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《非攻下 - Condemnation of Offensive War III》

English translation: W. P. Mei [?] Library Resources
1 非攻下:
子墨子言曰:「今天下之所譽善者,其說將何
1?為其上中天之利,而中中鬼之利,而下中人之利,故譽之與?意亡非為其上中天之利,而中中鬼之利,而下中人之利,故譽之與?雖使下愚之人,必曰:『將為其上中天之利,而中中鬼之利,而下中人之利,故譽之』。今天下之所同義者,聖王之法也。今天下之諸侯將猶多皆免攻伐并兼,則是有譽義之名,而不察其實也。此譬猶盲者之與人,同命白黑之名,而不能分其物也,則豈謂有別哉?是故古之知者之為天下度也,必順慮其義,而後為之行,是以動則不疑,速通成得其所欲,而順天鬼百姓之利,則知者之道也。是故古之仁人有天下者,必反大國之說,一天下之和,總四海之內,焉率天下之百姓,以農臣事上帝山川鬼神。利人多,功故又大,是以天賞之,鬼富之,人譽之,使貴為天子,富有天下,名參乎天地,至今不廢。此則知者之道也,先王之所以有天下者也。
Condemnation of Offensive War...:
Mozi said: What does the world now praise to be good? Is not an act praised because it is useful to Heaven on high, to the spirits in the middle sphere, and to the people below? Certainly no other reason is needed for praise than to be useful to Heaven on high, to the spirits in the middle, and to the people below. Even the stupid would say it is praiseworthy when it is helpful to Heaven on high, to the spirits in the middle, and to the people below. And what the world agrees on is just the way of the sage-kings. Now the feudal lords in the empire still attack and assault each other. This is to praise the principle without understanding its real meaning. They resemble the blind man who uses with others the names of black and white but cannot discriminate between such objects. Can this be said to be real discrimination? Therefore, deliberating for the empire, the ancient wise men always considered the real (meaning of the) principles, and acted accordingly. Hence thev were no more uncertain in their actions. All desires, far or near, were satisfied, and Heaven, the spirits, and the people were all blessed. Such was the way of the wise men. Governing the empire, the ancient magnanimous men always worked for mutual satisfaction with the large states, brought the empire into harmony, and centralized all that was within the four seas. Then they led the people in the empire diligently to do service to God, hills and rivers, and the spirits and ghosts. Many were the benefits to the people and great was their success. Thereupon Heaven rewarded them, the spirits enriched them, and the people praised them. The high honour of Son of Heaven was conferred upon them and the great wealth of the whole world was given to them. Their names partake of (the permanence and greatness of) Heaven and Earth and are not forgotten even to this day. Such is the way of the wise and such is the way by which the ancient kings came to possess the world.

1. 哉 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

2 非攻下:
今王公大人天下之諸侯則不然,將必皆差論其爪牙之士,皆列其舟車之卒伍,於此為堅甲利兵,以往攻伐無罪之國。入其國家邊境,芟刈其禾稼,斬其樹木,墮其城郭,以湮其溝池,攘殺其牲牷,燔潰其祖廟,勁殺其萬民,覆其老弱,遷其重器,卒進而柱乎鬥,曰『死命為上,多殺次之,身傷者為下,又況失列北橈乎哉,罪死無赦』,以譂其眾。夫無兼國覆軍,賊虐萬民,以亂聖人之緒。意將以為利天乎?夫取天之人,以攻天之邑,此刺殺天民,剝振神之位,傾覆社稷,攘殺其犧牲,則此上不中天之利矣。意將以為利鬼乎?夫殺之人,滅鬼神之主,廢滅先王,賊虐萬民,百姓離散,則此中不中鬼之利矣。意將以為利人乎?夫殺之人,為利人也博矣。又計其費此,為周生之本,竭天下百姓之財用,不可勝數也,則此下不中人之利矣。
Condemnation of Offensive War...:
The rulers and lords of to-day are quite different. They all rank their warriors and arrange their boat and chariot forces; they make their armour strong and weapons sharp in order to attack some innocent state. Entering the state they cut down the grain fields and fell the trees and woods; they tear down the inner and outer walls of the city and fill up the ditches and ponds; they seize and kill the sacrificial animals and burn down the ancestral temple; they kill and murder the people and exterminate the aged and weak; they move away the treasures and valuables. The soldiers are encouraged to advance by being told: "To suffer death is the highest (service you can render), to kill many is the next, to be wounded is the lowest. But if you should drop out from your rank and attempt to sneak away, the penalty will be death without moderation." Thus the soldiers are put to fear. Now to capture a state and to destroy an army, to disturb and torture the people, and to set at naught the aspirations of the sages by confusion - is this intended to bless Heaven? But the people of Heaven are gathered together to besiege the towns belonging to Heaven. This is to murder men of Heaven and dispossess the spirits of their altars and to ruin the state and to kill the sacrificial animals. It is then not a blessing to Heaven on high. Is it intended to bless the spirits? But men of Heaven are murdered, spirits are deprived of their sacrifices, the earlier kings are neglected, the multitude are tortured and the people are scattered; it is then not a blessing to the spirits in the middle. Is it intended to bless the people? But the blessing of the people by killing them off must be very meagre. And when we calculate the expense, which is the root of the calamities to living, we find the property of innumerable people is exhausted. It is, then, not a blessing to the people below either.

3 非攻下:
今夫師者之相為不利者也,曰:將不勇,士不分,兵不利,教不習,師不眾,率不利和,威不圉,害之不久,爭之不疾,孫之不強。植心不堅,與國諸侯疑,與國諸侯疑,則敵生慮,而意羸矣。偏具此物,而致從事焉,則是國家失卒,而百姓易務也。今不嘗觀其說好攻伐之國?若使中興師,君子庶人也,必且數千,徒倍十萬,然後足以師而動矣。久者數歲,速者數月,是上不暇聽治,士不暇治其官府,農夫不暇稼穡,婦人不暇紡績織紝,則是國家失卒,而百姓易務也,然而又與其車馬之罷弊也,幔幕帷蓋,三軍之用,甲兵之備,五分而得其一,則猶為序疏矣。然而又與其散亡道路,道路遼遠,糧食下繼傺,食飲之時,廁役以此飢寒凍餒疾病,而轉死溝壑中者,不可勝計也。此其為不利於人也,天下之害厚矣。而王公大人,樂而行之。則此樂賊滅天下之萬民也,豈不悖哉!今天下好戰之國,齊、晉、楚、越,若使此四國者得意於天下,此皆十倍其國之眾,而未能食其地也。是人不足而地有餘也。今又以爭地之故,而反相賊也,然則是虧不足,而重有餘也」。
Condemnation of Offensive War...:
Now that the armies are intended for mutual destruction, it is evident: If the general be not courageous, if soldiers be not brave, if weapons be not sharp, if drills be not frequent, if the force be not large, if generals be not harmonious, if power be not august, if a siege be not enduring, if an assault be not speedy, if people be not strongly bound together, if determination be not firm - if this be so, the (other) feudal lords will suspect. When feudal lords entertain suspicion, enemies will be stirred up and cause anxiety, and the morale will be weakened. On the other hand, if every preparation is in good shape and the state goes out to engage in war, then the state will lose its men and the people will neglect their vocations. Have we not heard it said that, when a warring state goes on an expedition, of the officers there must be several hundred, of the common people there must be several thousand, and of the soldiers and prisoners there must be ten thousand, before the army can set out? It may last for several years, or, at the shortest, several months. So, the superior will have no time to attend to government, the officials will have no time to attend to their offices, the farmers will have no time to sow or reap, the women will have no time to weave or spin: that is, the state will lose its men and the people will neglect their vocations. Besides, the chariots will break and horses will be exhausted. As to tents, army supplies, and soldiers' equipment - if one-fifth of these can remain (after the war) it would already be beyond expectation. Moreover, innumerable men will be missing and lost on the way, and will become sick from the long distances, meagre rations, hunger and cold, and die in the ditches. Now the calamity to the people and the world is tremendous. Yet the rulers enjoy doing it. This means they enjoy injuring and exterminating the people; is this not perversity? The most warring states in the empire to-day are Qi, Jin, Chu, and Yue. These four states are all successful in the world. Even if their people be increased tenfold, still they could not consume all that their land could produce. That is, they are in need of men while they have a surplus of land. Still they strove against each other to possess more land. This is to neglect what is needed and to value what is already in plenty.

4 非攻下:
今遝夫好攻伐之君,又飾其說以非子墨子曰:「以攻伐之為不義,非利物與?昔者禹征有苗,湯伐桀,武王伐紂,此皆立為聖王,是何故也?」子墨子曰:「子未察吾言之類,未明其故者也。彼非所謂攻,謂誅也。昔者三苗大亂,天命殛之,日妖宵出,雨血三朝,龍生於廟,犬哭乎巿,夏冰,地坼及泉,五穀變化,民乃大振。高陽乃命玄宮,禹親把天之瑞令以征有苗,四電誘袛,有神人面鳥身,若瑾以侍,搤矢有苗之祥,苗師大亂,後乃遂幾。禹既已克有三苗,焉磨為山川,別物上下,卿制大極,而神民不違,天下乃靜。則此禹之所以征有苗也。遝至乎夏王桀,天有酷命,日月不時,寒暑雜至,五穀焦死,鬼呼國,鶴鳴十夕餘。
1乃命湯於鑣宮,用受夏之大命,夏德大亂,予既卒其命於天矣,往而誅之,必使汝堪之。湯焉敢奉率其眾,是以鄉有夏之境,帝乃使陰暴毀有夏之城。少少有神來告曰:『夏德大亂,往攻之,予必使汝大堪之。予既受命於天,天命融隆火,于夏之城閒西北之隅。湯奉桀眾以克有,屬諸侯於薄,薦章天命,通于四方,而天下諸侯莫敢不賓服。則此湯之所以誅桀也。遝至乎商王紂天不序其德,祀用失時。兼夜中,十日雨土于薄,九鼎遷止,婦妖宵出,有鬼宵吟,有女為男,天雨肉,棘生乎國道,王兄自縱也。赤鳥銜珪,降周之岐社,曰:『天命周文王伐殷有國。』泰顛來賓,河出綠圖,地出乘黃。武王踐功,夢見三神
2:予既沈漬殷紂于酒德矣,往攻之,予必使汝大堪之』。武王乃攻狂夫,反商之周,天賜武王黃鳥之旗。王既已克殷,成帝之來,分主諸神,祀紂先王,通維四夷,而天下莫不賓,焉襲湯之緒,此即武王之所以誅紂也。若以此三聖王者觀之,則非所謂攻也,所謂誅也」。
Condemnation of Offensive War...:
The warring lords would gloss over (their conduct) with arguments to confute Mozi, saying: "Do you condemn attack and assault as unrighteous and not beneficial? But, anciently, Yu made war on the Prince of Miao, Tang on Jie, and King Wu on Zhou. Yet these are regarded as sages. What is your explanation for this?" Mozi said: You have not examined the terminology of my teaching and you do not understand its motive. What they did is not to be called "attack" but "punishment." Anciently, the three Miao tribes were in great confusion. Heaven ordered their destruction. The sun rose at night. It rained blood for three days. Dragons emerged in the temple and dogs cried in the market place. Ice came in summer and earth cracked until water gushed forth. The five grains appeared in mutation. At these, the people were greatly shocked. Gao Yang then gave command (to Yu) in the Yuan Palace. Yu held the imperial jade order in hand and set forth to conquer Miao. Amidst thunder and lightning, a god with the face of a man and the body of a bird was revealed to be waiting upon (Yu) with the gui in hand. The general of Miao was brought down by an arrow and the Miao army was set in great confusion. And the Miao tribes became less and less significant ever after. Having conquered Miao, Yu set apart the hills and rivers (by names), and ordered things into high and low. With sacrifices he set up the four bordering countries, and neither spirits nor men revolted (any more). So there was peace in the world. This was the reason why Yu made war on the Miao. When it came to King Jie of Xia, Heaven gave severe order. Sun and moon did not appear on time. Winter and summer came irregularly. The five grains were dried up to death. Ghosts called in the country, and cranes shrieked for more than ten nights. Heaven then commissioned Tang in the Biao Palace, to receive the great trust that had been given to Xia, as the conduct of Xia fell into great perversity. Only then dared Tang to lead his multitude and enter the borders of Xia. And he let the deserters of the enemy destroy the cities of Xia. Soon after, a god came and told him: "The conduct of Xia is in great confusion. Go and punish him. I will surely let you destroy him, as I have my orders from Heaven." Heaven ordered Zhuyong to send down fire on the northwestern corner of the city of Xia. Thus Tang led the men of Jie and conquered Xia. He then gave audience to the feudal lords at Bo. He revealed and made known the will of Heaven and spread it in the four directions, and none of the feudal lords in the empire dared to show disrespect. This was the reason why Tang punished Jie. When it came to the regime of King Zhou of Shang, his conduct was not acceptable to Heaven. Sacrifices were not according to seasons. Even in the night... It rained sand for ten days at Bo. The nine caldrons moved from their place. Witches appeared in the dark and ghosts sighed at night. Some women turned into men. Flesh came down from Heaven like rain. Thorny brambles covered up the national highways. Yet the king became even more dissolute. A red bird holding a gui by its beak alighted on Mt. Qi, proclaiming: "Heaven decrees King Wen of Zhou to punish Yin and possess its empire." Tai Dian then came to be minister to (King Wen). The charts emerged out of the River and chenghuang appeared on land. Thereupon King Wu ascended the throne. Three gods spoke to him in a dream, saying: "Now that we have submerged Zhou of Yin in wine, you go and attack him. We will surely let you destroy him." So, King Wu set out and attacked Zhou, and replaced Shang with Zhou. Heaven gave King Wu the Yellow Bird Pennant. Having conquered Yin he continued the order of Tang and assigned the worship of the ancestors of Zhou to the feudal lords. Connexions with the barbarians of the four borders were established, and none in the world dared to show disrespect. This was the reason why King Wu punished Zhou. Speaking about the work of these three sages, it is not to be called attack but punishment.

1. 天 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 曰 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

5 非攻下:
則夫好攻伐之君,又飾其說以非子墨子曰:「子以攻伐為不義,非利物與?昔者楚熊麗始討此睢山之閒,越王繄虧」,出自有遽,始邦於越,唐叔與呂尚邦齊晉。此皆地方數百里,今以并國之故,四分天下而有之。是故何也?」子墨子曰:「子未察吾言之類,未明其故者也。古者天子之始封諸侯也,萬有餘,今以并國之故,萬國有餘皆滅,而四國獨立。此譬猶醫之藥萬有餘人,而四人愈也,則不可謂良醫矣。」
Condemnation of Offensive War...:
The warring lords would again gloss over (their conduct) with arguments for offensive war against Mozi, saying: Do you condemn attack and assault as unrighteous and not beneficial? But, in ancient times, Xiong Li was assigned to the state of Chu (about 1100 B.C.) in the Mt. of Sui. Yi Kui started at Youju, and became lord of Yue. Uncle Tang and Lu Shang were first appointed to rule over the states of Jin (1107 B.C.) and of Qi (about 1120 B.C.) respectively. All these started with a few hundred li square of land. On account of their capture of other states, now each of them has a quarter of the empire. What is your explanation for this?" Mozi said: You have not examined the terminology of my teachings and you do not understand the underlying principle. In ancient times the emperor commissioned feudal lords numbering more than ten thousand. On account of absorption of one state by another, all of the more than ten thousand states have disappeared with only the four remaining. This is like the physician who attends more than ten thousand patients but cures only four. Such an one is not to be said to be a good physician.

6 非攻下:
則夫好攻伐之君又飾其說曰:「我非以金玉、子女、壤地為不足也,我欲以義名立於天下,以德求諸侯也。」子墨子曰:「今若有能以義名立於天下,以德求諸侯者,天下之服可立而待也。夫天下處攻伐久矣,譬若傅子之為馬然。今若有能信效先利天下諸侯者,大國之不義也,則同憂之;大國之攻小國也,則同救之;小國城郭之不全也,必使修之;布粟之絕,則委之;幣帛不足,則共之。以此效大國,則小國之君說,人勞我逸,則我甲兵強。寬以惠,緩易急,民必移。易攻伐以治我國,攻必倍。量我師舉之費,以爭諸侯之斃,則必可得而序利焉。督以正,義其名,必務寬吾眾,信吾師,以此授諸侯之師,則天下無敵矣。其為下不可勝數也。此天下之利,而王公大人不知而用,則此可謂不知利天下之巨務矣。」是故子墨子曰:「今且天下之王公大人士居子,中情將欲求興天下之利,除天下之害,當若繁為攻伐,此實天下之巨害也。今欲為仁義,求為上士,尚欲中聖王之道,下欲中國家百姓之利,故當若非攻之為說,而將不可不察者此也。」
Condemnation of Offensive War...:
The warring lords would again gloss over (their conduct) with arguments, saying: "(I wage war) not because I am still discontented with my gold and jade, my children and my land. I want to have my name as a righteous ruler established in the world and draw the other feudal lords to me with my virtue." Mozi said: If there were some one who would establish his righteous name for justice in the world and draw the feudal lords to him with his virtue, the submission of the whole world to him could be awaited while standing. For the world has long been in turmoil and war, and it is weary like the boy at playing horse. If only there were some one who would first benefit the other feudal lords in mutual good faith! When some large state acts unrighteously, he would join in the sorrow; when some large state attacks some smaller one he would join in the rescue; when the outer and the inner walls of the city of the small state are in ruin he would demand their repair; when cloth and grains are exhausted he would supply them; when money and silk are insufficient he would share his own - to befriend the large state in this way, the large state will be pleased, to befriend the small state in this way, the small state will be pleased. With the others tired out and one's self at ease, one's armour and weapon would be stronger. When with kindness and mercy we help the people in their need, the people will be drawn over. When good government is substituted for aggressive war, the country will be benefited many fold. When the expense of the army is limited and the evils of the feudal lords removed, then we shall enjoy prosperity. Let the control (of the army) be judicious and the cause be righteous. Be lenient to the people and place confidence in the army - with this to meet the forces of the feudal lords, there can be no equal in the world. And the benefits to the world will be innumerable. This is what wiII benefit the world, yet the rulers do not understand making use of it: such may be said to be ignorance of the great thing in the world. Therefore Mozi said: Now if the rulers and the gentlemen of the world sincerely desire to procure benefits and avert calamities for the world - if they desire to do righteousness and be superior men, if they desire to strike the way of the sage-kings on the one hand and bless the people on the other - if so, the doctrine of Condemnation of Offensive War should not be left unheeded.

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