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《小取 - Minor Illustrations》

[Warring States (475 BC - 221 BC)] English translation: Donald Sturgeon [?] Library Resources
Related resources
[Also known as: "Xiao-qu", "Lesser Pick"]

1 小取:
夫辯者,將以明是非之分,審治亂之紀,明同異之處,察名實之理,處利害,決嫌疑。焉摹略萬物之然,論求群言之比。以名舉實,以辭抒意,以說出故,以類取,以類予。有諸己不非諸人,無諸己不求諸人。Category: [邏輯]
Minor Illustrations:
"Distinguishing" will be used to make clear the distinction between so and not-so; investigate the rules of order and chaos; make clear the locations of similarity and difference; examine the patterns of name and stuff; locate benefit and harm, and resolve doubts. Only then can one describe in approximation the way the myriad things are, and speak of seeking similarity of sayings. Names are used to raise stuff; phrases are used to express intention; explanations are used to bring out causes. Choose according to kind; offer according to kind. Having it in oneself one do not oppose it in others; lacking it in oneself one do not seek it of others.

2 小取:
或也者,不盡也。假者,今不然也。效者,為之法也,所效者所以為之法也。故中效,則是也;不中效,則非也。此效也。辟也者,舉他1物而以明之也。侔也者,比辭而俱行也。援也者,曰「子然,我奚獨不可以然也?」推也者,以其所不取之同於其所取者,予之也。是猶謂也者,同也。吾豈謂也者,異也。Category: [邏輯]
Minor Illustrations:
"Some" is not all. "Suppose" is not so now. "Imitation" is to make a standard: what is imitated is that which is used to make the standard. Thus what matches the imitation is so; what does not match the imitation is not so. This is imitation. "Analogy" is raising another thing to make something clear. "Similarity" is similar sayings proceeding together. "Leading" is saying, "You take it as so - why can I alone not take it as so?" "Extending" is taking what he has not chosen but is similar to what he has chosen, and presenting it to him. "It is like this" is similarity. "How could I be like this" is difference.

1. 他 : Originally read: "也".

3 小取:
夫物有以同而不率遂同。辭之侔也,有所至而正。其然也,有所以然也;
其然也
1同,其所以然不必同。其取之也,有
2以取之。其取之也同,其所以取之不必同。是故辟、侔、援、推之辭,行而異,轉而危,遠而失,流而離本,則不可不審也,不可常用也。故言多方,殊類,異故,則不可偏觀也。夫物或乃是而然,或是而不然,或一周3而一不周4,或一是而一
不是也。不可常用也。故言多方,殊類,異故,則不可偏觀也,
5非也。Category: [邏輯]
Minor Illustrations:
Things have that by which they are similar, but this does not make them the similar. Similarity of sentences is correct within a certain range. That it is so, has that by which is so. When things are the same in being so, that by which they are so is not necessarily the same. When something is chosen, there is that by which it is chosen. When what is chosen is the same, that by which it is chosen is not necessarily the same. Thus the sayings of Analogy, Similarity, Leading, and Extending, proceed and become different, turn and become unsafe, go far and become lost, flow and lose their foundation - this must be examined, and they cannot be constantly applied. Thus doctrine should rely upon many methods, various kinds, different causes, and cannot be looked upon from a single perspective. Things are sometimes thus and so; sometimes thus and not so; sometimes one requires all and one not all; sometimes one thus and one not thus.

1. 其然也 : Inserted.
2. 所 : Inserted.
3. 周 : Originally read: "害".
4. 周 : Originally read: "害".
5. 不是也。不可常用也。故言多方,殊類,異故,則不可偏觀也, : Deleted. 衍文。

4 小取:
白馬,馬也;乘白馬,乘馬也。驪馬,馬也;乘驪馬,乘馬也。獲,人也;愛獲,愛人也。臧,人也;愛臧,愛人也。此乃是而然者也。Category: [邏輯]
Minor Illustrations:
A white horse is a horse; riding a white horse is riding a horse.
A black horse is a horse; riding a black horse is riding a horse.
Huo is a man; caring for Huo is caring for a man.
Zang is a man; caring for Zang is caring for a man.
These are "thus and so".

5 小取:
獲之親1,人也;獲事其親,非事人也。其弟,美人也;愛弟,非愛美人也。車,木也;乘車,非乘木也。船,木也;入2船,非入3木也。盜人,人也,多盜,非多人也,無盜非無人也。奚以明之?惡多盜,非惡多人也;欲無盜,非欲無人也。世相與共是之。若若是,則雖盜人人也,愛盜非愛人也;不愛盜非不愛人也;殺盜人非殺人也,無難
盜無難
4矣。此與彼同類,世有彼而不自非也,墨者有此而非之,無他故5焉,所謂內膠外閉與心毋空乎?內膠而不解也,此乃是而不然6者也。Category: [邏輯]
Minor Illustrations:
Huo's parents are people; Huo serving his parents is not serving people.
His younger brother is a handsome person; caring for his younger brother is not caring for handsome people.
A cart is wooden; riding a cart is not riding wood.
A boat is wooden; entering a boat is not entering wood.
A thief is a man; many thieves is not many men.
There being no thieves is not there being no men.
How can it be made clear?
Hating there being many thieves is not hating there being many men.
Wishing there were no thieves is not wishing there were no men.
Everyone in the world takes these as so. If this is so, then though thieves are men, caring for thieves is not caring for men; not caring for thieves is not not-caring for men; killing thieves is not killing men – there is nothing difficult in it! This and those are of the same kind; the world have those and don't oppose themselves, [yet] we Mohists have this and they oppose us. There can be no other reason than that they are stopped up within and closed without; their heart-minds are all filled in!
These are the "thus and not so".

1. 親 : Originally read: "視".
2. 入 : Originally read: "人".
3. 入 : Originally read: "人".
4. 盜無難 : Deleted. 衍文。
5. 他故 : Originally read: "故也".
6. 然 : Originally read: "殺".

6 小取:
且夫讀書,非
書也;好讀書,
1好書也。且鬥雞,非雞也;好鬥雞,好雞也。且入井,非入井也;止且入井,止入井也。且出門,非出門也;止且出門,止出門也。若若是,且夭,非夭也;壽夭也。有命,非命也;非執有命,非命也,無難矣。此與彼同
2,世有彼而不自非也,墨者有此而罪非之,無也故焉,所謂內膠外閉與心毋空乎?內膠而不解也。此乃
3是而然者也。Category: [邏輯]
Minor Illustrations:
Reading books is not books; liking reading books is liking books.
Fighting cocks is not cocks; liking fighting cocks is liking cocks.
Being about to fall into a well is not falling into a well; stopping someone about to fall into a well is stopping someone from falling into a well.
Being about to go out is not going out; stopping someone about to go out is stopping someone going out.
If this is so, then:
Being about to die young is not dying young; stopping someone about to die young is stopping someone from dying young.
Taking there being fate is not fate; opposing those who take that there is fate is opposing fate.
It is not difficult. This and that are the same, the world has that and do not oppose themselves. We Mohists have these and yet they blame and oppose us. There can be no other reason than that they are stopped up within and closed without; their heart-minds are all filled in!
These are the the "not thus and so".

1. 書也;好讀書, : Inserted.
2. 類 : Inserted.
3. 不 : Inserted.

7 小取:
愛人,待周愛人而後為愛人。不愛人,不待周不愛人;不周愛,因為不愛人矣。乘馬,不待周乘馬然後為乘馬也;有乘於馬,因為乘馬矣。逮至不乘馬,待周不乘馬而後不乘馬
而後不乘馬
1。此一周而一不周者也。Category: [邏輯]
Minor Illustrations:
Caring for people requires caring for all people to count as caring for people; not caring for people does not require not caring for all people to count as not caring for people. Not caring for all people implies not caring for people.
Riding horses does not require riding all horses to count as riding horses;
Having ridden upon a horse implies riding horses.
By contrast, not riding horses requires not riding all [i.e. any] horses to count as not riding horses.
This is "one requires all and one not all".

1. 而後不乘馬 : Deleted.

8 小取:
居於國,則為居國;有一宅於國,而不為有國。桃之實,桃也;棘之實,非棘也。問人之病,問人也;惡人之病,非惡人也。人之鬼,非人也;兄之鬼,兄也。祭
1之鬼,非祭人也;祭兄之鬼,乃祭兄也。之馬之目盼則為之馬盼;之馬之目大,而不謂之馬大。之牛之毛黃,則謂之牛黃;之牛之毛眾,而不謂之牛眾。一馬,馬也;二馬,馬也。馬四足者,一馬而四足也,非兩馬而四足也。一馬,馬也。馬或白者,二馬而或白也,非一馬而或白。此乃一是而一非者也。Category: [邏輯]
Minor Illustrations:
Living within a state is living in the state; having a house within the state is not having the state.
The fruit of a peach is a peach; the fruit of a ji (jujube) is not a ji.
Asking after a person's illness is asking after a person; disliking a person's illness is not disliking a person.
A person's ghost is not a person; one's elder brother's ghost is one's elder brother.
Sacrificing to a person's ghost is not sacrificing to a person; sacrificing to one's elder brother's ghost is sacrificing to one's elder brother.
This horse's eyes are blind means that this horse is blind; this horse's eyes are large does not mean that this horse is large.
This ox's hairs are brown means that this ox is brown; this ox's hairs are many does not mean that this ox is many.
One horse is a horse. Two horses are horses. Horses have four feet: one horse has four feet; two horses do not have four feet.
One horse is a horse. Some horses are white: two horses can be some white; one horse cannot be some white.
This is "one thus and one not thus".

1. 人 : Inserted.

URN: ctp:mozi/minor-illustrations