Follow us on Facebook to receive important updates - thanks for your support! Follow us on Twitter to receive important updates - thanks for your support! Follow us on sina.com's microblogging site to receive important updates - thanks for your support! Follow us on Douban to receive important updates - thanks for your support!
Chinese Text Project
Show translation:[None] [Modern Chinese] [English]
-> -> -> -> Condemnation of Offensive War II

《非攻中 - Condemnation of Offensive War II》

English translation: W. P. Mei [?] Library Resources
1 非攻中:
子墨子言曰:「古者王公大人,為政於國家者,情欲譽之審,賞罰之當,刑政之不過失。」是故子墨子曰:「古者有語:『謀而不得,則以往知來,以見知隱』。謀若此,可得而知矣。」
Condemnation of Offensive War...:
Mozi said: If the rulers of to-day sincerely wish to be careful in condemnation and commendation, judicious in rewards and punishments, and temperate in government and jurisdiction. Therefore Mozi said: There is an ancient saying that, when one is not successful in making out plans then predict the future by the past and learn about the absent from what is present. When one plans like this then one can be intelligent.

2 非攻中:
今師徒唯毋興起,冬行恐寒,夏行恐暑,此不可以冬夏為者也。春則廢民耕稼樹藝,秋則廢民穫斂。今唯毋廢一時,則百姓飢寒凍餒而死者,不可勝數。今嘗計軍上,竹箭羽旄幄幕,甲盾撥劫,往而靡壞腑爛不反者,不可勝數;又與矛戟戈劍乘車,其往則1碎折靡壞而不反者,不可勝數;與其牛馬肥而往,瘠而反,往死亡而不反者,不可勝數;與其涂道之脩遠,糧食輟絕而不繼,百姓死者,不可勝數也;與其居處之不安,食飲之不時,飢飽之不節,百姓之道疾病而死者,不可勝數;喪師多不可勝數,喪師盡不可勝計,則是鬼神之喪其主後,亦不可勝數。
Condemnation of Offensive War...:
Now, about a country going to war. If it is in winter it will be too cold ; if it is in summer it will be too hot. So it should be neither in winter nor in summer. If it is in spring it will take people away from sowing and planting; if it is in autumn it will take people away from reaping and harvesting. Should they be taken away in either of these seasons, innumerable people would die of hunger and cold, And, when the army sets out, the bamboo arrows, the feather flags, the house tents, the armour, the shields, the sword hilts -- innumerable quantities of these will break and rot and never come back. The spears, the lances, the swords, the poniards, the chariots, the carts -- innumerable quantities of these will break and rot and never come back. Then innumerable horses and oxen will start out fat and come back lean or will not return at all. And innumerable people will die because their food will be cut off and cannot be supplied on account of the great distances of the roads. And innumerable people will be sick and die of the constant danger and the irregularity of eating and drinking and the extremes of hunger and over-eating. Then, the army will be lost in large numbers or entirely; in either case the number will be innumerable. And this means the spirits will lose their worshippers, and the number of these will also be innumerable.

1. 往則 : Originally read: "列住". Corrected by 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

3 非攻中:
國家發政,奪民之用,廢民之利,若此甚眾,然而何為為之?曰:「我貪伐勝之名,及得之利,故為之。」子墨子言曰:「計其所自勝,無所可用也。計其所得,反不如所喪者之多。今攻三里之城,七里之郭,攻此不用銳,且無殺而徒得此然也。殺人多必數於萬,寡必數於千,然後三里之城、七里之郭,且可得也。今萬乘之國,虛數於千,不勝而入廣衍數於萬,不勝而辟。然則土地者,所有餘也,士民者,所不足也。今盡士民之死,嚴下上之患,以爭虛城,則是棄所不足,而重所有餘也。為政若此,非國之務者也。」
Condemnation of Offensive War...:
Why then does the government deprive the people of their opportunities and benefits to such a great extent? It has been answered: "I covet the fame of the victor and the possessions obtainable through the conquest. So I do it." Mozi said: But when we consider the victory as such, there is nothing useful about it. When we consider the possessions obtained through it, it does not even make up for the loss. Now about the siege of a city of three li or a guo of seven li -- if these could be obtained without the use of weapons or the killing of lives, it would be all right. But (as a matter of fact) those killed must be counted by the ten thousand, those widowed or left solitary must be counted by the thousand, before a city of three li or a guo of seven li could be captured. Moreover the states of ten thousand chariots now have empty towns to be counted by the thousand, which can be entered without conquest; and their extensive lands to be counted by the ten thousand (of mu), which can be cultivated without conquest. So, land is abundant but people are few. Now to pursue the people to death and aggravate the danger feared by both superiors and subordinates in order to obtain an empty city -- this is to give up what is needed and to treasure what is already in abundance. Such an undertaking is not in accordance with the interest of the country.

4 非攻中:
飾攻戰者言曰:「南則荊、吳之王,北則齊、晉之君,始封於天下之時,其土地之方,未至有數百里也;人徒之眾,未至有數十萬人也。以攻戰之故,土地之博至有數千里也;人徒之眾至有數百萬人。故當攻戰而不可為也。」子墨子言曰:「雖四五國則得利焉,猶謂之非行道也。譬若醫之藥人之有病者然。今有醫於此,和合其祝藥之于天下之有病者而藥之,萬人食此,若醫四五人得利焉,猶謂之非行藥也。故孝子不以食其親,忠臣不以食其君。古者封國於天下,尚者以耳之所聞,近者以目之所見,以攻戰亡者,不可勝數。何以知其然也?東方自莒之國者,其為國甚小,閒於大國之閒,不敬事於大,大國亦弗之從而愛利。是以東者越人夾削其壤地,西者齊人兼而有之。計莒之所以亡於齊越之間者,以是攻戰也。雖南者陳、蔡,其所以亡於吳越之閒者,亦以攻戰。雖北者且不一著何,其所以亡於燕、代、胡、貊之閒者,亦以攻戰也。」是故子墨子言曰:「古者王公大人,情欲得而惡失,欲安而惡危,故當攻戰而不可不非。」
Condemnation of Offensive War...:
Those who endeavor to gloss over offensive wars would say: "In the south there are the lords of Jing and Yue, and in the north there are the lords of Qi and Jin. When their states were first assigned to them, they were but a hundred li square in area, and but a few tens of thousands in number of people. By means of wars and attacks, their areas have increased to several thousand li square and the people to several million. So, then, offensive wars are not to be condemned." Mozi said : The four or five states may have reaped their benefits, still it is not conduct according to the Dao. It is like the physician giving his drugs to the patients. If a physician should give all the sick in the world a uniform drug, among the ten thousand who took it there might be four or five who were benefited, still it is not to be said to be a common (commonly beneficial) medicine. Thus a filial son will not give it to his parent and a loyal minister will not give it to his king. After the empire was in the ancient time divided into states a great many of them died of attacks - the earlier cases we hear of through the ear, the recent cases we saw by the eye. How do we know it is so? In the east there was the state of Ju. It was a small state situated in the midst of big states. It did not show respect and obedience to the big states, and the latter therefore did not like it or favour it. So, on the east Yue cut and appropriated its land by force, and from the west Qi swallowed it up altogether. And it was due to offensive wars that Ju died between two big states. And it was due to offensive war too that in the south Chen and Cai were extinguished by Wu and Yue. And it was also due to offensive wars that in the north Bu Tu He perished among Yan, Dai, Hu and Mo. Therefore Mozi said: If the rulers now really desire gain and avert loss, desire security and avert danger, they cannot but condemn offensive wars.

5 非攻中:
飾攻戰者之言曰:「彼不能收用彼眾,是故亡。我能收用我眾,以此攻戰於天下,誰敢不賓服哉?」子墨子言曰:「子雖能收用子之眾,子豈若古者吳闔閭哉?古者吳闔閭教七年,奉甲執兵,奔三百里而舍焉,次注林,出於冥隘之徑,戰於柏舉,中楚國而朝宋與及魯。至夫差之身,北而攻齊,舍於汶上,戰於艾陵,大敗齊人而葆之大山;東而攻越,濟三江五湖,而葆之會稽。九夷之國莫不賓服。於是退不能賞孤,施舍群萌,自恃其力,伐其功,譽其智,怠於教,遂築姑蘇之臺,七年不成。及若此,則吳有離罷之心。越王句踐視吳上下不相得,收其眾以復其讎,入北郭,徙大內,圍王宮而吳國以亡。昔者晉有六將軍,而智伯莫為強焉。計其土地之博,人徒之眾,欲以抗諸侯,以為英名。攻戰之速,故差論其爪牙之士,皆列
1舟車之眾,以攻中行氏而有之。以其謀為既已足矣,又攻茲范氏而大敗之,并三家以為一家,而不止,又圍趙襄子於晉陽。及若此,則韓、魏亦相從而謀曰:『古者有語,脣亡則齒寒』。趙氏朝亡,我夕從之,趙氏夕;亡,我朝從之。《》曰『魚水不務,陸將何及乎!』」是以三主之君,一心戮力辟門除道,奉甲興士,韓、魏自外,趙氏自內,擊智伯大敗之。」是故子墨子言曰:「古者有語曰:『君子不鏡於水而鏡於人,鏡於水,見面之容,鏡於人,則知吉與凶。今以攻戰為利,則蓋嘗鑒之於智伯之事乎?此其為不吉而凶,既可得而知矣。』」
Condemnation of Offensive War...:
Those who endeavor to gloss over offensive wars would say: "These states perished because they could not gather and employ their multitudes. I can gather and employ my multitudes and wage war with them; who, then, dares to be unsubmissive?" Mozi said: You might be able to gather and employ your multitudes, but can you compare yourself with the ancient He Lu of Wu? He Lu of Wu (about 510 B.C.) in the ancient days drilled his soldiers seven years. With armour on and weapons in hand they could cover three hundred li (in a day) before encamping (for the night). Passing Zhulin, they emerged at the narrow Pass of Min. They engaged in battle (with the state of Chu) at Boju. Subduing Chu, (He Lu) gave audience to Song and Lu. By the time of Fu Chai he attacked Qi in the north, encamped on the Wen River, fought at Ai Ling and greatly defeated Qi and compelled surety from them at Mt.Tai. In the east he attacked Yue, crossing the Three Rivers and the Five Lakes, and compelled surety at Guiji. None of the nine tribes dared to show disrespect. Reaching home, however, he would not reward the orphaned or give to the numerous rustics. He depended on his own might, gloated over his success, praised his own cleverness, and neglected instructing and training his people. He built the Monument of Gusu which was not completed even in seven years. By this time (the people of Wu) felt tired and disheartened. Seeing the friction between the superior and the subordinates in Wu, Goujian of Yue gathered his multitudes to take revenge. He broke into its kuo on the north, moved away its royal boat, and surrounded its palace. And thus Wu perished. Some time ago Jin had six ministers and Zhibo (about 455 B.C.) was the most powerful. He considered the large area of his land and the great number of his people, and desired to attack the feudal lords in order to have a rapid spread of his courageous name through war and battle. So he ranked his brave warriors and arranged his boat and chariot forces. He attacked (the house of) Zhongxing and seized it. This showed to him that his plans were satisfactory. Then he attacked Fan and totally defeated him. Thus he absorbed three families into one. He did not stop even there. but surrounded Minister Xiang of Zhao at Jinyang. By this time Han and Wei came together and deliberated, saying: "An ancient proverb says: 'When the lips are removed the teeth will become cold.' The house of Zhao dying in the morning we would be following it in the evening; the house of Zhao dying in the evening we would be following it in the morning. A poet sings: 'If the fish would not act while yet in water, what can it do when it is already placed on land?'" Thereupon the three ministers worked with united strength and a single mind, opening passes and blazing trails, putting on armour and arousing the warriors. With Han and Wei from without and Zhao from within, they battled Zhibo and totally defeated him. Therefore Mozi said : An ancient proverb says: "The superior man would not go to water but to man for a mirror." In water as a mirror one sees only one's face; in man as a mirror one can predict good and bad luck." Have those who now regard offensive wars as beneficial made use of Zhibo's story? It is plainly discernible to be not auspicious but ominous.

1. 其 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

URN: ctp:mozi/condemnation-of-offensive-war-ii