Follow us on Facebook to receive important updates - thanks for your support! Follow us on Twitter to receive important updates - thanks for your support! Follow us on sina.com's microblogging site to receive important updates - thanks for your support! Follow us on Douban to receive important updates - thanks for your support!
Chinese Text Project
Show translation:[None] [English]
-> -> -> -> Canon I

《經上 - Canon I》

English translation: A.C. Graham [?] Library Resources
Related resources
1 經上:
故,所得而後成也。Category: [邏輯]
經說上:
故:小故,有之不必然,無之必不然。體也,若有端。大故,有之必
然,
1
之必不
2然,若見之成見也。Category: [邏輯]
Canon I:
The gu (reason/cause) of something is what it must get before it will come about.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
'Minor reason': having this, it will not necessarily be so; lacking this, necessarily it will not be so. It is a part, like having a starting point. 'Major reason': having this, it will necessarily [be so]; lacking [this, necessarily it will not] be so. Like the appearing bringing about the seeing.

1. 然, : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 之必不 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

2 經上:
體,分於兼也。Category: [幾何學]
經說上:
體:若二之一,尺之端也。Category: [幾何學]
Canon I:
A ti (unit/individual/part) is a portion in a jian (total/collection/whole).
Exposition of Canon I:...:
For example, one of two, or the starting-point of a measured length.

3 經上:
知,材也。Category: [知識論]
經說上:
知:材,知也者。所以知也而必知。若明。Category: [知識論]
Canon I:
The zhi (intelligence/consciousness) is the capability.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
The 'intelligence': it being the means by which one knows, one necessarily does know. Like the eyesight.

4 經上:
慮,求也。Category: [知識論]
經說上:
慮:慮也者,以其知有求也,而不必得之。若睨。Category: [知識論]
Canon I:
Lu (thinking/forethought) is the seeking.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
'Thinking': by means of one's intelligence one seeks something, but does not necessarily find it. Like peering.

5 經上:
知,接也。Category: [知識論]
經說上:
知:知也者,以其知過物而能貌之。若見。Category: [知識論]
Canon I:
Zhi (knowing) is the connecting.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
'Knowing': by means of one's intelligence, having passed the thing one is able to describe it. Like seeing.

6 經上:
𢜔,明也。Category: [知識論]
經說上:
𢜔1:𢜔2也者,以其知論物而其知之也著。若明。Category: [知識論]
Canon I:
Zhi (understanding/wisdom) is the illumination.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
'Understanding': by means of one's intelligence, in discourse about the thing one's knowledge of it is apparent. Like clearness of sight.

1. 𢜔 : Originally read: "恕". Corrected by 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 𢜔 : Originally read: "恕". Corrected by 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

7 經上:
仁,體愛也。Category: [倫理]
經說上:
仁:愛己者,非為用己也。不若愛馬。
著若明。
1Category: [倫理]
Canon I:
To be ren (benevolent/humane/kind) is to love individually.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Love of oneself is not for the sake of making oneself useful. Not like loving a horse.

1. 著若明。 : Deleted. 衍文。 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

8 經上:
義,利也。Category: [倫理]
經說上:
義:志以天下為芬,而能能利之,不必用。Category: [倫理]
Canon I:
To be yi (righteous/dutiful/moral) is to benefit.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
In intent, he takes the whole world as his field; in ability, he is able to benefit it. He is not necessarily employed.

9 經上:
禮,敬也。Category: [倫理]
經說上:
禮:貴者公,賤者名,而俱有敬僈。焉等,異論也。Category: [倫理]
Canon I:
Li (manners/courtesy) is respect.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
The noble are adressed as 'Sir', the base by their given names, but in both cases one may be either respectful or rude, because modes of behaviour are different for different ranks.

10 經上:
行,為也。
經說上:
行:所為不差1名,行也;所為差2名,巧也。若為盜。
Canon I:
Xing (conduct) is doing.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
What one does, neutrally named, is one's conduct. Giving a good name to what one does is trickery. For example, to committing robbery.

1. 差 : Originally read: "善".
2. 差 : Originally read: "善".

11 經上:
實,榮也。
經說上:
實:其志氣之見也,使人知1己。不若金聲玉服。
Canon I:
To be cheng (sincere/whole-hearted) is to reveal oneself spontaneously.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
The manifestation of his intent and his zeal enables others to know him. Not like the tinkle of metal or jade pendants.

1. 知 : Originally read: "如".

12 經上:
忠,以為利而強君1也。Category: [倫理]
經說上:
忠:不利,弱子亥足將入止容。Category: [倫理]
Canon I:
To be zhong (to serve loyally/do one's utmost) is to be energetic in sustaining the responsibility when one deems something beneficial.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
...

1. 君 : Originally read: "低". Corrected by 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

13 經上:
孝,利親也。Category: [倫理]
經說上:
孝:以親為芬,而能能利親。不必得。Category: [倫理]
Canon I:
To be xiao (filial) is to benefit one's parents.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
In intent, he takes his parents as his field; in ability, he is able to benefit them. He does not necessarily succeed.

14 經上:
信,言合於意也。
經說上:
信:不以其言之當也,使人視城得金。
Canon I:
Xin (good faith/trustworthiness) is the words agreeing with the thought.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
It is not by his words fitting the fact that he makes others pay attention to them; it is because they are sure of his conduct. The frankness of his words enables him to verify them. ... the city wall and get the money.

15 經上:
佴,自作也。
經說上:
佴:與人遇,人衆,𢝺。
Canon I:
To si (?) (be in authority (?)) is to act on one's own initiative.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
When he confronts another, the multitude follows his lead.

16 經上:
𧨜,作嗛也。
經說上:
𧨜:為是為是之台彼也,弗為也。
Canon I:
To be juan (scrupulous/squeamish) is to be deficient in initiative.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
He does the right things; but when doing the right thing interferes with some other thing, he will not do it.

17 經上:
廉,作非也。
經說上:
廉:己惟為之,知其也𦖷也。
Canon I:
To be lian (honest/consciencious) is to (...?) initiative.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Although he performs it himself, he is under the authority of someone who knows the rest about it (?).

18 經上:
令,不為所作也。
經說上:
所令非身弗行。
Canon I:
To ling (command) is not to perform what one initiates.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
It is not that he is not himself the agent.

19 經上:
任,士損己而益所為也。
經說上:
任:為身之所惡,以成人之所急。
Canon I:
Ren (bearing the weight of a responsibility) is an officer working to his own loss but to the advantage of those on whose behalf he acts.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
He performs what in his own interests he dislikes in order to bring about what others need.

20 經上:
勇,志之所以敢也。
經說上:
勇:以其敢於是也,命之;不以其不敢於彼也,害之。
Canon I:
Yong (courage) is that by which intent is daring.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
One names a man 'brave' because of what he does dare; one does not raise as an objection something else that he does not dare.

21 經上:
力,刑之所以奮也。
經說上:
力:重之謂,下與重,奮1也。
Canon I:
Li (strength) is that by which the body exerts itself.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
It is of weight that it is said. Lifting a weight from below is exertion.

1. 奮 : Originally read: "舊".

22 經上:
生,刑與知處也。
經說上:
生:楹之生。商不可必也。
Canon I:
Sheng (life) is the body being located with the intelligence.

23 經上:
臥,知無知也。
經說上:
臥:
Canon I:
Wo (sleep) is the intelligence not knowing of anything.

24 經上:
夢,臥而以為然也。
經說上:
夢:
Canon I:
Meng (dreaming) is the intelligence neither desiring nor disliking anything.

25 經上:
平,知無欲惡也。
經說上:
平:惔然。
Canon I:
Ping (calm) is the intelligence neither desiring nor disliking anything.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
...tranquil.

26 經上:
利,所得而喜也。
經說上:
利:得是而喜,則是利也。其害也,非是也。
Canon I:
Li (benefit) is what one is pleased to get.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
If you are pleased to get this one, this is the beneficial one, and the harmful one is not this one.

27 經上:
害,所得而惡也。
經說上:
害:得是而惡,則是害也。其利也,非是也。
Canon I:
Hai (harm) is what one dislikes getting.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
If you dislike getting this one, this is the harmful one, and the one which is beneficial is not this one.

28 經上:
治,求得也。
經說上:
治:吾事治矣,人有治南北。
Canon I:
To zhi (deal with successfully/put in order) is to achieve what is sought.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
One's own affairs having been put in order, others also putting in order North and South...

29 經上:
譽,明美也。
經說上:
譽之必其行也。其言之忻,使人督之。
Canon I:
To yu (praise) is to make plain what is honourable.

30 經上:
誹,明惡也。
經說上:
誹:必其行也,其言之忻。
Canon I:
To fei (blame) is to make plain what is dishonourable.

31 經上:
舉,擬實也。
經說上:
1:告以之2名,舉彼實故也3
Canon I:
Ju (to refer to/pick out by name from others) is to present the analogue for the object.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Example, 'stone' explained by pointing out a stone? ... For 'like the stone' one necessarily uses what is like the name.

1. 舉 : Originally read: "譽".
2. 之 : Originally read: "文".
3. 故也 : Originally read: "也故".

32 經上:
言,出舉也。
經說上:
言也者,諸口能之,出民者也。民若畫俿也。言也謂,言猶名1致也。
Canon I:
Yan (to say/speak of/words) is to emit references.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Example, 'tiger', explained by a picture? ... To inform about this name is to refer to the other object. Therefore 'saying' is an emitting of something's characteristics of which any speaker is capable. 'If the characteristics are like the picture, it is a tiger' is saying. To say that which it is called (as in the case of 'stone'), is to communicate it.

1. 名 : Originally read: "石".

33 經上:
1,言然也。
經說上:
且:自前曰且,自後曰已。方然亦且。
若石者也。
2
Canon I:
Qie (will/about to) is declaring something to be so before the event (?).
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Before the event one says 'about to', after the event one says 'already'. The just now so too is about to be. (Like 'I'm afraid it will' and 'Let's for the moment...' (?))

1. 且 : Deleted. 衍文。
2. 若石者也。 : Deleted. 衍文。

34 經上:
君,臣萌通約也。
經說上:
君:以若名者也。
Canon I:
The jun (ruler) is the common knot tying ministers and people.

35 經上:
功,利民也。
經說上:
功:不待時,若衣裘。
功不待時,若衣裘。
1
Canon I:
Gong (achievement) is benefiting the people.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
If not at the due time, even if it is beneficial there is no achievement. (Like summer and winter clothes.)

1. 功不待時,若衣裘。 : Deleted. 衍文。

36 經上:
賞,上報下之功也。
經說上:
賞:
上報下之功也。
1
Canon I:
Shang (reward) is requital from above for achievement below.

1. 上報下之功也。 : Moved here from entry 37.

37 經上:
罪,犯禁也。
經說上:
罪:不在禁,惟害無罪,殆姑。
上報下之功也。
1
Canon I:
Zui (crime) is violation of a prohibition.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
If not covered by a prohibition, even if it is harmful there is no crime.

1. 上報下之功也。 : Moved to entry 36.

38 經上:
罰,上報下之罪也。
經說上:
罰:上報下之罪也。
Canon I:
Fa (punishment) is requital from above for crime below.

39 經上:
同,異而俱於之一也。
經說上:
侗:二人而俱見是楹也,若事君。
Canon I:
Tong (agreeing/conforming) is being different but both the same in relation to this one thing.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
They are two men but both see that this is a pillar. Like serving a ruler. The pillar's engendering of the complement is not to be treated as necessary. (?)

40 經上:
久,彌異時也。
經說上:
今久:古今且莫。
Canon I:
Jiu (duration) is pervasion of different times.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
'Present' and 'past' combine mornings and evenings.

41 經上:
宇,彌異所也。
經說上:
宇:東西家南北。
Canon I:
Yu (space/extension) is pervasion of different places.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
'East and West' covers North and South.

42 經上:
窮,或有前不容尺也。
經說上:
窮:或不容尺,有窮;莫不容尺,無窮也。
Canon I:
The qiong (limit) is wherever at the next advance there is no room for a measured length.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
If somewhere there is no room for a measured length, it is limited; if everywhere there is room for a measured length, it is limitless.

43 經上:
盡,莫不然也。Category: [邏輯]
經說上:
盡:俱1止動。Category: [邏輯]
Canon I:
Jin (exhausting/applying to all/all) is none not being so.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Something is fixed of all of them.

1. 俱 : Originally read: "但".

44 經上:
始,當時也。
經說上:
始:時或有久,或無久,始當無久。
Canon I:
To shi (commence) is to be plumb with the time.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Of times of a movement, there is one which has duration and one without duration. The commencement is plumb with the one without duration.

45 經上:
化,徵易也。
經說上:
化:若鼃為鶉。
Canon I:
Hua (transformation) is the distinguishing marks of one thing changing to the distinguishing marks of another.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
For example, a frog becoming a quail.

46 經上:
損,偏去也。
經說上:
損:偏也者兼之體1也。其體或去存,謂其存者損。
Canon I:
Sun (reduction/loss) is the removal of some without the rest.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
'Some but not the rest': it is a unit in a total. Of its units, if one is removed and the other remains, we say that the one which remains is reduced.

1. 體 : Originally read: "禮".

47 經上:
大益。
經說上:

48 經上:
1,俱柢2
經說上:
3:俱柢4也。
Canon I:
To xuan (circle round) is to swerve (?).
Exposition of Canon I:...:
It is the figure of a curve.

1. 環 : Originally read: "儇". Corrected by 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 俱柢 : Originally read: "稹秖". Corrected by 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
3. 環 : Originally read: "儇". Corrected by 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
4. 俱柢 : Originally read: "昫民". Corrected by 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

49 經上:
庫,易也。
經說上:
庫:區穴若斯貌常。
Canon I:
To yun (rotate) is to change round.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
The circumference is like a cut, the figure is constant.

50 經上:
動,或徒1也。
經說上:
動:偏祭從者,戶樞免瑟。
Canon I:
Dong (to stir/move) is to shift somewhere.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Things which shift all over the border: the hinge of a door, the louse on a hare (?).
讀此書旁行。

1. 徒 : Originally read: "從". Corrected by 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

51 經上:
止,以久也。
經說上:
止:無久之不止,當牛非馬,若矢1過楹。有久之不止,當馬非馬,若人過梁。
Canon I:
Zhi (to stay/remain fixed) is to endure as it was.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
When the one without duration does not stay, the thing fits 'ox' and 'non-horse'. Like the arrow passing the starting-post. When the one which has duration does not stay, the thing fits 'horse' and 'non-horse'. Like a man having passed over a bridge.

1. 矢 : Originally read: "夫".

52 經上:
必,不已也。
經說上:
必:謂臺執者也。若弟兄一然者一不然者,必「不必」也,是非必也。
Canon I:
Bi (the necessary/the certain) is the unending.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
It is said of cases where complements are 'matured'. For example, younger-brother and elder-brother. Of a thing so in one case, a thing not so in one case, that it stays as such (?) is unnecessary, that it is this or is not is necessary.

53 經上:
平,同高也。Category: [幾何學]
經說上:
Canon I:
Ping (level/flat) is of the same height.

54 經上:
同長,以正1相盡也。
經說上:
同:楗2與狂之同長也。
Canon I:
Tong chang (of the same length) is each when laid straight exhausting the other.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
The same lengths of door-bar and door-frame are straight.

1. 正 : Originally read: "缶".
2. 楗 : Originally read: "捷".

55 經上:
中,同長也。Category: [幾何學]
經說上:
心中:自是往相若也。Category: [幾何學]
Canon I:
The zhong (centre) is [the place from which (?)] they are the same in length.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Distances outward from this are alike.

56 經上:
厚,有所大也。Category: [幾何學]
經說上:
厚:惟無所大。Category: [幾何學]
Canon I:
Hou (having bulk/thickness/dimension) is having something than which it is bigger.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Only [the starting point (?)] has nothing than which it is bigger.

57 經上:
日中,正1南也。
經說上:
Canon I:
Ri zhong (the sun at the centre/noon) is the sun being due South.

1. 正 : Originally read: "缶".

58 經上:
直,參也。
經說上:
Canon I:
Zhi (straight/on a straight course) is in alignment.

59 經上:
圜,一中同長也。Category: [幾何學]
經說上:
圜:規寫攴也。Category: [幾何學]
Canon I:
Yuan (circular) is having the same lengths from one centre.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
The compasses draw it in the rough (?).

60 經上:
方,柱隅四讙也。
經說上:
方:矩見攴也。Category: [幾何學]
Canon I:
Fang (square) is circuiting in four from a right angle (?).
Exposition of Canon I:...:
The carpenter's square shows it in the rough (?).

61 經上:
倍,為二也。Category: [幾何學]
經說上:
倍:二尺與尺但去一。Category: [幾何學]
Canon I:
Bei (doubling) is making two of them.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
When they are 'two', measured foot and measured foot both depart from one starting-point, which is being nowhere the same.

62 經上:
端,體之無厚1而最前者也。Category: [幾何學]
經說上:
端:是無間2也。Category: [幾何學]
Canon I:
The duan (starting-point) is the unit without dimension which precedes all others.

1. 厚 : Originally read: "序".
2. 間 : Originally read: "同".

63 經上:
有間,中也。Category: [幾何學]
經說上:
有間1:謂夾之者也。Category: [幾何學]
Canon I:
You jian (having an interval/discontinuous) is [not extending to] the centre.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
It refers to the flanking ones.

1. 間 : Originally read: "聞".

64 經上:
間,不及旁也。Category: [幾何學]
經說上:
1:謂夾者也。尺前於區穴而後於端,不夾於端與區內。及及非齊之,及也。Category: [幾何學]
Canon I:
Jian (intervening/in between) is not extending to the sides.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
It refers to what is flanked. Lengths measured from starting-point to circumference are not flanked by starting-point and circumference. The two extensions are extensions of which it is not the case that they come out level with each other.

1. 間 : Originally read: "聞".

65 經上:
纑,間虛也。
經說上:
纑:
1虛也者,兩木之間,謂其無木者也。
Canon I:
Lu (...?) is the interval being empty.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
'Empty': of the interval between the two pieces of wood, it refers to where there is no wood.

1. 間 : Inserted.

66 經上:
盈,莫不有也。
經說上:
盈:無盈無厚。
Canon I:
To ying (fill) is to be nowhere absent.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
What does not fill anything is dimensionless. Along a measured length wherever you go you find the two.

67 經上:
堅白,不相外也。
經說上:
於石1無所往而不得,得二,堅。異處不相盈,相非,是相外也。
Canon I:
Jian bai (as hard to white/mutually pervasive) is not excluding each other.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Different positions do not fill each other. Not being each other is excluding each other..

1. 石 : Originally read: "尺".

68 經上:
攖,相得也。
經說上:
攖:尺與尺俱不盡,端與端俱盡。尺與或盡或不盡。堅白之攖相盡,體攖不相盡。端。
Canon I:
Ying (touching/coinciding) is occupying each other.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Of measured feet, neither is wholly covered by the other. Of starting-points, each is wholly covered by the other. Of the measured foot and the starting-point, one is wholly covered and the other is not. The hard and the white in coinciding wholly cover each other. Countable units in coinciding do not wholly cover each other.

69 經上:
1,有以相攖,有不相攖也。
經說上:
仳:兩有端而后可。
Canon I:
Pi (side by side/measured against each other/commensurate) is over part of the length coinciding and over part of it not.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
It is possible only if both proceed from a starting-point.

1. 仳 : Originally read: "似".

70 經上:
次,無間而不攖攖也。
經說上:
次:無厚而后可。
Canon I:
Ci (the next/adjacent) is without interval but not coinciding.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
It is possible only because the starting-point is dimensionless.

71 經上:
法,所若而然也。
經說上:
法:意、規、員三也,俱可以為法。
Canon I:
The fa (standard) is that in being like which something is so.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
The idea, the compasses, a circle, all three may serve as standard.

72 經上:
佴,所然也。
經說上:
佴:然也者,民若法也。
Canon I:
The yin (criterion) is that wherein it is so.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Being 'so' is the characteristics being like the standard.

73 經上:
說,所以明也。Category: [邏輯]
經說上:
Canon I:
Shuo (explaining/demonstrating) is the means by which one makes plain.

74 經上:
1,不可兩不可也。
經說上:
彼:凡牛、樞非牛,兩也。無以非也。
Canon I:
Fan (being the converse of each other) is if inadmissible then on both sides inadmissible.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
All oxen, and non-oxen marked off as a group, are the two sides. To lack what distinguishes an ox is to be a non-ox.

1. 彼 : Originally read: "攸".

75 經上:
辯,爭彼也。辯勝,當也。Category: [邏輯]
經說上:
辯:或謂之牛,或謂之非牛,是爭彼也。是不俱當。不俱當,必或不當,不若當犬。Category: [邏輯]
Canon I:
Bian (disputation) is contending over claims which are the converse of each other. Winning in disputation is fitting the fact.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
One calling it an 'ox' and the other 'non-ox' is 'contending over claims which are the converse of each other'. Such being the case they do not both fit the fact; and if they do not both fit, necessarily one of them does not fit. Not like fitting 'dog'.

76 經上:
為,窮知而𠐴於欲也。
經說上:
為:欲𩁥其指,智不知其害,是智之罪也。若智之慎文也無遺,於其害也,而猶欲𩁥之,則離之是猶食脯也。騷之利害,未知也,欲而騷,是不以所疑止所欲也。廧外之利害,未可知也,趨之而得力,則弗趨也,是以所疑止所欲也。觀「為,窮知而𠐴於欲」之理,𩁥脯而非𢜔也,𩁥指而非愚也,所為與不所與為相疑也,非謀也。
Canon I:
To wei (to be doing something for the sake of .../to have as end) is to give the most weight in relation to the desires, having taken account of all that one knows.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
If you prefer to cut off your finger, and the understanding does not recognise the harm in it, this is the understanding being at fault. If the consideration paid to it by the understanding overlooks none of the harm in it, but you still prefer to cut it off, then that things have turned out unhappily is as with eating dried meat. Whether putrid meat will benefit or harm is unknowable in advance; if you prefer to eat the meat, and it is putrid, then eating it is refusing to take the doubt as grounds for fixing which you prefer. Whether there was benefit or harm 'beyond the wall' was not knowable in advance; if by heading for it you could get money, then refusing to head for it would be taking the doubt as grounds for fixing which you prefer.
In the light of the principle that 'To be 'for' is to give the most weight in relation to the desires, having taken account of all that one knows', when you cut up dried meat it is not wisdom, when you cut off a finger it is not foolishness. When what you are for and what you are against put each other in doubt, you are failing to plan things out.

77 經上:
已,成、亡。
經說上:
已:為衣,成也;治病,亡也。
Canon I:
Yi (end/finish). To bring about, to get rid of.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Of making a coat: 'to bring about'. Of curing an illness: 'to get rid of'.

78 經上:
使,謂、故。Category: [邏輯]
經說上:
使:令,謂「謂」也,不必成。濕,「故」也,必待所為之成也。Category: [邏輯]
Canon I:
Shi (to commission/to cause). To tell. The cause.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
To give orders is 'to tell'. The thing does not necessarily come about. Dampness is a cause. It is necessarily required that what it does comes about.

79 經上:
名,達、類、私。Category: [邏輯]
經說上:
名:物,達也。有實必待之名1也。命之馬,類也。若實也者,必以是名也。命之臧,私也。是名也止於是實也。聲出口,俱有名,若姓字2灑。Category: [邏輯]
Canon I:
Ming (name). Unrestricted; classifying; private.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
'Thing' is 'unrestricted' - any object necessarily requires this name. Naming something 'horse' is 'classifying' - for 'like the object' we necessarily use this name. Naming someone 'Jack' is 'private' - this name stays confined in this object. The sounds which issue from the mouth all have the name. For example, surname and style-name.

1. 之名 : Originally read: "文多".
2. 字 : Originally read: "宇". Corrected by 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

80 經上:
謂,移、舉、加。
經說上:
謂:狗、犬,命也。狗犬,舉也。叱狗,加也。
Canon I:
Wei (call). Transfer, refer, apply.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Of naming by linking 'whelp' and 'dog: 'transfer'. Of 'whelp', of 'dog': 'refer'. Of hooting at a dog: 'apply'.

81 經上:
知,聞、說、親,名、實、合、為。Category: [知識論]
經說上:
知:傳受之,聞也;方不㢓,說也;身觀焉,親也。所以謂,名也;所謂,實也。名實耦,合也。志行,為也。Category: [知識論]
Canon I:
Zhi (know). By hearsay, by explanation, by personal experience. The name, the object, how to relate, how to act.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Having received it at second hand is knowing by 'hearsay'. Knowing that something square will not rotate is by 'explanation'. Having been a witness oneself is knowing 'by personal experience'. What something is called by is its 'name'. What is so called is the 'object'. The mating of 'name' and 'object' is 'relating'. To intend and to perform are to 'act'.

82 經上:
聞,傳、親。Category: [知識論]
經說上:
聞:或告之,傳也;身觀焉,親也。Category: [知識論]
Canon I:
Wen (hear). At second hand, in person.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Being told by someone is hearing 'at second hand'. Being a witness oneself is hearing 'in person'.

83 經上:
見,體、盡。
經說上:
見:時者,體也;二者,盡也。
Canon I:
Jian (see). Individuals, all.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
One member of a pair (?) is an individual. Two of them are 'all'.

84 經上:
合,正1、宜、必。
經說上:
2:兵立反中、志工,正也;臧之為,宜也:非彼必不有,必也。聖者用而勿必,必也者可勿疑。
Canon I:
He (relation/tallying/being together). Exact, to the one which is appropriate, necessary.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
The relations of sharing a level with (?), coinciding as the converse (?), aim and achievement, are 'exact'. The relation to wahat Jack is deemed to be is 'to the one which is appropriate'. If without something else something is necessarily absent, the relation is 'necessary'. The judges of sage, employ but do not treat as necessary. The 'necessary' accept and do not doubt. The ones which are the converse of each other, apply on both sides, not on one without the other.

1. 正 : Originally read: "缶".
2. 合 : Originally read: "古".

85 經上:
欲正1權利,且惡正2權害。
經說上:
仗者,兩而勿偏。
Canon I:
Yu (desire/be about to). Directly, weighing the benefit; be about to. Wu (dislike). Directly, weighing the harm.

1. 正 : Originally read: "缶".
2. 正 : Originally read: "缶".

86 經上:
為,存、亡、易、蕩、治、化。
經說上:
為:早臺,存也。病,亡也。買鬻,易也。霄盡,蕩也。順長,治也。鼃買,化也。
Canon I:
Wei (constitute/become/deem/make/cure/govern). Keep as it is, get rid of, exchange, dissolve, govern, transform.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Of coinciding with a complement (?): 'keep as it is'. Of illness: 'get rid of'. Of buying and selling: 'exchange'. Of sleet or ashes: 'dissolve'. Of instructing and leading: 'govern'. Of frog and quail: 'transform'.

87 經上:
同,重、體、合、類。Category: [邏輯]
經說上:
同:二名一實,重同也。不外於兼,體同也。俱處於室,合同也。有以同,類同也。Category: [邏輯]
Canon I:
Tong (same). Identical, as units, as together, of a kind.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
There being two names but one object is the sameness of 'identity'. Not being outside the total is sameness 'as units'. Both occupying the room is the sameness of being 'together'. Being the same in some respect is sameness in being 'of a kind'.

88 經上:
異,二、
1體、不合、不類。Category: [邏輯]
經說上:
異:二必異,二也。不連屬,不體也。不同所,不合也。不有同,不類也。Category: [邏輯]
Canon I:
Yi (different). Two, not units, not together, not of a kind.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
The objects if the names are two necessarily being different is being 'two'. Not connected or attached is 'not units'. Not in the same place is 'not together'. Not the same in a certain respect is 'not of a kind'.

1. 不 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

89 經上:
同異交得放有無。
經說上:
同異交得:於福家良恕,有無也。比度,多少也。免軔還園,去就也。鳥折用桐,堅柔也。劍尤甲1,死生也。處室子
2母,長少也。兩絕勝,白黑也。中央旁也。論、行
行行
3、學、實,是非也。雞4宿,成未也。兄弟,俱適也。身處志往,存亡也。霍,為姓故也。賈宜,貴賤也。
Canon I:
Sameness and difference. In interplay, having and lacking become relative.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
In interplay the following become relative: In the case of a rich family, of native intelligence, 'having and lacking'. In the case of putting side by side and measuring, 'more and less'. In the case of a louse on a hare moving this way and that (?), 'departing and approaching'. In the case of retreating the better to attack, 'hard and soft'. In the case of a sword just striking, 'dead and alive'. In the case of son, son and mother within a family, 'elder and younger'. In the case of discourse, conduct, learning an object, 'being this or not being it (right or wrong)'. In the case of raising objections to a proposal or putting off acting on it, 'proved or not yet proved'. In the case of elder-brother and younger-brother, 'both being complements'. In the case of the body being here and the thoughts on something elsewhere, 'present or absent'. In the case of what 'Crane' constitutes, 'the surname or the thing as it is in itself'. In the case of a price being right, 'dear or cheap'.

1. 甲 : Originally read: "早".
2. 子 : Deleted. 衍文。
3. 行行 : Deleted.
4. 雞 : Originally read: "難".

90 經上:
聞,耳之聰也。Category: [知識論]
經說上:

91 經上:
循所聞而得其意,心之察也。
經說上:

92 經上:
言,口之利也。
經說上:

93 經上:
執所言而意得見,心之辯也。
經說上:

94 經上:
諾,不一、利用。
經說上:
諾:超、誠1、負2、正3也。相從、相去、先知、是、可,五色。長短、前後、輕重援
正五諾,皆人於知有說;過五諾,若員,無直無說;用五諾,若自然矣。
4
Canon I:
An assent and a denial are one in the benefit and the use.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
When we 'jump the wall', the circular stays fixed. By the things which follow from each other or exclude each other, we may know 'a priori' what it is. For the five colours, long and short, before and after, light and heavy, adduce the one to which you are committed. The matching and the assent enter the consciousness together. When something is explained, and you assent to more than that they match, for example to a circle being nowhere straight, or nothing is explained and you assent on the basis of the matching, it is as though it were so of itself.

1. 誠 : Originally read: "城".
2. 負 : Originally read: "員".
3. 正 : Originally read: "止".
4. 正五諾,皆人於知有說;過五諾,若員,無直無說;用五諾,若自然矣。 : Moved here from entry 100.

95 經上:
服,執誽。
音利。
1
經說上:
執服難。成言務成之,九則求執之。
Canon I:
When someone devotes himself to a commitment, if the description takes a subtle turn, seek his reasons.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
If he raises objections to an established statement, and makes it his business to establish this commitment, seek the standard for the commitment.

1. 音利。 : Deleted. 畢沅注:「『音利』二字舊注,未詳其義」。

96 經上:
巧轉則求其故。Category: [邏輯]
經說上:

97 經上:
法同,則觀其同。Category: [邏輯]
經說上:
法:法取同,觀巧傳。Category: [邏輯]
Canon I:
If the standard is the same, examine what is the same in it.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Choose what is the same, and examine the subtle turn.

98 經上:
法異,則觀其宜。Category: [邏輯]
經說上:
法:取此擇彼,問故觀宜。以人之有黑者有不黑者也,止黑人,與以有愛於人有不愛於人,心愛人,是孰宜?Category: [邏輯]
Canon I:
If the standard differs, examine what is appropriate to it.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
Choose this and pick out that, ask about reasons and examine appropriateness. Using what is black and what is not black in a man to fix 'black man', and using love of some men and failure to love other men to fix 'love of man' - of these which is appropriate?

99 經上:
止,因以別道。Category: [邏輯]
經說上:
1:彼舉然者,以為此其然也,則舉不然者而問之。Category: [邏輯]
Canon I:
Fix the criterion in order to 'separate the roads'.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
If the other man, referring to a respect in which it is not so, deems it so in the instance here, refer to respects in which it is not so and inquire about them.

1. 止 : Originally read: "心".

100 經上:
1,無非。
經說上:
若聖人有非而不非。
正五諾,皆人於知有說;過五諾,若員,無直無說;用五諾,若自然矣。
2
Canon I:
The exact nowhere is not.
Exposition of Canon I:...:
For example, the sage has respects in which he is not, yet he is.

1. 正 : Originally read: "缶".
2. 正五諾,皆人於知有說;過五諾,若員,無直無說;用五諾,若自然矣。 : Moved to entry 94.

URN: ctp:mozi/canon-i