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-> -> -> -> Esteem for Righteousness

《貴義 - Esteem for Righteousness》

English translation: W. P. Mei [?] Library Resources
1 貴義:
子墨子曰:「萬事莫貴於義。今謂人曰:『予子冠履,而斷子之手足,子為之乎?』必不為,何故?則冠履不若手足之貴也。又曰:『予子天下而殺子之身,子為之乎?』必不為,何故?則天下不若身之貴也。爭一言以相殺,是貴義於其身也。故曰,萬事莫貴於義也。」
Esteem for Righteousness:...:
Mozi said: Of the multitude of things none is more valuable than righteousness. Suppose we say to a person: We shall give you a hat and shoes on condition you let us cut off your hands and feet. Would he agree to this? Of course, he will not agree. Why? Just because hats and shoes are not so valuable as hands and feet. Again (if we say), we shall give you the whole world on condition you let us kill you. Would he agree to this? Of course he will not agree. Why? Just because the world is not so valuable as one's person. Yet people have struggled against one another for a single principle. This shows righteousness is even more valuable than one's person. Hence we say, of the multitude of things none is more valuable than righteousness.

2 貴義:
子墨子自魯即齊,過故人,謂子墨子曰:「今天下莫為義,子獨自苦而為義,子不若已。」子墨子曰:「今有人於此,有子十人,一人耕而九人處,則耕者不可以不益急矣。何故?則食者眾,而耕者寡也。今天下莫為義,則子如勸我者也,何故止我?」子墨子南游於楚,見楚獻惠王,獻惠王以老辭,使穆賀見子墨子。子墨子說穆賀,穆賀大說,謂子墨子曰:「子之言則成善矣!而君王,天下之大王也,毋乃曰『賤人之所為』,而不用乎?」子墨子曰:「唯其可行。譬若藥然,天子食之以順其疾,豈曰『一草之本』而不食哉?今農夫入其稅於大人,大人為酒醴粢盛以祭上帝鬼神,豈曰『賤人之所為』而不享哉?故雖賤人也,上比之農,下比之藥,曾不若一草之本乎?且主君亦嘗聞湯之說乎?昔者,湯將往見伊尹,令彭氏之子御。彭氏之子半道而問曰:『君將何之?』湯曰:『將往見伊尹。』彭氏之子曰:『伊尹,天下之賤人也。若君欲見之,亦令召問焉,彼受賜矣。』湯曰:『非女所知也。今有藥此,食之則耳加聰,目加明,則吾必說而強食之。今夫伊尹之於我國也,譬之良醫善藥也。而子不欲我見伊尹,是子不欲吾善也。』因下彭氏之子,不使御。彼苟然,然後可也」。
Esteem for Righteousness:...:
On his way from Lu to Qi, Mozi met an old friend who said to him: "Nowadays none in the world practises any righteousness. You are merely inflicting pain on yourself by trying to practise righteousness. You had better give it up." Mozi replied: Suppose a man has ten sons. Only one attends to the farm while the other nine stay at home. Then the farmer must work all the more vigorously. Why? Because many eat while few work. Now, none in the world practises righteousness. Then you should all the more encourage me. Why do you stop me? Mozi travelled south to Chu to see Lord Hui of Chu. Lord Hui refused to see him with the excuse of his being old, and let Mu He receive him. Mozi talked to Mu He and Mu He was greatly pleased. He said to Mozi: "Your ideas may be quite good. But our Lord is a great lord of the empire. Can't he refuse to employ them because they come only from a humble man?" Mozi replied: So long as they are applicable they are like (good) medicines, which are only the roots of herbs. Yet even the emperor takes them to cure his sickness. Does he refuse to take them because they are only the roots of a herb? Now, the farmer pays his tax to the superior. (With this,) the superior prepares wine and cakes to do sacrifice to God, ghosts and spirits. Do these refuse to accept them because they come from the humble? So, even a humble man can yet be compared to the farmer, or, at least to medicine. Is he even of less value than the roots of a herb? Moreover, has not my Lord heard the story of Tang? Anciently, Tang was going to see Yi Yin and let a son of the house of Peng be the driver. On the way, the son of Peng inquired where the lord was going. Tang told him that he was going to see Yi Yin. The son of Peng said: "Yi Yin is but a humble man of the world. If you want to see him just send for him and he will feel quite flattered." Tang said: "This is not what you can understand. Here is some medicine. When taken, it will sharpen the ears and brighten the eyes. Then I shall be pleased and endeavour to take it. Now, Yi Yin to me is like a good physician and an effective medicine. Yet you don't think I should see him. It means you do not want to see me become good." Thereupon he dismissed the son of Peng and did not let him drive any more. They did not resume their journey till the son of Peng became respectful.

3 貴義:
子墨子曰:「凡言凡動,利於天鬼百姓者為之;凡言凡動,害於天鬼百姓者舍之;凡言凡動,合於三代聖王堯舜禹湯文武者為之;凡言凡動,合於三代暴王桀紂幽厲者舍之。」
Esteem for Righteousness:...:
Mozi said: Any word, any action, that is beneficial to Heaven, the spirits, and the people is to be carried out. Any word, any action, that is harmful to Heaven, the spirits, and the people is to be abandoned. Any word, any action, that is in harmony with the sage-kings of the Three Dynasties, Yao, Shun, Yu, Tang, Wen, and Wu, is to be carried out. Any word, any action, that is in agreement with the wicked kings of the Three Dynasties, Jie, Zhou, You, and Li, is to be abandoned.

4 貴義:
子墨子曰:「言足以遷行者,常之;不足以遷行者,勿常。不足以遷行而常之,是蕩口也。」
Esteem for Righteousness:...:
Mozi said: Any principle that can modify conduct, (expound) much; any principle that cannot modify conduct, do not (expound) much. To (expound) much what cannot modify conduct is just to wear out one's mouth.

5 貴義:
子墨子曰:「必去六辟。嘿則思,言則誨,動則事,使三者代御,必為聖人。必去喜,去怒,去樂,去悲,去愛,而用仁義。手足口鼻耳,從事於義,必為聖人。」
Esteem for Righteousness:...:
Mozi said: The six peculiarities must be removed. When silent one should be deliberating; when talking one should instruct; when acting one should achieve (something). When one employs these three alternatively he will be a sage. Pleasure, anger, joy, sorrow, love (and hate) are to be removed and magnanimity and righteousness are to replace them. When hands, feet, mouth, nose, ears (and eyes) are employed for righteousness, then one will surely be a sage.

6 貴義:
子墨子謂二三子曰:「為義而不能,必無排其道。譬若匠人之斲而不能,無排其繩。」
Esteem for Righteousness:...:
Mozi said to a few of his disciples: Though one cannot achieve righteousness one must not abandon the way, just as the carpenter must not blame the line though he cannot saw the lumber straight.

7 貴義:
子墨子曰:「世之君子,使之為一犬一彘之宰,不能則辭之;使為一國之相,不能而為之。豈不悖哉!」
Esteem for Righteousness:...:
Mozi said: As the gentlemen in the world cannot be butchers of dogs and pigs, they would refuse when asked to be such. Yet, though they are not capable of being ministers in a state, they would accept it when asked to be such. Isn't this perverse?

8 貴義:
子墨子曰:「今瞽曰:『鉅者白也,黔者黑也。』雖明目者無以易之。兼白黑,使瞽取焉,不能知也。故我曰瞽不知白黑者,非以其名也,以其取也。今天下之君子之名仁也,雖禹湯無以易之。兼仁與不仁,而使天下之君子取焉,不能知也。故我曰天下之君子不知仁者,非以其名也,亦以其取也。」
Esteem for Righteousness:...:
Mozi said: The blind say that which is bright is white, that which is dark is black. Even the keen-sighted cannot alter this. But if we should mix up the black and white objects and let the blind select them they could not do it. Hence the reason that I say the blind do not know white from black does not lie in the matter of definition but in the process of selection. Now, the way the gentlemen of the world define magnanimity even Yu and Tang cannot alter. But when we mix up magnanimous conduct with unmagnanimous conduct and let the gentlemen of the world choose them they do not know which is which. So, the reason that I say the gentlemen of the world do not know magnanimity does not lie in the matter of definition either; it also lies in the process of selection.

9 貴義:
子墨子曰:「今士之用身,不若商人之用一布之慎也。商人用一布布,不敢繼苟而讎焉,必擇良者。今士之用身則不然,意之所欲則為之,厚者入刑罰,薄者被毀醜,則士之用身不若商人之用一布之慎也。」
Esteem for Righteousness:...:
Mozi said: The gentlemen of to-day handle their persons with even less care than the merchant would handle a bale of cloth. When the merchant handles a bale of cloth he dare not sell it without discretion; he will surely select a good one. But the gentlemen of to-day handle their person quite differently. Whatever they happen to desire they will carry out. In the more severe cases they fall into punishment; even in less severe cases they are visited with condemnation. So then the gentlemen are even less careful in handling their persons than the merchant is in handling a bale of cloth.

10 貴義:
子墨子曰:「世之君子欲其義之成,而助之修其身則慍,是猶欲其牆之成,而人助之築則慍也,豈不悖哉!」
Esteem for Righteousness:...:
Mozi said: The gentlemen of our time desire to achieve righteousness. Yet when we endeavour to help them in the cultivation of their personality they become resentful. This is like desiring the completion of a wall and becoming resentful when helped in the building. Isn't this perverse?

11 貴義:
子墨子曰:「古之聖王,欲傳其道於後世,是故書之竹帛,鏤之金石,傳遺後世子孫,欲後世子孫法之也。今聞先王之遺而不為,是廢先王之傳也。」
Esteem for Righteousness:...:
Mozi said: The sage-kings of old wanted to have their teaching passed to future generations. Therefore they recorded it on bamboos and silk and engraved it in metal and stone to bequeath to posterity so that their descendants could follow it. Now the ways of the early kings are known but not carried out. This is to break the tradition of the early kings.

12 貴義:
子墨子南遊使衛,關中載書甚多,弦唐子見而怪之,曰:「吾夫子教公尚過曰:『揣曲直而已。』今夫子載書甚多,何有也?」子墨子曰:「昔者周公旦朝讀書百篇,夕見漆十士。故周公旦佐相天子,其脩至於今。翟上無君上之事,下無耕農之難,吾安敢廢此?翟聞之:『同歸之物,信有誤者。』然而民聽不鈞,是以書多也。今若過之心者,數逆於精微,同歸之物,既已知其要矣,是以不教以書也。而子何怪焉?」
Esteem for Righteousness:...:
Mozi brought numerous books in his wagon drawers on his southern journey as an envoy to Wei. Xian Dangzi saw them and was surprised. He inquired: "Sir, you have instructed Gong Shang Guo just to consider the right and wrong (of any case), and do no more. Now you, sir, bring very many books along. What can be the use for them?" Mozi said: Anciently, Duke Dan of Zhou read one hundred pages every morning and received seventy scholars every evening. Therefore his achievements as minister to the emperor have lasted till this day. I have no superior above me to serve, nor any farm below to attend to. How dare I neglect these (books)? I have heard, though the (different) ways lead to the same end they are not presented without deviations. And the common people do not know how to place proper importance in what they hear. Hence the large number of books. When one has reviewed the ideas and has thought deeply on them then he understands the essentials which lead to the same end. Therefore he does not need to be instructed by books. Why should you feel so much surprised?

13 貴義:
子墨子謂公良桓子曰:「衛,小國也,處於齊、晉之閒,猶貧家之處於富家之閒也。貧家而學富家之衣食多用,則速亡必矣。今簡子之家,飾車數百乘,馬食菽粟者數百匹,婦人衣文繡者數百人,吾取飾車、食馬之費,與繡衣之財以畜士,必千人有餘。若有患難,則使百人處於前,數百於後,與婦人數百人處前後,孰安?吾以為不若畜士之安也。」
Esteem for Righteousness:...:
Mozi said to Gong Liang Huanzi: Wei is a small state situated between Qi and Jin. It is like a poor family in the midst of rich families. For a poor family to imitate the rich families in the extravagance in clothing and food, ruin is assured. Now we find in your house hundreds of decorated vehicles, hundreds of horses fed on grain, several hundred women clothed with finery and embroidery. If the expenditures for the decorations of the vehicles, food to the horses, and the embroidered clothes are used to maintain soldiers, there should be more than a thousand. Upon emergency, several hundred of them can be stationed at the van and several hundred can be stationed in the rear. To do this or to let the several hundred women hold the van and the rear, which is more secure? I should think to keep women is not so secure as to maintain soldiers.

14 貴義:
子墨子仕人於衛,所仕者至而反。子墨子曰:「何故反?」對曰:「與我言而不當。曰『待女以千盆。』授我五百盆,故去之也。」子墨子曰:「授子過千盆,則子去之乎?」對曰:「不去。」子墨子曰:「然則,非為其不審也,為其寡也。」
Esteem for Righteousness:...:
Mozi had introduced somebody to office in Wei. The man went and returned. Mozi asked him why he returned. He answered: "In counsel my opinions were not considered. Being promised a thousand pen was given only five hundred. Therefore I left." Mozi inquired: Suppose you were given more than a thousand pen, would you still leave? It was answered, no. Mozi said: Then it is not because of lack of consideration. It is because of the smallness of the salary.

15 貴義:
子墨子曰:「世俗之君子,視義士不若負粟者。今有人於此,負粟息於路側,欲起而不能,君子見之,無長少貴賤,必起之。何故也?曰義也。今為義之君子,奉承先王之道以語之,縱不說而行,又從而非毀之。則是世俗之君子之視義士也,不若視負粟者也。」
Esteem for Righteousness:...:
Mozi said: The gentlemen of the world have even less regard for the righteous man than for the grain carrier. If a carrier was resting by the road side and was unable to rise up, the gentlemen would surely help him to rise upon seeing him, whether he be old or young, honourable or humble. Why? Because it is right. But when the gentleman who practises righteousness urges them with the way of the early kings, they are not only unwilling to carry it out but will even trample it down. So, then, the gentlemen of the world have even less regard for the righteous man than for the grain carrier.

16 貴義:
子墨子曰:「商人之四方,市賈信徙,雖有關梁之難,盜賊之危,必為之。今士坐而言義,無關梁之難,盜賊之危,此為信徙,不可勝計,然而不為。則士之計利不若商人之察也。」
Esteem for Righteousness:...:
Mozi said: The merchants go everywhere to do business and their gain is doubled and multiplied. They persist notwithstanding the difficulties at the passes and bridges, and the dangers of the highwaymen and robbers. Now the gentlemen can sit down and teach righteousness. There are no difficulties at the passes and bridges or dangers from highwaymen and robbers. Their gain should be not only doubled and multiplied but become incalculable. Yet, they will not do it. Then the gentlemen are not as discerning as the merchants in their calculation of benefits.

17 貴義:
子墨子北之齊,遇日者。日者曰:「帝以今日殺黑龍於北方,而先生之色黑,不可以北。」子墨子不聽,遂北,至淄水,不遂而反焉。日者曰:「我謂先生不可以北。」子墨子曰:「南之人不得北,北之人不得南,其色有黑者有白者,何故皆不遂也?且帝以甲乙殺青龍於東方,以丙丁殺赤龍於南方,以庚辛殺白龍於西方,以壬癸殺黑龍於北方,若用子之言,則是禁天下之行者也。是圍心而虛天下也,子之言不可用也。」
Esteem for Righteousness:...:
Mozi was going north to Qi and met a fortune teller on the way. The fortune teller told him: "God kills the black dragon in the north to-day. Now, your complexion is dark. You must not go north." Mozi did not listen to him and went north. At the Ze River he could proceed no further and returned. The fortune teller said: "I have told you that you must not go north." Mozi said: People on the south, of course, cannot go north (of the Ze River), but neither can those on the north come south. (Moreover), there are the dark-complexioned, but there are also the fair-complexioned. Why is it that neither can proceed? Besides, God kills the blue dragon on the days of Jia and of Yi in the East, the red dragon on the days of Bing and of Ding in the South, the white dragon on the days of Geng and of Xin in the West, and the black dragon on the days of Ren and of Gui in the North. According to you then all the travellers in the world will be prohibited, then all their plans will be curbed and the world made empty. Your idea is not to be adopted.

18 貴義:
子墨子曰:「吾言足用矣,舍言革思者,是猶舍穫而拾粟也。以其言非吾言者,是猶以卵投石也,盡天下之卵,其石猶是也,不可毀也。」
Esteem for Righteousness:...:
Mozi said: My principle is sufficient. To abandon my principle and exercise thought is like abandoning the crop and trying to pick up grains. To refute my principle with one's own principle is like throwing an egg against a boulder. The eggs in the world would be exhausted without doing any harm to the boulder.

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