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《尚同中 - Identification with the Superior II》

English translation: W. P. Mei [?] Library Resources
1 尚同中:
子墨子曰:「方今之時,復古之民始生,未有正長之時,蓋其語曰『天下之人異義』。是以一人一義,十人十義,百人百義,其人數茲眾,其所謂義者亦茲眾。是以人是其義,而非人之義,故相交非也。內之父子兄弟作怨讎,皆有離散之心,不能相和合。至乎舍餘力不以相勞,隱匿良道不以相教,腐臭餘財不以相分,天下之亂也,至如禽獸然,無君臣上下長幼之節,父子兄弟之禮,是以天下亂焉。
Identification with the Superior...:
Mozi said: As we look back to the time when there was yet no ruler, it seems the custom was "everybody in the world according to his own standard." Accordingly each man had his own standard, ten men had ten different standards, a hundred men had a hundred different standards - the more people the more standards. And everybody approved of his own view and disapproved those of others, and so arose mutual disapproval. Even father and son and brothers became enemies, since they were unable to reach any agreement. Surplus energy was not employed for mutual help; excellent teachings (Dao) were kept secret; surplus goods were allowed to rot without sharing. The disorder in the (human) world could be compared with that among birds and beasts. The lack of regulations governing the relationships between ruler and subject, between superior and subordinate, and between elder and younger; and the absence of rules governing the relationships between father and son and between older and younger brothers, resulted in disorder in the world.

2 尚同中:
明乎民之無正長以一同天下之義,而天下亂也。是故選擇天下賢良聖知辯慧之人,立以為天子,使從事乎一同天下之義。天子既以立矣,以為唯其耳目之請,不能獨一同天下之義,是故選擇天下贊閱賢良聖知辯慧之人,置以為三公,與從事乎一同天下之義。天子三公既已立矣,以為天下博大,山林遠土之民,不可得而一也,是故靡分天下,設以為萬諸侯國君,使從事乎一同其國之義。國君既已立矣,又以為唯其耳目之請,不能一同其國之義,是故擇其國之賢者,置以為左右將軍大夫,以遠至乎鄉里之長與從事乎一同其國之義。
Identification with the Superior...:
Knowing the cause of the confusion to be in the absence of a ruler who could unify the standards in the world, (Heaven) chose the virtuous, sagacious, and wise in the world and crowned him emperor, charging him with the duty of unifying the wills in the empire. Having been crowned, the emperor, realizing the impossibility of unifying the world just by his own senses of hearing and sight, chose the understanding, virtuous, sagacious, and wise of the world and installed them as the three ministers, sharing with them the duty of unifying the standards in the empire. The emperor and the three ministers being in office, they felt the vastness of the empire and the difficulty of unifying all the peoples in mountains and woods and those far distant. Therefore they systematically divided up the empire, and appointed numerous feudal lords, charging these with the duty of unifying the standards in each state. The feudal lords in turn felt the difficulty of unifying the standards in their states just by their own senses of hearing and sight. Therefore they chose the virtuous of the state to be their ministers and secretaries and all the way down to the heads of districts and villages, sharing with them the duty of unifying the standards in the state.

3 尚同中:
天子諸侯之君,民之正長,既已定矣,天子為發政施教曰:『凡聞見善者,必以告其上,聞見不善者,亦必以告其上。上之所是,必亦是之,上之所非,必亦非之,已有善傍薦之,上有過規諫之。尚同義其上,而毋有下比之心,上得則賞之,萬民聞則譽之。意若聞見善,不以告其上,聞見不善,亦不以告其上,上之所是不能是,上之所非不能非,己有善不能傍薦之,上有過不能規諫之,下比而非其上者,上得則誅罰之,萬民聞則非毀之』。故古者聖王之為刑政賞譽也,甚明察以審信。
Identification with the Superior...:
When the lords of the country and the heads of the people had been appointed, the emperor issued mandates, instructing the people: "Discovering good you must report it to your superior, discovering evil you must report it to your superior. What the superior thinks to be right all shall think to be right; what the superior thinks to be wrong all shall think to be wrong. When there is virtue among the people there shall be popular recommendation; when the superior is at fault there shall be good counsel. You shall identify yourself with the superior and not associate with your subordinates. So doing, one deserves encouragement from his superiors and praise from the people. "On the other hand, if upon discovering good you should not report it and upon discovering evil you should not report it; if you should not think to be right what the superior thinks to be right, and wrong what the superior thinks to be wrong; if there should be no recommendation when there is virtue among the people and no good counsel when the superior is at fault; and if you should unite with the subordinates but differ from the superior - you deserve heavy punishment from your superiors and condemnation from the people." Therefore the sage-kings of old were very judicious and faithful in their punishments and rewards.

4 尚同中:
是以舉天下之人,皆欲得上之賞譽,而畏上之毀罰。是故里長順天子政,而一同其里之義。里長既同其里之義,率其里之萬民,以尚同乎鄉長,曰:『凡里之萬民,皆尚同乎鄉長,而不敢下比。鄉長之所是,必亦是之,鄉長之所非,必亦非之。去而不善言,學鄉長之善言;去而不善行,學鄉長之善行。鄉長固鄉之賢者也,舉鄉人以法鄉長,夫鄉何說而不治哉?』察鄉長之所以治鄉者何故之以也?曰唯以其能一同其鄉之義,是以鄉治。
Identification with the Superior...:
And so all the people aspired to the rewards and commendation from the superior and dreaded his condemnation and punishment. Thereupon, in accord with the policy of the emperor, the village head proceeded to unify the purposes in the village. Having accomplished this, he led the people of the village to identify themselves with the head of the district, saying: "All you people of the village are to identify yourselves with the head of the district, and are not to unite with the subordinates. What the head of the district thinks to be right all shall think to be right; what he thinks to be wrong all shall think to be wrong. Put away your evil speech and learn his good speech; put away your evil conduct and learn his good conduct. For the head of the district is naturally the (most) virtuous of the district. If all the people in the district follow the example of their head, how then can the district be disorderly?" Now, how is it that the head of the district was so successfuI in governing the district? It was just because he could unify the purposes of the whole district that the district was so orderly.

5 尚同中:
鄉長治
1其鄉,而鄉既已治矣,有率其鄉萬民,以尚同乎國君,曰:『凡鄉之萬民,皆上同乎國君,而不敢下比。國君之所是,必亦是之,國君之所非,必亦非之。去而不善言,學國君之善言;去而不善行,學國君之善行。國君固國之賢者也,舉國人以法國君,夫國何說而不治哉?』察國君之所以治國,而國治者,何故之以也?曰唯以其能一同其國之義,是以國治。
Identification with the Superior...:
Having accomplished this he in turn led the people of his district to identify themselves with the feudal lord, saying: "All you people of the district shall identify yourselves with the lord of the state, and shall not unite with the subordinates. What the lord thinks to be right all shall think to be right; what he thinks to be wrong all shall think to be wrong. Put away your evil speech and learn his good speech; put away your evil conduct and learn his good conduct. For the lord of the state is naturally the (most) virtuous of the state. If all the people in the state follow the example of their lord, how then can the state be in disorder?" Now, why was the feudal lord so successful in governing the state? It was just because he could unify the purposes in the state that the state is orderly.

1. 鄉長治 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

6 尚同中:
國君治其國,而
1既已治矣,有率其國之萬民,以尚同乎天子,曰:『凡國之萬民上同乎天子,而不敢下比。天子之所是,必亦是之,天子之所非,必亦非之。去而不善言,學天子之善言;去而不善行,學天子之善行。天子者,固天下之仁人也,舉天下之萬民以法天子,夫天下何說而不治哉?』察天子之所以治天下者,何故之以也?曰唯以其能一同天下之義,是以天下治。
Identification with the Superior...:
Having accomplished this he in turn led the people of his state to identify themselves with the emperor, saying: "All you people of the state shall identify yourselves with the emperor and shall not unite with the subordinates. What the emperor thinks to be right all shall think to be right; what he thinks to be wrong all shall think to be wrong. Put away your evil speech and learn his good speech; put away your evil conduct and learn his good conduct. For the emperor is naturally the (most) high-minded and tender-hearted man of the empire. If all the people of the empire follow his example, how then can the state be disorderly?" Now, why was the emperor so successful in governing the empire? It was just because he could unify the purposes in the empire that the empire is orderly.

1. 國 : Inserted.

7 尚同中:
夫既尚同乎天子,而未上同乎天者,則天菑將猶未止也。故當若天降寒熱不節,雪霜雨露不時,五穀不孰,六畜不遂,疾菑戾疫、飄風苦雨,荐臻而至者,此天之降罰也,將以罰下人之不尚同乎天者也。故古者聖王,明天鬼之所欲,而避天鬼之所憎,以求興天下之利,除天下之害。是以率天下之萬民,齊戒沐浴,潔為酒醴粢盛,以祭祀天鬼。其事鬼神也,酒醴粢盛不敢不蠲潔,犧牲不敢不腯肥,珪璧幣帛不敢不中度量,春秋祭祀不敢失時幾,聽獄不敢不中,分財不敢不均,居處不敢怠慢。曰其為正長若此,是故
天鬼之福可得也。萬民之所便利而能彊從事焉,則萬民之親可得也。其為政若此,是以謀事,舉事成,入守固,
1
上者天鬼有厚乎其為政長也,下者萬民有便利乎其為政長也。天鬼之所深厚而彊從事焉,則
2出誅勝者,何故之以也?曰唯以尚同為政者也。故古者聖王之為政若此。」
Identification with the Superior...:
But to carry the process of identification with the superior up to the Son of Heaven and not further up to Heaven itself -- then the jungle from Heaven is yet unremoved. Thereupon Heaven would send down cold and heat without moderation, and snow, frost, rain, and dew untimely. As a result, the five grains could not ripen and the six animals could not mature; and there would be disease, epidemics, and pestilence. Now the repeated visitations of hurricanes and torrents are just punishments from Heaven - punishments to the people below for not identifying themselves with it. Therefore the sage-kings of old appreciated what Heaven and the spirits desire and avoided what they abominate, in order to increase benefits and to avoid calamities in the world. With purification and baths and clean wine and cakes they led the people to make sacrifice and libation to Heaven and the spirits. In such services to the spirits they dared not use wine and cakes that were unclean, sacrificial animals that were not fat, or jade and silk that did not satisfy the standard requirements. The proper time for the spring and autumn sacrifices they dared not miss. Judging lawsuits, they dared not be unjust. Distributing properties, they dared not be unfair. Even when at leisure they dared not be disrespectful. When the sage-kings made such (good) rulers, Heaven and the spirits commended their leadership from above, and the people cherished it from below. To work under the hearty approval of Heaven and the spirits is to obtain their blessings. To work under the appreciation of the people is to obtain their confidence. Administering the government like this, consequently they would succeed in planning, accomplish their ends in executing, be strong in defence and victorious in attack. And the reason for all this lies in their employing the principle of Identification with the Superior in government. And this is how the sage-kings of old administered their government.

1. 天鬼之福可得也。萬民之所便利而能彊從事焉,則萬民之親可得也。其為政若此,是以謀事,舉事成,入守固, : Moved here from entry 8. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 上者天鬼有厚乎其為政長也,下者萬民有便利乎其為政長也。天鬼之所深厚而彊從事焉,則 : Moved here from entry 8. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

8 尚同中:
今天下之人曰:「方今之時,
天鬼之福可得也。萬民之所便利而能彊從事焉,則萬民之親可得也。其為政若此,是以謀事,舉事成,入守固,
1
上者天鬼有厚乎其為政長也,下者萬民有便利乎其為政長也。天鬼之所深厚而彊從事焉,則
2天下之正長猶未廢乎天下也,而天下之所以亂者,何故之以也?」子墨子曰:「方今之時之以正長,則本與古者異矣,譬之若有苗之以五刑然。昔者聖王制為五刑,以治天下,逮至有苗之制五刑,以亂天下。則此豈刑不善哉?用刑則不善也。是以先王之書呂刑之道曰:『苗民否用練折則刑,唯作五殺之刑,曰法。』則此言善用刑者以治民,不善用刑者以為五殺,則此豈刑不善哉?用刑則不善。故遂以為五殺。是以先王之書術令之道曰:『唯口出好興戎。』則此言善用口者出好,不善用口者以為讒賊寇戎。則此豈口不善哉?用口則不善也,故遂以為讒賊寇戎。
Identification with the Superior...:
People might then ask: At the present time rulers are not absent from the empire, why then is there disorder in the empire? Mozi said: The political leaders of the present day are quite different from those of old. The case is parallel to that of the Five Punishments with the Prince of Miao. In ancient times, the sage-kings made the code of the Five Punishments and put the empire in order. But when the Prince of Miao established the Five Punishments they unsettled his empire. Can it be that the Punishments are at fault? Really the fault lies in their application. The "Penal Code of Lu" among the books of the ancient kings, says: "Among the people of Miao punishments were applied without employing instruction and admonition. They made a code of five tortures and called it law." This is to say, those who know how to apply punishments can govern the people with them. And those who do not know, make five tortures out of them. Can it be that the punishments are at fault? Only, when their application is not to the point do they become five tortures. And, also, "Shu Ling", among the books of the ancient kings, says: "The same mouth can produce friendship or produce war." This is to say that he who can use the mouth well will produce friendship, and he who cannot will stir up the enemies and the besieging barbarians. Can it be that the mouth is at fault? The fault really lies in its use which stirs up the enemies and the besieging barbarians.

1. 天鬼之福可得也。萬民之所便利而能彊從事焉,則萬民之親可得也。其為政若此,是以謀事,舉事成,入守固, : Moved to entry 7. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 上者天鬼有厚乎其為政長也,下者萬民有便利乎其為政長也。天鬼之所深厚而彊從事焉,則 : Moved to entry 7. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

9 尚同中:
故古者之置正長也,將以治民也,譬之若絲縷之有紀,而罔罟之有綱也,將以運役天下淫暴,而一同其義也。是以先王之書,《相年》之道曰:「夫建國設都,乃作后王君公,否用泰也,輕大夫師長,否用佚也,維辯使治天均。」則此語古者上帝鬼神之建設國都,立正長也,非高其爵,厚其祿,富貴佚而錯之也,將以為萬民興利除害,富貴貧寡,安危治亂也。故古者聖王之為若此。
Identification with the Superior...:
Hence the installing of the ruler in the ancient days was intended to govern the people. Just as there is one thread to hold together the others in a skein and a main rope to a fishing net, so the ruler is to hold together all the evil and wicked in the empire and bring their purposes into harmony (with their superiors). Thus "Xiang Nian", among the books of the ancient kings, says: "Now the empire is established and the capital is located: (Heaven) installed the emperor, kings, and lords not in order to make them proud, and (Heaven) appointed the ministers and the officials not in order to make them idle - it was to apportion duties among them and charge them with the maintenance of the Heavenly justice." This is to say that when God and the spirits in the past established the capital and installed the rulers, it was not to make their ranks high, and their emoluments substantial, and to give them wealth and honour, and let them live in comfort and free of care. It was really to procure benefits and eliminate adversities for the people, and to enrich the poor and increase the few, and to bring safety where there is danger and to restore order where there is confusion - it was for this that the political leaders were appointed. And so the ancient sage-kings administered their government accordingly.

10 尚同中:
今王公大人之為刑政則反此。政以為便譬,宗於父兄故舊,以為左右,置以為正長。民知上置正長之非正以治民也,是以皆比周隱匿,而莫肯尚同其上。是故上下不同義。若苟上下不同義,賞譽不足以勸善,而刑罰不足以沮暴。何以知其然也?
Identification with the Superior...:
The lords at the present, however, do just the reverse. Administration is carried on to court flattery. Fathers and brothers and other relatives and friends are placed at the right and left and appointed rulers of the people. Knowing that the superior appointed the rulers not for the welfare of the people, the people all kept aloof and would not identify themselves with the superior. Therefore purposes of the superior and the subordinates are not unified. This being so, rewards and commendations would not encourage the people to do good, and punishments and fines would not restrain them from doing evil. How do we know this would be so?

11 尚同中:
曰:上唯毋立而為政乎國家,為民正長,曰:「人可賞吾,將賞之。」若苟上下不同義,上之所賞,則眾之所非,曰人眾與處,於眾得非。則是雖使得上之賞,未足以勸乎!上唯毋立而為政乎國家,為民正長,曰:「人可罰,吾將罰之。」若苟上下不同義,上之所罰,則眾之所譽。曰人眾與處,於眾得譽,則是雖使得上之罰,未足以沮乎!若立而為政乎國家,為民正長,賞譽不足以勸善,而刑罰不可以沮暴,則是不與鄉吾本言「民始生未有正長之時」同乎!若有正長與無正長之時同,則此非所以治民一眾之道。
Identification with the Superior...:
In governing the country, the ruler proclaims "Whoever deserves reward I will reward." Suppose the purposes of the superior and the subordinates are different,whoever is rewarded by the superior would be condemned by the public. And in community life the condemnation of the public is supreme. Though there is reward from the superior, it will not be an encouragement. In governing the country, again, the ruler proclaims: "Whoever deserves punishment I will punish." Suppose the purposes of the superior and the subordinates are different, whoever is punished by the superior would be applauded by the public. And in community life the approval of the public is supreme. Though there is punishment from the superior, it will not be an obstruction. Now, in governing the country and ruling the people, if rewards cannot encourage the people to do good and punishments cannot restrain them from doing evil, is this not just the same as in the beginning of human life when there were no rulers? If it is the same with rulers or without them, it is not the way to govern the people and unify the multitude.

12 尚同中:
故古者聖王唯而
1以尚同,以為正長,是
2上下情請為通。上有隱事遺利,下得而利之;下有蓄怨積害,上得而除之。是以數千萬里之外,有為善者,其室人未遍知,鄉里未遍聞,天子得而賞之。數千萬里之外,有為不善者,其室人未遍知,鄉里未遍聞,天子得而罰之。是以舉天下之人皆恐懼振動惕慄,不敢為淫暴,曰:「天子之視聽也神。」先王之言曰:「非神也,夫唯能使人之耳目助己視聽,使人之吻助己言談,使人之心助己思慮,使人之股肱助己動作」。助之視聽者眾,則其所聞見者遠矣;助之言談者眾,則其德音之所撫循者博矣;助之思慮者眾,則其談謀度速得矣;助之動作者眾,即其舉事速成矣。故古者聖人之所以濟事成功,垂名於後世者,無他故異物焉,曰唯能以尚同為政者也。
Identification with the Superior...:
As the ancient sage-kings could observe the principle of Identification with the Superior, when they became rulers the purposes of the superior and the subordinates became interchangeable. If the superior reserved for himself special facilities the subordinates could share them. If the people had any unrighted wrongs or accumulated injuries, the superior would remove them. Therefore, if there was a virtuous man thousands of li away, though his clansmen did not all know it (the fact) and people in the same district did not all know it, the emperor could reward him. And if there was an evil man thousands of li away, though his clansmen did not all know it (the fact) and people in the same village did not all know it, the emperor could punish him. Thereupon all the people in the world were astonished, and carefully avoided doing evil, saying: "The emperor is like a spirit in his hearing and sight." But the ancient kings said: "It was no spirit but only the ability to make use of others' ears and eyes to help one's own hearing and sight, to make use of others' lips to help one's own speech, to make use of others' minds to help one's own thought, to make use of others' limbs to help one's own actions." When there are many to help one's hearing and sight then of course one can hear and see far; when there are many to help one's speech then one's good counsel can comfort many; when there are many to help one's thought then one's plans can be shaped speedily; when there are many to help one's actions then one can accomplish one's undertaking quickly. So there was no other reason for the success and great fame of the ancient sages than that they could carry out the principle of Identification with the Superior in their administration.

1. 審 : Inserted.
2. 故 : Inserted.

13 尚同中:
是以先王之書《周頌》之道之曰:「載來見彼王,聿求厥章。」則此語古者國君諸侯之以春秋來朝聘天子之廷,受天子之嚴教,退而治國,政之所加,莫敢不賓。當此之時,本無有敢紛天子之教者。《》曰:「我馬維駱,六轡沃若,載馳載驅,周爰咨度。」又曰:「我馬維騏,六轡若絲,載馳載驅,周爰咨謀。」即此語也。古者國君諸侯之聞見善與不善也,皆馳驅以告天子,是以賞當賢,罰當暴,不殺不辜,不失有罪,則此尚同之功也。」
Identification with the Superior...:
One of the "Eulogies of Zhou" among the works of the ancient kings says: "They came to see his Majesty. Daily they sought the code of propriety." This describes how in times of old, the feudal lords came to the emperor's court both spring and autumn to receive strict instructions from the emperor and ruled their states accordingly when they returned; and there was none among those who came under such an administration that dared not submit completely. And, at that time, none dared to confuse the instructions from the emperor. And thus runs an Ode: "My team is of white horses with black manes. The six reins look luxuriant. They trot and gallop. The considerations (of the emperor) are all-inclusive." Further: "My team is of dark grey horses. The six reins look like silk. They trot and gallop. The plans (of the emperor) are all-inclusive." This is to say that upon discovering either good or evil the ancient feudal lords always hurriedly drove to the emperor and reported it to him. Therefore rewards fell upon the virtuous and punishment upon the wicked. The innocent was not prosecuted and the guilty was not set free. And all this is the result of practising the principle of Identification with the Superior.

14 尚同中:
是故子墨子曰:「今天下之王公大人士君子,請將欲富其國家,眾其人民,治其刑政,定其社稷,當若尚同之不可不察,此之本也。」
Identification with the Superior...:
Therefore, Mozi said: Now, if the rulers and the gentlemen of the world sincerely desire to enrich their country and multiply their people, and to put the government and jurisdiction in order and stabilize the state - if so, then they cannot afford to fail to understand the principle of Identification with the Superior, which is the foundation of government.

URN: ctp:mozi/identification-with-the-superior-ii