天志上:
然則何以知天之愛天下之百姓?以其兼而明之。何以知其兼而明之?以其兼而有之。何以知其兼而有之?以其兼而食焉。何以知其兼而食焉?四海之內,粒食之民,莫不犓牛羊,豢犬彘,潔為粢盛酒醴,以祭祀於上帝鬼神,天有邑人,何用弗愛也?且吾言殺一不辜者必有一不祥。殺不辜者誰也?則人也。予之不祥者誰也?則天也。若以天為不愛天下之百姓,則何故以人與人相殺,而天予之不祥?此我所以知天之愛天下之百姓也。
Will of Heaven I:
How do we know Heaven loves the people? Because it teaches them all. How do we know it teaches them all? Because it claims them all. How do we know it claims them all? Because it accepts sacrifices from them all. How do we know it accepts sacrifices from all? Because within the four seas all who live on grains feed oxen and sheep with grass, and dogs and pigs with grains, and prepare clean cakes and wine to do sacrifice to God on High and the spirits. Claiming all the people, why will Heaven not love them? Moreover, as I have said, for the murder of one innocent individual there will be one calamity. Who is it that murders the innocent? It is man. Who is it that sends down the calamity? It is Heaven. If Heaven should be thought of as not loving the people, why should it send down calamities for the murder of man by man? So, I know Heaven loves the people.

6 天志上:
順天意者,義政也。反天意者,力政也。然義
1將柰何哉?」子墨子言曰:「處大國不攻小國,處大家不篡小家,強者不劫弱,貴者不傲賤,多詐者不欺愚。此必上利於天,中利於鬼,下利於人,三利無所不利,故舉天下美名加之,謂之聖王,力政者則與此異,言非此,行反此,猶倖馳也。處大國攻小國,處大家篡小家,強者劫弱,貴者傲賤,多詐欺愚。此上不利於天,中不利於鬼,下不利於人。三不利無所利,故舉天下惡名加之,謂之暴王。」
Will of Heaven I:
To obey the will of Heaven is to accept righteousness as the standard. To oppose the will of Heaven is to accept force as the standard. Now what will the standard of righteousness do? Mozi said: He who rules a large state does not attack small states: he who rules a large house does not molest small houses. The strong does not plunder the weak. The honoured does not demean the humble. The clever does not deceive the stupid. This is beneficial to Heaven above, beneficial to the spirits in the middle sphere, and beneficial to the people below. Being beneficial to these three it is beneficial to all. So the most excellent name is attributed to such a man and he is called sage-king. The standard of force is different from this. It is contradictory to this in word and opposed to this in deed like galloping with back to back. Leading a large state, he whose standard is force attacks small states; leading a large house he molests small houses. The strong plunders the weak. The honoured disdains the humble. The clever deceives the stupid. This is not beneficial to Heaven above, or to the spirits in the middle sphere, or to the people below. Not being beneficial to these three, it is beneficial to none. So, the most evil name in the world is attributed to him and he is called the wicked king.

1. 政 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

7 天志上:
子墨子言曰:「我有天志,譬若輪人之有規,匠人之有矩,輪匠執其規矩,以度天下之方圜,曰:『中者是也,不中者非也。』今天下之士君子之書,不可勝載,言語不可盡計,上說諸侯,下說列士,其於仁義則大相遠也。何以知之?曰我得天下之明法以度之。」
Will of Heaven I:
Mozi said: The will of Heaven to me is like the compasses to the wheelwright and the square to the carpenter. The wheelwright and the carpenter measure all the square and circular objects with their square and compasses and accept those that fit as correct and reject those that do not fit as incorrect. The writings of the gentlemen of the world of the present day cannot be all loaded (in a cart), and their doctrines cannot be exhaustively enumerated. They endeavour to convince the feudal lords on the one hand and the scholars on the other. But from magnanimity and righteousness they are far off. How do we know? Because I have the most competent standard in the world to measure them with.

天志中 - Will of Heaven II

English translation: W. P. Mei [?] Library Resources
1 天志中:
子墨子言曰:「今天下之君子之欲為仁義者,則不可不察義之所從出。既曰不可以不察義之所從出,然則義何從出?」子墨子曰:「義不從愚且賤者出,必自貴且知者出。何以知義之不從愚且賤者出,而必自貴且知者出也?曰:義者,善政也。何以知義之
1善政也?曰:天下有義則治,無義則亂,是以知義之
2善政也。夫愚且賤者,不得為政乎貴且知者,然後得為政乎愚且賤者,此吾所以知義之不從愚且賤者出,而必自貴且知者出也。然則孰為貴?孰為知?曰:天為貴,天為知而已矣。然則義果自天出矣。」
Will of Heaven II:
Mozi said: Those gentlemen in the world who want to practise magnanimity and righteousness cannot but examine the origin of righteousness. Since we want to examine the origin of righteousness, then where does it originate? Mozi said: Righteousness does not originate with the stupid and humble but with the honourable and wise. How do we know it does not originate with the dull and humble but with the honourable and wise? For, righteousness is the standard. How do we know righteousness is the standard? For, with righteousness the world will be orderly and without it the world will be disorderly. Therefore righteousness is known to be the standard. As the dull and the humble cannot make the standard, and only the wise and honourable can, therefore I know righteousness does not come from the stupid and humble but from the honourable and wise. Now who is honourable and who is wise? Heaven is honourable, Heaven is wise. So, then, righteousness must originate with Heaven.

1. 為 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 為 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

2 天志中:
今天下之人曰:「當若天子之貴
1諸侯,諸侯之貴
2大夫,傐明知之。然吾未知天之貴且知於天子也。」子墨子曰:「吾所以知天之貴且知於天子者有矣。曰:天子為善,天能賞之;天子為暴,天能罰之;天子有疾病禍祟,必齋戒沐浴,潔為酒醴粢盛,以祭祀天鬼,則天能除去之,然吾未知天之祈福於天子也。此吾所以知天之貴且知於天子者。不止此而已矣,又以先王之書馴天明不解之道也知之。曰:『明哲維天,臨君下土。』則此語天之貴且知於天子。不知亦有貴知夫天者乎?曰:天為貴,天為知而已矣。然則義果自天出矣。」
Will of Heaven II:
People in the world would say: "That the emperor is more honourable than the feudal lords and that the feudal lords are more honourable than the ministers, we clearly see. But that Heaven is more honourable and wise than the emperor, we do not see." Mozi said: I know Heaven is more honourable and wise than the emperor for a reason: When the emperor practises virtue Heaven rewards, when the emperor does evil Heaven punishes. When there are disease and calamities the emperor will purify and bathe himself and prepare clean cakes and wine to do sacrifice and libation to Heaven and the spirits. Heaven then removes them. But I have not yet heard of Heaven invoking the emperor for blessing. So I know Heaven is more honourable and wise than the emperor. And, this is not all. We also learn of this from the book of the ancient kings which instructs us the vast and ineffable Dao of Heaven. It says: "Brilliant and perspicacious Heaven on High, who enlightens and watches over the earth below!" This shows Heaven is more honourable and wise than the emperor. But is there yet any one more honourable and wise than Heaven? Heaven is really the most honourable and wise. Therefore, righteousness surely comes from Heaven.

1. 於 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 於 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

3 天志中:
是故子墨子曰:「今天下之君子,中實將欲遵道利民,本察仁義之本,天之意不可不慎也。」既以天之意以為不可不慎已,然則天之將何欲何憎?子墨子曰:「天之意不欲大國之攻小國也,大家之亂小家也,強之暴寡,詐之謀愚,貴之傲賤,此天之所不欲也。
12此而已,欲人之有力相營,有道相教,有財相分也。又欲上之強聽治也,下之強從事也。上強聽治,則國家治矣,下強從事則財用足矣。若國家治
3用足,則內有以潔為酒醴粢盛,以祭祀天鬼;外有以為環璧珠玉,以聘撓四鄰。諸侯之冤不興矣,邊境兵甲不作矣。內有以食飢息勞,持養其萬民,則君臣上下惠忠,父子弟兄慈孝。故唯毋明乎順天之意,奉而光施之天下,則刑政治,萬民和,國家富,財用足,百姓皆得煖衣飽食,便寧無憂。」是故子墨子曰:「今天下之君子,中實將欲遵道利民,本察仁義之本,天之意不可不慎也!
Will of Heaven II:
And hence Mozi said: If the gentlemen of the world really desire to follow the way and benefit the people, they must not disobey the will of Heaven, the origin of magnanimity and righteousness. Now that we must obey the will of Heaven, what does the will of Heaven desire and what does it abominate? Mozi said: The will of Heaven abominates the large state which attacks small states, the large house which molests small houses, the strong who plunder the weak, the clever who deceive the stupid, and the honoured who disdain the humble - these are what the will of Heaven abominates. On the other hand, it desires people having energy to work for each other, those knowing the way to teach each other, and those possessing wealth to share with each other. And it desires the superior diligently to attend to government and the subordinates diligently to attend to their work. When the superior attends to the government diligently, the country will be orderly. When the subordinates attend to work diligently, wealth will be abundant. When the country is orderly and wealth is abundant, within the state there will be wherewith to prepare clean cakes and wine to sacrifice to God and the spirits, and in relation with outside countries there will be wherewith to furnish rings, stones, pearls, and jades by which to befriend surrounding neighbours. With the grudges of the feudal lords inactive and fighting on the borders suspended, and the people within provided with food and rest, the emperor and the ministers and the superiors and subordinates will be gracious and loyal respectively, and father and son and elder and younger brothers will be affectionate and filial respectively. Therefore when the principle of obeying the will of Heaven is understood and widely practiced in the world, then justice and government will be orderly, the multitudes will be harmonious, the country will be wealthy, the supplies will be plenteous, and the people will be warmly clothed and sufficiently fed, peaceful and without worry. Therefore Mozi said: If the gentlemen of the world really desire to follow the way and benefit the people they must carefully investigate the principle that the will of Heaven is the origin of magnanimity and righteousness.

1. 不 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 止 : Originally read: "上". Corrected by 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
3. 財 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

4 天志中:
且夫天子之有天下也,辟之無以異乎國君諸侯之有四境之內也。今國君諸侯之有四境之內也,夫豈欲其臣國萬民之相為不利哉?今若處大國則攻小國,處大家則亂小家,欲以此求賞譽,終不可得,誅罰必至矣。夫天之有天下也,將無已異此。今若處大國
1攻小國,處大都則伐小都,欲以此求福祿於天,福祿終不得,而禍祟必至矣。然有所不為天之所欲,而為天之所不欲,則夫天亦且不為人之所欲,而為人之所不欲矣。人之2所不欲者何也?曰病疾
3祟也。若已不為天之所欲,而為天之所不欲,是率天下之萬民以從事乎禍祟之中也。故古者聖王明知天鬼之所福,而辟天鬼之所憎,以求興天下之利,而除天下之害。是以天之為寒熱也節,四時調,陰陽雨露也時,五穀孰,六畜遂,疾災戾疫凶饑則不至。」是故子墨子曰:「今天下之君子,中實將欲遵
4利民,本察仁義之本,天意不可不慎也!
Will of Heaven II:
The rule of Heaven over the world is not unlike the rule of the feudal lord over the state. In ruling the state does the feudal lord desire his ministers and people to work for mutual disadvantage? If leading a large state one attacks small states, if leading a large house one molests small houses - if by doing this one seeks reward and commendation (from the feudal lord) he cannot obtain it. On the contrary, punishment will visit him. Now, the rule of Heaven over the world is not unlike this. If leading a large state one attacks small states, if leading a large house one molests small houses -- if by doing this one seeks reward and commendation (from Heaven) he cannot obtain it. On the contrary, punishment will visit him. When (man) does not do what Heaven desires, but does what Heaven abominates, Heaven will also not do what man desires but do what he abominates. What man abominates are disease and calamities. Therefore not to do what Heaven desires but do what it abominates is to lead the multitudes in the world to calamity. Therefore the ancient sage-kings studied what Heaven and the spirits would bless and avoided what they would curse in order to procure benefits for the world and avoid calamities. Thereupon, Heaven made heat and cold temperate, the four seasons harmonious, the Yin and Yang and rain and dew timely. The five grains are enabled to ripen and the six animals to mature. And disease, pestilence, and famine did not happen. Therefore Mozi said: If the gentlemen of the world really desire to follow the Dao and benefit the people they must be mindful of the principle that the will of Heaven is the origin of magnanimity and righteousness.

1. 則 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 之 : Originally read: "不".
3. 禍 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
4. 道 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

5 天志中:
且夫天下蓋有不仁不祥者,曰當若子之不事父,弟之不事兄,臣之不事君也。故天下之君子,與謂之不祥者。今夫天兼天下而愛之,撽遂萬物以利之,若豪之末,非天之所為也,而民得而利之,則可謂否矣。然獨無報夫天,而不知其為不仁不祥也。此吾所謂君子明細而不明大也。
Will of Heaven II:
In the world those who lack benevolence are unfortunate. If a son does not serve his father, a younger brother does not serve his elder brother, or a subordinate does not serve his superior, then all the gentlemen of the world will call him unfortunate. Now Heaven loves the whole world universally. Everything is prepared for the good of man. Even the tip of a hair is the work of Heaven. Substantial may be said of the benefits that are enjoyed by man. Yet there is no service in return. And they do not even know this to be unmagnanimous and unfortunate. This is why I say the gentlemen understand only trifles and not things of importance.

6 天志中:
且吾所以知天之愛民之厚者有矣,曰以磨為日月星辰,以昭道之;制為四時春秋冬夏,以紀綱之;雷降雪霜雨露,以長遂五穀麻絲,使民得而財利之;列為山川谿谷,播賦百事,以臨司民之善否;為王公侯伯,使之賞賢而罰暴;賊金木鳥獸,從事乎五穀麻絲,以為民衣食之財。自古及今,未嘗不有此也。今有人於此,驩若愛其子,竭力單務以利之,其子長,而無報子求父,故天下之君子與謂之不仁不祥。今夫天兼天下而愛之,撽遂萬物以利之,若豪之末,非天之所為,而民得而利之,則可謂否矣,然獨無報夫天,而不知其為不仁不祥也。此吾所謂君子明細而不明大也。
Will of Heaven II:
Moreover I know Heaven loves men dearly not without reason. Heaven ordered the sun, the moon, and the stars to enlighten and guide them. Heaven ordained the four seasons, Spring, Autumn, Winter, and Summer, to regulate them. Heaven sent down snow, frost, rain, and dew to grow the five grains and flax and silk that so the people could use and enjoy them. Heaven established the hills and rivers, ravines and valleys, and arranged many things to minister to man's good or bring him evil. He appointed the dukes and lords to reward the virtuous and punish the wicked, and to gather metal and wood, birds and beasts, and to engage in cultivating the five grains and flax and silk to provide for the people's food and clothing. This has been taking from antiquity to the present. Suppose there is a man who is deeply fond of his son and has used his energy to the limit to work for his benefit. But when the son grows up he returns no love to the father. The gentlemen of the world will all call him unmagnanimous and miserable. Now Heaven loves the whole world universally. Everything is prepared for the good of man. The work of Heaven extends to even the smallest things that are enjoyed by man. Such benefits may indeed be said to be substantial, yet there is no service in return. And they do not even know this to be unmagnanimous. This is why I say the gentlemen of the world understand only trifles but not things of importance.

7 天志中:
且吾所以知天愛民之厚者,不止此而足矣。曰殺不辜者,天予不祥。不辜者誰也?曰人也。予之不祥者誰也?曰天也。若天不愛民之厚,夫胡說人殺不辜,而天予之不祥哉?此吾
之所
1以知天之愛民之厚也。
Will of Heaven II:
Yet this does not exhaust my reasons whereby I know Heaven loves man dearly. It is said the murder of an innocent individual will call down a calamity. Who is the innocent? Man is. From whom is the visitation? From Heaven. If Heaven does not love the people dearly, why should Heaven send down a visitation upon the man who murders the innocent? Thus I know Heaven loves man dearly.

1. 之所 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

8 天志中:
且吾所以知天之愛民之厚者,不止此而已矣。曰愛人利人,順天之意,得天之賞者有之;憎人
賊人
1,反天之意,得天之罰者亦有矣。夫愛人利人,順天之意,得天之賞者誰也?曰若昔三代聖王,堯舜禹湯文武者是也。堯舜禹湯文武焉所從事?曰從事兼,不從事別。兼者,處大國不攻小國,
2大家不亂小家,強不劫弱,眾不暴寡,詐不謀愚,貴不傲賤。觀其事,上利乎天,中利乎鬼,下利乎人,三利無所不利,是謂天德。聚斂天下之美名而加之焉,曰:此仁也,義也,愛人利人,順天之意,得天之賞者也。不止此而已,書於竹帛,鏤之金石,琢之槃盂,傳遺後世子孫。曰將何以為?將以識夫愛人利人,順天之意,得天之賞者也。皇矣道之曰:『帝謂文王,予懷明德,不大聲以色,不長夏以革,不識不知,順帝之則。』帝善其順法則也,故舉殷以賞之,使貴為天子,富有天下,名譽至今不息。故夫愛人利人,順天之意,得天之賞者,既可得留而已。夫憎人賊人,反天之意,得天之罰者誰也?曰若昔者三代暴王桀紂幽厲者是也。桀紂幽厲焉所從事?曰從事別,不從事兼。別者,處大國則攻小國,處大家則亂小家,強劫弱,眾暴寡,詐謀愚,貴傲賤。觀其事,上不利乎天,中不利乎鬼,下不利乎人,三不利無所利,是謂天賊。聚斂天下之醜名而加之焉,曰此非仁也,非義也。憎人賊人,反天之意,得天之罰者也。不止此而已,又書其事於竹帛,鏤之金石,琢之槃盂,傳遺後世子孫。曰將何以為?將以識夫憎人賊人,反天之意,得天之罰者也。大誓之道之曰:『紂越厥夷居,不肯事上帝,棄厥先神祇不祀,乃曰吾有命,毋廖𠏿務
天下
3。天亦縱棄紂而不葆。』察天以縱棄紂而不葆者,反天之意也。故夫憎人賊人,反天之意,得天之罰者,既可得而知也。」
Will of Heaven II:
This is still not all by which I know Heaven loves man dearly. There are those who love the people and benefit the people and obey the will of Heaven and obtain reward from Heaven. There are also those who hate the people and oppress the people and oppose the will of Heaven and incur punishment from Heaven. Who are those that love the people and benefit the people, obey the will of Heaven and obtain reward from Heaven? They are the ancient sage-kings of the Three Dynasties, Yao, Shun, Yu, Tang, Wen, and Wu. What did Yao, Shun, Yu, Tang, Wen, and Wu do? They engaged themselves in universality and not partiality (in love). Loving universally, they did not attack the small states with their large states, they did not molest the small houses with their large houses. The strong did not plunder the weak, the many did not oppress the few, the clever did not deceive the stupid, the honoured did not disdain the humble. Such a regime was agreeable to Heaven above, to the spirits in the middle sphere, and to the people below. Being helpful to these three, it was helpful to all. And this was Heavenly virtue. The most excellent names in the world were gathered and attributed to them, and they were called magnanimous, righteous, beloved of man and beneficial to the people, obedient to the will of Heaven and rewarded of Heaven. Besides this, it is also recorded on the bamboos and silk, cut in metals and stones, and engraved on the dishes and cups to be handed down to posterity. What is this for? It is to mark out those who loved the people and benefited them, obeyed the will of Heaven and obtained reward from Heaven. Thus the ode of Huang Yi says: "God said to King Wen, 'I cherish your intelligent virtue. It was not proclaimed with much noise or gesture. It was not modified after the possession of the empire. How instructively and naturally submissive to the scheme of Heaven!'" Because he was obedient to God's scheme, He rewarded him with Yin and honoured him to be emperor and enriched him with the empire. And his fame is not forgotten even unto this day. Hence we are enabled to know who are those that loved the people and benefited them, obeyed the will of Heaven and obtained reward from Heaven. Now, who are those that hated the people and oppressed them, opposed the will of Heaven and incurred punishment from Heaven? They are the ancient wicked kings of the Three Dynasties, Jie, Zhou, You, and Li. What did they do? They were selfish and ungenerous. Being selfish they attacked the small states with their large states, they molested the small houses with their large houses. The strong plundered the weak, the many oppressed the few, the clever deceived the ignorant, the honoured disdained the humble. Such a regime was not helpful to Heaven above, to the spirits in the middle sphere, or to the people below. Since it was not helpful to these three it was helpful to none. And they were called the enemies of Heaven. The most evil names in the world were gathered and attributed to them, and they were called unmagnanimous, unrighteous, haters of man and oppressors of the people, disobedient to the will of Heaven and punished by Heaven. Besides this, it is also recorded on the bamboos and silk, cut in the metals and stones, and engraved on the plates and cups to be handed down to posterity. What is this for? It is to mark out those that hated the people and oppressed them, opposed the will of Heaven and incurred punishment from Heaven. Thus relates the "Great Declaration": "Zhou went beyond the proper limits and became insolent. He would not worship God and pushed away the ancestors and spirits without offering them sacrifices. And he said: 'Fortune is with me,' and neglected and betrayed his duty. Heaven thereupon deserted him and withdrew its protection." Heaven deserted Zhou and withdrew its support because Zhou opposed the will of Heaven. Hence we are enabled to know who are those that hated the people and oppressed them, opposed the will of Heaven and incurred punishment from Heaven.

1. 賊人 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 處 : Inserted.
3. 天下 : Deleted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

9 天志中:
是故子墨子之有天之,辟人無以異乎輪人之有規,匠人之有矩也。今夫輪人操其規,將以量度天下之圜與不圜也,曰:中吾規者謂之圜,不中吾規者謂之不圜。是以圜與不圜,皆可得而知也。此其故何?則圜法明也。匠人亦操其矩,將以量度天下之方與不方也。曰:中吾矩者謂之方,不中吾矩者謂之不方。是以方與不方,皆可得而知之。此其故何?則方法明也。故子墨子之有天之意也,上將以度天下之王公大人之為刑政也,下將以量天下之萬民為文學出言談也。觀其行,順天之意,謂之善意行,反天之意,謂之不善意行;觀其言談,順天
1意,謂之善言談,反天之意,謂之不善言談;觀其刑政,順天之意,謂之善刑政,反天之意,謂之不善刑政。故置此以為法,立此以為儀,將以量度天下之王公大人卿大夫之仁與不仁,譬之猶分黑白也。是故子墨子曰:「今天下之王公大人士君子,中實將欲遵道利民,本察仁義之本,天之意不可不順也。順天之意者,義之法也。」
Will of Heaven II:
Therefore the will of Heaven is like the compasses to the wheelwright and the square to the carpenter. The wheelwright tests the circularity of every object in the world with his compasses, saying: "That which satisfies my compasses is circular. That which does not is not circular." Therefore whether an object is circular or not is all known, because the standard of circularity is all established. The carpenter also tests the squareness of every object in the world with his square, saying: "That which satisfies my square is square; that which does not is not square." Therefore whether any object is square or not is all known. Why so? Because the standard of squareness is established. Similarly, with the will of Heaven Mozi will measure the jurisdiction and government of the lords in the empire on the one hand, and the doctrines and teachings of the multitudes in the empire on the other. If some conduct is observed to be in accordance with the will of Heaven, it is called good conduct; if it is in opposition to the will of Heaven it is called bad conduct. If a teaching is observed to be in accordance with the will of Heaven it is called good teaching; if it is in opposition to the will of Heaven it is called bad teaching. And if a government is observed to be in accordance with the will of Heaven it is called good government; if it is in opposition to the will of Heaven it is called bad government. With this as the model and with this as the standard, whether the lords and the ministers are magnanimous or not can be measured as (easily as) to distinguish black and white. Therefore Mozi said: If the rulers and the gentlemen of the world really desire to follow the way and benefit the people they have only to obey the will of Heaven, the origin of magnanimity and righteousness. Obedience to the will of Heaven is the standard of righteousness.

1. 之 : Inserted.

天志下 - Will of Heaven III

English translation: W. P. Mei [?] Library Resources
1 天志下:
子墨子言曰:「天下之所以亂者,其說將何哉?則是天下士君子,皆明於小而不明於大。何以知其明於小不明於大也?以其不明於天之意也。何以知其不明於天之意也?以處人之家者知之。今人處若家得罪,將猶有異家所,以避逃之者,然且父以戒子,兄以戒弟,曰:『戒之慎之,處人之家,不戒不慎之,而有處人之國者乎?』今人處若國得罪,將猶有異國所,以避逃之者矣,然且父以戒子,兄以戒弟,曰:『戒之慎之,處人之國者,不可不戒慎也!』今人皆處天下而事天,得罪於天,將無所以避逃之者矣。然而莫知以相極戒也,吾以此知大物則不知者也。」
Will of Heaven III:
Mozi said: What is the reason for the disorder in the world? It is because the gentlemen of the world all understand trifles but not things of importance. How do we know they understand trifles but not things of importance? Because they do not understand the will of Heaven. How do we know they do not understand the will of Heaven? By observing the conduct in the family. If a man commits a misdemeanour in the family he still has other families in which to seek shelter. Yet, father reminds son, the elder brother reminds the younger brother, saying: "Be obedient, be careful in conduct in the family. If one is not obedient and careful in conduct in the family how can he live in the state?" If a man commits a misdemeanour in the state he still has other states in which to seek shelter. Yet father reminds son and the elder brother reminds the younger brother, saying: "Be obedient. Be careful. One cannot live in a state and be disobedient and careless." Now all men live in the world and under Heaven. When a man sins against Heaven there is nowhere to seek shelter. But people do not think of warning each other. Thus I know that they do not understand things of importance.

2 天志下:
是故子墨子言曰:「戒之慎之,必為天之所欲,而去天之所惡。曰天之所欲者何也?所惡者何也?天欲義而惡其不義者也。何以知其然也?曰義者正也。何以知義之為正也?天下有義則治,無義則亂,我以此知義之為正也。然而正者,無自下正上者,必自上正下。是故庶人不得次己而為正,有士正之;士不得次己而為正,有大夫正之;大夫不得次己而為正,有諸侯正之;諸侯不得次己而為正,有三公正之;三公不得次己而為正,有天子正之;天子不得次己而為政,有天正之。今天下之士君子,皆明於天子之正天下也,而不明於天
1
天子
2也。是故古者聖人,明以此說人曰:『天子有善,天能賞之;天子有過,天能罰之。』天子賞罰不當,聽獄不中,天下疾病禍福,霜露不時,天子必且犓豢其牛羊犬彘,絜為粢盛酒醴,以禱祠祈福於天,我未嘗聞天之禱祈福於天子也,吾以此知天之重且貴於天子也。是故義者不自愚且賤者出,必自貴且知者出。曰誰為知?天為知。然則義果自天出也。今天下之士君子之欲為義者,則不可不順天之意矣。
Will of Heaven III:
And Mozi said: Be obedient. Be careful. Be sure to do what Heaven desires and avoid what Heaven abominates. Now, what does Heaven desire and what does Heaven abominate? Heaven desires righteousness and abominates unrighteousness. How do we know this? Because righteousness is the standard. How do we know righteousness is the standard? Because with righteousness the world will be orderly; without it the world will be disorderly. So, I know righteousness is the standard. Now a standard is never given by the subordinate to the superior, it is always to be given by the superior to the subordinate. Hence the common people may not make the standard at will. There are the scholars to give them the standard. The scholars may not make the standard at will. There are the ministers to give them the standard. The ministers may not make the standard at will. There are the feudal lords to give them the standard. The feudal lords may not make the standard at will. There is the high duke to give them the standard. The high duke may not make the standard at will. There is the emperor to give him the standard. The emperor may not make the standard at will. There is Heaven to give him the standard. The gentlemen of the world all understand that the emperor gives the standard to the world but do not understand that Heaven gives the standard to the emperor. The sages, explaining this, said: "When the emperor has done good, Heaven rewards him. When the emperor has committed wrong, Heaven punishes him. When the emperor is unjust in reward and punishment and not judicious in hearing lawsuits, Heaven visits him with disease and calamities, and frost and dew will be untimely." The emperor will then have to feed oxen and sheep with grass and dogs and pigs with grains and prepare clean cakes and wine to pray and invoke Heaven for blessing. I have not yet heard of Heaven praying and invoking the emperor for blessing. So, I can say Heaven is more honourable and wise than the emperor. Therefore righteousness does not come from the ignorant and humble but from the honourable and wise. Who is honourable? Heaven is honourable. Who is wise? Heaven is wise. And, so, righteousness assuredly comes from Heaven. And the gentlemen of the world who desire to do righteousness therefore must obey the will of Heaven.

1. 之 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 天子 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

3 天志下:
曰順天之意何若?曰兼愛天下之人。何以知兼愛天下之人也?以兼而食之也。何以知其兼而食之也?自古及今無有遠靈孤夷之國,皆犓豢其牛羊犬彘,絜為粢盛酒醴,以敬祭祀上帝山川鬼神,以此知兼而食之也。苟兼而食焉,必兼而愛之。譬之若楚、越之君,今是楚王食於楚之四境之內,
故愛楚之人;越王食於越,
1故愛越之人。今天兼天下而食焉,我以此知其兼愛天下之人也。
Will of Heaven III:
What is the will of Heaven that is to be obeyed? It is to love all the people in the world universally. How do we know it is to love all the people in the world universally? Because (Heaven) accepts sacrifices from all. How do we know Heaven accepts sacrifices from all? Because from antiquity to the present day there is no distant or isolated country but what feeds oxen and sheep, dogs and pigs with grass and grains, and prepares clean cakes and wine to worship God, hills and rivers, and the spirits. So we know Heaven accepts sacrifices from all. Accepting sacrifice from all, Heaven must love them all. Take the lords of Chu and Yue for instance. The lord of Chu accepts offering from all within the four borders of Chu, therefore he loves the people of Chu. And, the lord of Yue accepts offering from all within the four borders of Yue, therefore he loves the people of Yue. Now Heaven accepts offerings from all the world and so I know Heaven loves all the people in the world.

1. 故愛楚之人;越王食於越, : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

4 天志下:
且天之愛百姓也,不盡物而止矣。今天下之國,粒食之民,
1殺一
不辜者,必有一
2不祥。曰誰殺不辜?曰人也。孰予之不辜?曰天也。若天之中實不愛此民也,何故而人有殺不辜,而天予之不祥哉?且天之愛百姓厚矣,天之愛百姓別矣,既可得而知也。何以知天之愛百姓也?吾以賢者之必賞善罰暴也。何以知賢者之必賞善罰暴也?吾以昔者三代之聖王知之。故昔也三代之聖王堯舜禹湯文武之兼愛天下也,從而利之,移其百姓之意焉,率以敬上帝山川鬼神,天以為從其所愛而愛之,從其所利而利之,於是加其賞焉,使之處上位,立為天子以法也,名之曰『聖人』,以此
3其賞善之證。是故昔也三代之暴王桀紂幽厲之兼惡天下也,從而賊之,移其百姓之意焉,率以詬侮上帝山川鬼神,天以為不從其所愛而惡之,不從其所利而賊之,於是加其罰焉,使之父子離散,國家滅亡,抎失社稷,憂以及其身。是以天下之庶民屬而毀之,業萬世子孫繼嗣,毀之賁不之廢也,名之曰『失王』,以此知其罰暴之證。今天下之士君子,欲為義者,則不可不順天之意矣。
Will of Heaven III:
That Heaven loves all the people of the world is proved not only by this. In all the countries in the world and among all the people who live on grains, the murder of one innocent individual brings down one calamity. Now who is it that murders the innocent? It is man. Who is it that sends down the calamity? It is Heaven. If Heaven really did not love the people, why does Heaven send down calamities for the murder of the innocent? Furthermore, Heaven loves the people dearly, Heaven loves the people inclusively. And this can be known. How do we know Heaven loves the people? Because of the certain reward to the good and punishment to the evil from the virtuous (Heaven). How do we know the virtuous (Heaven) certainly rewards the good and punishes the evil? I know this from the (examples of) the sage-kings of the Three Dynasties. Anciently, the sage-kings of the Three Dynasties, Yao, Shun, Yu, Tang, Wen, and Wu, loved the world universally and proceeded to benefit them. They converted the desires of the people and led them to worship God, hills and rivers, and the spirits. Heaven was pleased because they loved what it loved and benefited what it would benefit, and bestowed rewards upon them, placing them on the throne, crowning them emperor, upholding them as the standard, and calling them sage-kings. Here we have the proof of reward of the good. Anciently, the wicked kings of the Three Dynasties, Jie, Zhou, You, and Li, hated all the world and proceeded to oppress them. They converted the desires of the people and led them to blaspheme against God, hills and rivers, and the spirits. Heaven was offended because they hated those whom Heaven loved and oppressed those whom Heaven would benefit, and Heaven decreed punishments upon them, letting fathers and sons be scattered, their empire be put to an end, their state be lost to them, and capital punishment fall upon them. Thereupon, the multitudes in the world condemned them, the condemnation lasting all through the ten thousand generations, the people calling them wicked kings. Here we have the proof of punishment of the evil. Those gentlemen of the world who desire to do righteousness have only to obey the will of Heaven.

1. 國 : Deleted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 不辜者,必有一 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
3. 知 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

5 天志下:
曰順天之意者,兼也;反天之意者,別也。兼之為道也,義正;別之為道也,力正。曰義正者何若?曰大不攻小也,強不侮弱也,眾不賊寡也,詐不欺愚也,貴不傲賤也,富不驕貧也,壯不奪老也。是以天下之庶國,莫以水火毒藥兵刃以相害也。若事上利天,中利鬼,下利人,三利而無所不利,是謂天德。故凡從事此者,聖知也,仁義也,忠惠也,慈孝也,是故聚斂天下之善名而加之。是其故何也?則順天之意也。曰力正者何若?曰大則攻小也,強則侮弱也,眾則賊寡也,詐則欺愚也,貴則傲賤也,富則驕貧也,壯則奪老也。是以天下之庶國,方以水火毒藥兵刃以相賊害也。若事上不利天,中不利鬼,下不利人,三不利而無所利,是謂之賊。故凡從事此者,寇亂也,盜賊也,不仁不義,不忠不惠,不慈不孝,是故聚斂天下之惡名而加之。是其故何也?則反天之意也。」
Will of Heaven III:
To obey the will of Heaven is to be universal and to oppose the will of Heaven is to be partial (in love). According to the doctrine of universality righteousness is the standard; in the doctrine of partiality force is the basis of government. What is it like to have righteousness as the basis of government? The great will not attack the small, the strong will not plunder the weak, the many will not oppress the few, the clever will not deceive the ignorant, the honoured will not disdain the humble, the rich will not mock the poor, and the young will not rob the old. And the states in the empire will not ruin each other with water, fire, poison, and weapons. Such a regime will be beneficial to Heaven above, to the spirits in the middle sphere, to the people below. Being beneficial to these three it is beneficial to all. This is called the virtue of Heaven; whoever practises this is a sage, magnanimous, gracious, and righteous, loyal, affectionate, and filial, and all such good names in the world will be gathered and attributed to him. Why so? Because such conduct is in accordance with the will of Heaven. Now, what is it like to have force as the basis of government? The great will attack the small, the strong will plunder the weak, the many will oppress the few, the clever will impose upon the ignorant, the honoured will disdain the humble, the rich will mock the poor, and the young will rob the old. And the states in the empire will ruin each other with water, fire, poison, and weapons. Such a regime will not be helpful to Heaven above, to the spirits in the middle sphere, or to the people below. Not being helpful to these three, it is not helpful to any. This is called the enemy of Heaven. He who practises this is a bad man, not magnanimous, not gracious, and unrighteous, disloyal, unaffectionate, and unfilial, and all such evil names in the world are gathered and attributed to him. Why so? Because such conduct is in opposition to the will of Heaven.

6 天志下:
故子墨子置立天之,以為儀法,若輪人之有規,匠人之有矩也。今輪人以規,匠人以矩,以此知方圜之別矣。是故子墨子置立天之,以為儀法。吾以此知天下之士君子之去義遠也。何以知天下之士君子之去義遠也?今知氏大國之君寬者然曰:「吾處大國而不攻小國,吾何以為大哉!」是以差論蚤牙之士,比列其舟車之卒,以攻罰無罪之國,入其溝境,刈其禾稼,斬其樹木,殘其城郭,以御其溝池,焚燒其祖廟,攘殺其犧牷,民之格者,則剄殺之,不格者,則係操而歸,丈夫以為僕圉胥靡,婦人以為舂酋。則夫好攻伐之君,不知此為不仁義,以告四鄰諸侯曰:「吾攻國覆軍,殺將若干人矣。」其鄰國之君亦不知此為不仁義也,有具其皮幣,發其總處,使人饗賀焉。則夫好攻伐之君,有重不知此為不仁不義也,有書之竹帛,藏之府庫。為人後子者,必且欲順其先君之行,曰:「何不當發吾
1庫,視吾先君之法美。」必不曰文、武之為正
為正
2者若此矣,曰吾攻國覆軍殺將若干人矣。則夫好攻伐之君,不知此為不仁不義也,其鄰國之君不知此為不仁不義也,是以攻伐世世而不已者,此吾所謂大物則不知也。
Will of Heaven III:
Hence Mozi established the will of Heaven as his standard, just as the wheelwright uses his compasses and the carpenter uses his square as their standards. The wheelwright with his compasses and the carpenter with his square can judge the circularity and the squareness of objects. Similarly, with the will of Heaven as the standard, Mozi can tell that the gentlemen of the world are far from righteousness. How do we know the gentlemen of the world are far from righteousness ? For, the lords in the large states compete in saying: "Being a big state, if I do not attack the small states, in what way am I big?" Therefore they mustered their warriors and soldiers, and arranged their boat and chariot forces to attack some innocent state. They broke into its borders, cut down its fields, felled its trees, tore down its inner and outer city walls, and filled up its moats and ditches, burned its ancestral temples and seized and killed its sacrificial victims. Of the people the strong were killed, the weak were brought back in chains and ropes. The men were turned into servants and grooms and prisoners. The women were made to be waitresses (to pour wine). Yet, the warring lord did not even know that this is unmagnanimous and unrighteous. He announced to the neighbouring lords: "I have attacked a state, defeated an army, and killed so many generals." And the neighbouring lords did not know that this is unmagnanimous and unrighteous either, but with furs and silk sent envoys to offer congratulations. And the warring lords were even doubly ignorant of its being unmagnanimous and unrighteous. They recorded it on the bamboos and silk and kept them in the archives so that the descendants would imitate their royal ancestors, saying: "Why not let us open up the archives and let us learn of the achievements of our ancestors?" Then they would surely not learn: "Such and such is the regime of Wu," but would learn: "I have attacked states, reversed armies, and killed so many of their generals." Now that the warring lords do not understand this to be unmagnanimous and unrighteous, and neighbouring lords do not understand this to be unmagnanimous and unrighteous, therefore attacks and assaults go on generation after generation without end. This is what I mean when I say they do not understand matters of importance.

1. 府 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 為正 : Deleted.

7 天志下:
所謂小物則知之者何若?今有人於此,入人之場園,取人之桃李瓜薑者,上得且罰之,眾聞則非之,是何也?曰不與其勞,獲其實,已非其有所取之故,而況有踰於人之牆垣,抯格人之子女者乎?與角人之府庫,竊人之金玉蚤絫者乎?與踰人之欄牢,竊人之牛馬者乎?而況有殺一不辜人乎?今王公大人之為政也,自殺一不辜人者;踰人之牆垣,抯格人之子女者;與角人之府庫,竊人之金玉蚤絫者
1;與踰人之欄牢,竊人
2牛馬
者;與入人之場園,竊人之
3桃李瓜薑者,今王公大人之加罰此也,雖古之堯舜禹湯文武之為政,亦無以異此矣。今天下之諸侯,將猶皆侵凌攻伐兼并,此為殺一不辜人者,數千萬矣;此為踰人之牆垣,格人之子女者,與角人府庫,竊人金玉蚤絫者,數千萬矣;踰人之欄牢,竊人之牛馬者,與入人之場園,竊人之桃李瓜薑者,數千萬矣,而自曰義也。故子墨子言曰:「是蕡我者,則豈有以異是蕡黑白甘苦之辯者哉!今有人於此,少而示之黑謂之黑,多示之黑謂白,必曰吾目亂,不知黑白之別。今有人於此,能少嘗之甘謂甘,多嘗謂苦,必曰吾口亂,不知其甘苦之味。今王公大人之政也,或殺人,其國家禁之,此蚤越有能多殺其鄰國之人,因以為文義,此豈有異蕡白黑、甘苦之別者哉?」
Will of Heaven III:
What do I mean when I say people do not understand things of importance but understand trifles? Supposing some one entered the orchard and garden of another and took the other's peaches and prunes, melon and ginger, he will be punished by the superior when caught and condemned by the public when heard of. Why? Because he did not share the toil but takes the fruit and appropriates what is not his. How much more is this true with him who jumps over another's fence and maltreats the children of the other; of him who digs into another's storehouse and carries away the others gold, jade, silk, and cloth; of him who breaks into another's fold and steals the other's oxen and horses; and of him who kills an innocent person? In the government of the lords of to-day all - from the one who kills an innocent person to the one who jumps over another's fence and maltreats the other's children, who digs into another's warehouse and carries away his gold, jade, silk and cloth, who breaks into another's fold and steals his oxen and horses, and who enters another's orchard and garden and takes his peaches and prunes, melons and ginger - all these are punished quite the same as they would be even in the government of Yao, Shun, Yu, Tang, Wen, and Wu. Now the lords and chiefs in the world all attack and absorb others. This is a thousand and ten thousand times worse than killing one innocent individual, a thousand and ten thousand times worse than jumping over another's fence and maltreating his children or digging into another's storehouse and carrying away his gold, jade, silk, and cloth, a thousand and ten thousand times worse than breaking into another's fold and stealing his oxen and horses, or entering another's orchard and garden and taking his peaches and prunes, melons and ginger. Yet, they claim it to be righteous. Mozi said: This is meant to confuse us. And is this at all different from confusion in the distinctions between black and white, and sweet and bitter? Suppose a man who upon being shown a little blackness says it is black, but upon being shown much blackness says it is white. He will have to admit that his sight is confused and that he cannot tell the difference between black and white. Suppose a man when served with a little bitter says it is bitter, but when served with much bitter says it is sweet. Then he will have to admit that his taste is impaired and that he cannot tell the difference between sweet and bitter. In the government of the present lords, the murderer of an individual is imprisoned by the state. This.... But the murderer of many men of the neighbouring states is upheld as righteous. How is this different from confusing the distinction between black and white and sweet and bitter?

1. 乎 : Deleted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 之 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
3. 者;與入人之場園,竊人之 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

8 天志下:
故子墨子置天之,以為儀法。非獨子墨子以天之志為法也,於先王之書大夏之道之然:「帝謂文王,予懷而明德,毋大聲以色,毋長夏以革,不識不知,順帝之則。」此誥文王之以天志為法也,而順帝之則也。且今天下之士君子,中實將欲為仁義,求為上士,上欲中聖王之道,下欲中國家百姓之利者,當天之志,而不可不察也。天之志者,義之經也。
Will of Heaven III:
Therefore Mozi established the will of Heaven to be the standard. Not only Mozi established the will of Heaven to be the standard, it is also the theme of an ode in the "Da Ya" among the books of the ancient kings: "God said to King Wen, 'I cherish your intelligent virtue. It was not proclaimed with much noise or gesture. It was not modified after the possession of the empire. Instinctively and naturally submissive to the scheme of God.'" This is to proclaim that King Wen used the will of Heaven as standard and was submissive to God's scheme. If the gentlemen of the world really desire to practise magnanimity and righteousness and be superior men, seeking to attain the way of the sage-kings on the one hand and to procure blessings to the people on the other, they must not neglect to understand the will of Heaven. The will of Heaven is truly the standard of righteousness.

URN: ctp:mozi/book-7