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《明鬼下 - On Ghosts III》

English translation: W. P. Mei [?] Library Resources
1 明鬼下:
子墨子言曰:「逮至昔三代聖王既沒,天下失義,諸侯力正,是以存夫為人君臣上下者之不惠忠也,父子弟兄之不慈孝弟長貞良也,正長之不強於聽治,賤人之不強於從事也,民之為淫暴寇
1盜賊,以兵刃毒藥水火,退無罪人乎道路率徑,奪人車馬衣裘以自利者並作,由此始,是以天下亂。此其故何以然也?則皆以疑惑鬼神之有與無之別,不明乎鬼神之能賞賢而罰暴也。今若使天下之人,偕若信鬼神之能賞賢而罰暴也,則夫天下豈亂哉!」
On Ghosts III:
Mozi said: With the passing of the sage-kings of the Three Dynasties, the world lost its righteousness and the feudal lords took might as right. The superior and the subordinates are no longer gracious and loyal; father and son, elder and younger brother are no longer affectionate and filial, brotherly and respectful, virtuous and kind. The rulers do not attend diligently to government and the artisans do not attend earnestly to their work. The people practise immorality and wickedness and become rebellious. Thieves and bandits with weapons, poison, water, and fire hold up innocent travellers on the highways and the bypaths, robbing them of their carts and horses, coats and fur coats, to enrich themselves. All these start therewith (with the passing of the sage-kings). And so the world falls into chaos. Now what is the reason for this confusion? It is all because of the doubt of the existence of the ghosts and spirits, and the ignorance of their being able to reward virtue and punish vice. If all the people in the world believed that the spirits are able to reward virtue and punish vice, how could the world be in chaos?

1. 亂 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

2 明鬼下:
今執無鬼者曰:「鬼神者,固無有。」旦暮以為教誨乎天下,
1疑天下之眾,使天下之眾皆疑惑乎鬼神有無之別,是以天下亂。是故子墨子曰:「今天下之王公大人士君子,實將欲求興天下之利,除天下之害,故當鬼神之有與無之別,以為將不可以
2明察此者也。既以鬼神有無之別,以為不可不察已。」
On Ghosts III:
Those who deny the existence of spirits proclaim: "Of course there are no spirits." And from morning till evening they teach this doctrine to the people of the empire. They bewilder the people, causing them all to doubt the existence of ghosts and spirits. In this way the empire becomes disorderly. Therefore Mozi said: If the rulers and the gentlemen of the world really desire to procure benefits for the empire and remove its calamities they must understand whether ghosts and spirits exist or not.

1. 之 : Deleted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 不 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

3 明鬼下:
然則吾為明察此,其說將柰何而可?子墨子曰:「是與天下之所以察知有與無之道者,必以眾之耳目之實知有與亡為儀者也,請惑聞之見之,則必以為有
,莫聞莫見,則必以為無
1。若是,何不嘗入一鄉一里而問之,自古以及今,生民以來者,亦有嘗見鬼神之物,聞鬼神之聲,則鬼神何謂無乎?若莫聞莫見,則鬼神可謂有乎?」
On Ghosts III:
Since we must understand whether ghosts and spirits exist or not, how can we find out? Mozi said: The way to find out whether anything exists or not is to depend on the testimony of the ears and eyes of the multitude. If some have heard it or some have seen it then we have to say it exists. If no one has heard it and no one has seen it then we have to say it does not exist. So, then, why not go to some village or some district and inquire? If from antiquity to the present, and since the beginning of man, there are men who have seen the bodies of ghosts and spirits and heard their voice, how can we say that they do not exist? If none have heard them and none have seen them, then how can we say they do?

1. ,莫聞莫見,則必以為無 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

4 明鬼下:
今執無鬼者言曰:「夫天下之為聞見鬼神之物者,不可勝計也,亦孰為聞見鬼神有無之物哉?」子墨子
1曰:「若以眾之所同見,與眾之所同聞,則若昔者杜伯是也。周宣王殺其臣杜伯而不辜,杜伯曰:『吾君殺我而不辜,若以死者為無知則止矣;若死而有知,不出三年,必使吾君知之。』其三年,周宣王合諸侯而田於圃,田車數百乘,從數千,人滿野。日中,杜伯乘白馬素車,朱衣冠,執朱弓,挾朱矢,追周宣王,射之車上,中心折脊,殪車中,伏弢而死。當是之時,周人從者莫不見,遠者莫不聞,著在周之《春秋》。為君者以教其臣,為父者以䜘其子,曰:『戒之慎之!凡殺不辜者,其得不祥,鬼神之誅,若此之憯遫
2!以若書之說觀之,則鬼神之有,豈可疑哉?
On Ghosts III:
But those who deny the existence of the spirits say: "Many in the world have heard and seen something of ghosts and spirits. (Since they vary in their testimony,) who are to be accepted as really having heard and seen them?" Mozi said: As we are to rely on what many have jointly seen and what many have jointly heard, the case of Du Bo is (to be accepted). King Xuan of Zhou put his minister Du Bo to death though he was innocent. Du Bo remarked: "The king puts me to death while I am innocent. If man loses his consciousness after his death, then all is over. If I shall still retain my consciousness after death I shall let the king know of this within three years." In three years, King Xuan assembled the feudal lords at Putian. There were several hundred carts. Attendants numbered by the thousand and the multitude covered the fields. At noon Du Bo in red garments and headgear appeared riding in a plain chariot drawn by a white horse, holding a red bow and carrying red arrows. He pursued King Xuan and shot him on his chariot. The arrow pierced his heart and broke his back. He fell and died prostrate. At the time all the people of Zhou who were there saw it and those far away heard of it, and it was recorded in the Spring and Autumn of Zhou. Rulers instructed their ministers with it and fathers warned their sons with it, saying: "Be careful, be respectful. All who kill the innocent are speedily and severely visited by misfortune and punished by the ghosts and spirits like this." Judging from what is recorded here, how can we doubt that ghosts and spirits exist?

1. 言 : Inserted.
2. 也 : Inserted.

5 明鬼下:
非惟若書之說為然
1,昔者鄭穆公,當晝日中處乎廟,有神入門而左,鳥身,素服三絕,面狀正方。鄭穆公見之,乃恐懼奔,
神曰:『無懼!
2帝享女明德,使予錫女壽十年有九,使若國家蕃昌,子孫茂,毋失。鄭穆公再拜稽首曰:『敢問神
3?』曰:『予為句芒。』若以鄭穆公之所身見為儀,則鬼神之有,豈可疑哉?
On Ghosts III:
Not only does the record in this book prove it to be so. Formerly, Lord Mu of Qin (about 640 B.C.) was once in the temple at noon. A spirit entered and alighted. He had the face of a man but the body of a bird. His attire was plain and dark. His appearance was dignified. Seeing him Lord Mu became afraid and was rushing away. The spirit said: "Do not be afraid. God cherishes your intelligent virtue, authorizing me to prolong your age by nineteen years, and ordaining your state to be prosperous and your descendants to be many and not to lose Qin." Lord Mu saluted him repeatedly and bowed, saying: "May I ask the name of my god?" He answered: "I am Gou Mang." If we are to accept what Lord Mu of Qin had seen personally as reliable, then how can we doubt that spirits and ghosts exist?

1. 也 : Inserted.
2. 神曰:『無懼! : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
3. 名 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

6 明鬼下:
非惟若書之說為然也,昔者,燕簡公殺其臣莊子儀而不辜,莊子儀曰:『吾君王殺我而不辜,死人毋知亦已,死人有知,不出三年,必使吾君知之』。期年,燕將馳祖,燕之有祖,當齊之社稷,宋之有桑林,楚之有雲夢也,此男女之所屬而觀也。日中,燕簡公方將馳於祖塗,莊子儀荷朱杖而擊之,殪之車上。當是時,燕人從者莫不見,遠者莫不聞,著在燕之春秋。諸侯傳而語之曰『凡殺不辜者,其得不祥,鬼神之誅,若此其憯遫也!』以若書之說觀之,則鬼神之有,豈可疑哉?
On Ghosts III:
Not only does the record in this book prove it to be so. Formerly Lord Jian of Yan (about 500 B.C.) put his Minister Zhuang Zeyi to death while he was innocent. Zhuang Zeyi remarked: "The lord puts me to death though I am innocent. If man loses his consciousness after death then all is done. If I shall still retain my consciousness after death, I shall let the Lord know of this within three years." In a year, Yan was going to repair to Zu. Such ceremonies were the occasions of large assemblages of men and women. At noon Lord Jian was riding on the road to Tsu. Zhuang Zeyi carried a red staff and struck and prostrated him. At the time all the people of Yen who were there saw it and all those who were far away heard of it. And it was recorded in the Spring and Autumn of Yan. The feudal lords circulated the news around, and remarked: "So speedy and severe are the misfortunes and punishment from the spirits and ghosts upon him that kills the innocent." Judging from the record in this book, how can we doubt that spirits and ghosts exist?

7 明鬼下:
非惟若書之說為然也,昔者,宋文君鮑之時,有臣曰𥙐觀辜,固嘗從事於厲,祩子杖揖出與言曰:『觀辜是何珪璧之不滿度量?酒醴粢盛之不淨潔也?犧牲之不全肥?春秋冬夏「選」失時?豈女為之與?意鮑為之與?』觀辜曰:『鮑幼弱在荷繈之中,鮑何與識焉。官臣觀辜特為之』。祩子舉揖而槁之,殪之壇上。當是
1,宋人從者莫不見,遠者莫不聞,著在宋之春秋。諸侯傳而語之曰:『諸不敬慎祭祀者,鬼神之誅,至若此其憯遫
2!』以若書之說觀之,鬼神之有,豈可疑哉?
On Ghosts III:
Not only does the record in this book prove it to be so. Anciently, in the reign of Lord Wen of Song, whose name was Bao (610-589 B.C.), there was a master of ceremonies by the name of Guan Gu. While he was working in the temple, a wizard carrying a cane appeared and said to him: "Guan Gu, why don't the jades and stones measure up to the standard, and why are the cakes and wine unclean, and the victims imperfect and not fat, and the sacrifices not in season? Did you do this or did Bao do this?" Guan Gu answered: "Bao is still small and in his swaddle-clothes. What does he have to do with this? It is all done by the official in charge, Guan Gu." Thereupon the wizard lifted his cane and struck him, prostrating him on the altar. At the time those people who were present all saw it and those far away heard of it. And it was recorded in the Spring and Autumn of Song. The feudal lords circulated the news and remarked: "So speedy and severe is the punishment from spirits and ghosts to him who is not reverent in performing sacrifices!" Judging from the record of this book, how can we doubt that spirits and ghosts exist?

1. 時 : Inserted.
2. 也 : Inserted.

8 明鬼下:
非惟若書之說為然也。昔者,齊莊君之
1有所謂王里國、中里徼者,此二子者,訟三年而獄不斷。齊君由謙殺之恐不辜,猶謙釋之。恐失有罪,乃使之人共一羊,盟齊之神社,二子許諾。於是泏洫𢵣羊而漉其血,讀王里國之辭既已終矣,讀中里徼之辭未半也,羊起而觸之,折其腳,祧神之而槁之,殪之盟所。當是時,齊人從者莫不見,遠者莫不聞,著在齊之春秋。諸侯傳而語之曰:『請品先不以其請者,鬼神之誅,至若此其憯遫也。』以若書之說觀之,鬼神之有,豈可疑哉?」
On Ghosts III:
Not only does the record in this book prove it to be so. Formerly the Lord Zhuang of Qi (794-731 B.C.) had two ministers, Wang Liguo and Zhong Lijiao, who were engaged in a lawsuit. For three years no judgment could be reached. The Lord of Qi thought of putting both of them to death, but was afraid to slay the innocent; he thought of acquitting both of them but was afraid to let loose the guilty. So he let them provide a lamb and take oath on the altar of Qi. The two men agreed to take the oath of blood. The throat of the lamb was cut and its blood sprinkled on the altar. The case of Wang Liguo was read all through. But before half of the case of Zhong Lijiao was read, the lamb arose and butted at him, broke his leg and prostrated him on it. At the time those people who were present all saw it and those far away heard of it. It was recorded in the Spring and Autumn of Qi. The feudal lords circulated the news around and remarked: "So speedy and severe is the punishment from spirits and ghosts to him that takes an oath in insincerity!" Judging from the record in this book, how can we doubt that spirits and ghosts exist?

1. 臣 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

9 明鬼下:
是故子墨子言曰:「雖有深谿博林,幽澗毋人之所,施行不可以不董,見有鬼神視之」。
On Ghosts III:
Therefore Mozi said: One may not act disrespectfully even in woods, valleys, or solitary caves where there is no man. Spirits and ghosts are watching everywhere.

10 明鬼下:
今執無鬼者曰:「夫眾人耳目之請,豈足以斷疑哉?柰何其欲為高君子於天下,而有復信眾之耳目之請哉?」子
墨子
1曰:若以眾之耳目之請,以為不足信也,不以斷疑。不識若昔者三代聖王堯舜禹湯文武者,足以為法乎?故於此乎,自中人以上皆曰:若昔者三代聖王,足以為法矣。若苟昔者三代聖王足以為法,然則姑嘗上觀聖王之事。昔者,武王之攻殷誅紂也,使諸侯分其祭曰:『使親者受內祀,疏者受外祀。』故武王必以鬼神為有,是故攻殷伐紂,使諸侯分其祭。若鬼神無有,則武王何祭分哉?
On Ghosts III:
Those who deny the existence of spirits ask: "Are the senses of hearing and sight of the multitude sufficient to decide a doubt? How can people strive to be learned gentlemen while they continue to trust the senses of hearing and sight of the multitude?" Mozi said: If the senses of bearing and sight of the multitude are thought to be not trustworthy, we may ask if such men like the sage-kings of the Three Dynasties, Yao, Shun, Yu, Tang, Wen, and Wu, are trustworthy? Of course, about this all people above the mediocre will say such men like the ancient sage-kings of the Three Dynasties, Yao, Shun, Yu, Tang, Wen, and Wu, are trustworthy. If the ancient sage-kings of the Three Dynasties are trustworthy, we may review some of their deeds. In ancient times, having captured Yin and punished Zhou, King Wu let the feudal lords share in the worship (of the ancestors of Yin). Those more closely related were to partake in the temple sacrifices and those less closely related in the outdoor sacrifices. So then King Wu must have believed there were spirits and ghosts, therefore after capturing Yin and punishing Zhou he let the feudal lords share in the worship. If there were no spirits and ghosts why did King Wu assign the duties of worship?

1. 墨子 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

11 明鬼下:
非惟武王之事為然也,故聖王其賞也必於祖,其僇也必於社。賞於祖者何也?告分之均也;僇於社者何也?告聽之中也。非惟若書之說為然也,且惟昔者虞夏、商、周三代之聖王,其始建國營都日,必擇國之正壇,置以為宗廟;必擇木之脩茂者,立以為菆位;必擇國之父兄慈孝貞良者,以為祝宗;必擇六畜之勝腯肥倅,毛以為犧牲;珪璧琮璜,稱財為度;必擇五穀之芳黃,以為酒醴粢盛,故酒醴粢盛,與歲上下也。故古聖王治天下也,故必先鬼神而後人者此也。故曰官府選效,必先祭器祭服,畢藏於府,祝宗有司,畢立於朝,犧牲不與昔聚群。故古者聖王之為政若此。
On Ghosts III:
Not only does the deed of King Wu prove it to be so. When the ancient sage-kings distributed rewards it must be before their ancestors. When they meted out punishments it must be before the altar. Why are the rewards distributed before the ancestors? To submit their fairness. Why are punishments meted out before the altar? To submit their justice. Not only does the record in that book prove it to be so. On the day when the ancient sage-kings of the Three Dynasties of Yu, Xia, Shang, and Zhou first established their empire and built their capitals, they invariably chose the central altar on which to build the ancestral temple. They would pick out the luxuriant and elegant among the trees to plant in the temple of agriculture. They would select the affectionate and filial, virtuous and kind among the elders of the country to be masters of ceremonies. They would pick out the victims among the six animals by their fatness, perfection, and the colour of their wool. The jades and stones were to be appropriate in material and satisfactory in measurement. And the cakes and wine were to be prepared with the most fragrant and yellow grain, and so the quality of cakes and wine would vary with the abundance of the year. This is to say, in the government of the ancient sage-kings, spirits and ghosts had priority over the people. Before the offices and courts were completely established, the sacrificial vessels and sacrificial robes must have been all stored in the storehouse, the masters and attendants of ceremonies must have all been installed in court, and the victims must be kept apart from the original flock. Since the government of the ancient sage-kings was like this, the ancient sage-kings must have believed in the existence of spirits and ghosts.

12 明鬼下:
古者聖王必以鬼神為,其務鬼神厚矣,又恐後世子孫不能知也,故書之竹帛,傳遺後世子孫;咸恐其腐蠹絕滅,後世子孫不得而記,故琢之盤盂,鏤之金石,以重之;有恐後世子孫不能敬莙以取羊,故先王之書,聖人一尺之帛,一篇之書,語數鬼神之有也,重有重之。此其故何?則聖王務之。今執無鬼者曰:『鬼神者,固無有。』則此反聖王之務。反聖王之務,則非所以為君子之道也!」
On Ghosts III:
Deep was their own interest in the welfare of ghosts and spirits. Yet they were afraid their descendants might not understand it. Thus they recorded it on bamboos and silk to bequeath to them. Fearing that these might rot and disappear so that the descendants might not learn it, they engraved it on plates and cups and cut it in metals and stones. They feared also that the descendants might not be reverent and obtain blessing, and so among the books of the ancient kings and the records of sages testimonies to the existence of ghosts and spirits occur time and again even on a single foot of silk or a single sheet in the books. Why was this? Because the sage-kings were interested in it. Those who deny the existence of spirits, saying "Ghosts and spirits just do not exist", are opposing the interest of the sage-kings. Opposing the interest of the sage-kings is not the way of the superior man.

13 明鬼下:
今執無鬼者之言曰:「先王之書,慎無一尺之帛,一篇之書,語數鬼神之有,重有重
1,亦何書之
亦何書
2
3哉?」子墨子曰:「《周書》、《大雅》有之,《大雅》曰:『文王在上,於昭于天,周雖舊邦,其命維新。有周不顯,帝命不時。文王陟降,在帝左右。穆穆文王,令問不已』。若鬼神無有,則文王既死,彼豈能在帝之左右哉?此吾所以知《周書》之鬼也。
On Ghosts III:
Those who deny the existence of spirits might say: "Among the books of the ancient kings not a foot of silk or a sheet is found which testifies to the existence of ghosts and spirits once and again. Then where are these testimonies?" Mozi replied: They are found (for instance) in the "Da Ya" of the books of Zhou. "Da Ya" tells: "The rule of King Wen over the people pleased Heaven. Although Zhou is an old country, it is newly commissioned bv Heaven. Zhou does not appear showy. The commission from God does not appear to be seasonable. King Wen reached high and low, he was on the left and the right of God. How active was King Wen! He dispensed his intelligent virtue without ceasing." If ghosts and spirits do not exist, then how could King Wen be "on the left and right of God" since he was already dead? Here we have a testimony of ghosts in the book of Zhou.

1. 之 : Inserted.
2. 亦何書 : Deleted.
3. 之 : Deleted.

14 明鬼下:
且《周書》獨鬼,而《商書》不鬼,則未足以為法也。然則姑嘗上觀乎商書,曰:『嗚呼!古者有夏,方未有禍之時,百獸貞蟲,允及飛鳥,莫不比方。矧隹人面,胡敢異心?山川鬼神,亦莫敢不寧。若能共允,隹天下之合,下土之葆』。察山川鬼神之所以莫敢不寧者,以佐謀禹也。此吾所以知商書之鬼也。
On Ghosts III:
If there are testimonies only in the books of Zhou and none in those of Shang still it could not be reliable. But we find among the books of Shang the following: "Oh! Anciently, before Xia was visited by misfortune, of the various animals and insects and even birds none deviated from their proper course. As to those who have faces of men, who dare be divergent in heart? Even the hills and rivers ghosts and spirits dared not be insurgent." If one is respectful and sincere one could maintain harmony in the world and stability to the lower earth. Now it was to assist Yu that hills and rivers ghosts and spirits dared not be insurgent. Here we have a testimony of ghosts in the book of Shang.

15 明鬼下:
且商書獨鬼,而夏書不鬼,則未足以為法也。然則姑嘗上觀乎夏書禹誓曰:『大戰于甘,王乃命左右六人,下聽誓于中軍,曰:「有扈氏威侮五行,怠棄三正,天用劋絕其命。」有曰:「日中。今予與有扈氏爭一日之命。且爾卿大夫庶人,予非爾田野葆士之欲也,予共行天之罰也。左不共于左,右不共于右,若不共命,御非爾馬之政,若不共命」』。是以賞于祖而僇于社。賞于祖者何也?言分命之均也。僇于社者何也?言聽獄之事也。故古聖王必以鬼神為賞賢而罰暴,是故賞必於祖而僇必於社。此吾所以知夏書之鬼也。故尚者夏書,其次商周之書,語數鬼神之有也,重有重之,此其故何也?則聖王務之。以若書之說觀之,則鬼神之有,豈可疑哉?於古曰:『吉日丁卯,周代祝社方,歲於社
1考,以延年壽』。若無鬼神,彼豈有所延年壽哉!」
On Ghosts III:
If there are testimonies of ghosts only in the books of Shang and none in those of Xia it is still not reliable. But we have "Speech at Gan" among the books of Xia running thus: "In the midst of the war at Gan the Emperor called the six associates to receive instructions in the headquarters. He said: 'The Prince of Hu violated the five elements and disused the three calendars. Heaven decreed to exterminate his life!' And he continued : 'At noon I shall grapple with the Prince of Hu for the fate of the day. But (mind you), you ministers and people, it is not because I covet their lind and treasures. I am only carrying out the punishment in obedience to Heaven. If you on the left do not do your part on the left you will be disobeying my orders; if you on the right do not do your part on the right you will be disobeying my orders; if you charioteers do not manage your horses according to orders you will be disobeying my orders. And rewards will be distributed before my ancestors and punishments will be meted out before the altar.'" Why were rewards distributed before the ancestors? To submit their fairness. Why were punishments meted out before the altar? To submit their justice. Because the ancient sage-kings must reward virtue and punish vice with ghosts and spirits, they distributed rewards before the ancestors and meted out punishments before the altar. And here we have a testimony of ghosts in the books of Xia. Now, first in the books of Xia and next in the books of Shang and Zhou, testimonies to the existence of ghosts and spirits occur again and again. What is the reason for this? Because the sage-kings were interested in it. Judging from the records of these books, how can we doubt that there are ghosts and spirits? Anciently, on the propitious day of ding mao, Zhou offered thanksgiving to Earth and the Four Quarters, and their ancestors. They did this to prolong their age. If there were no ghosts and spirits, how could their age be prolonged?

1. 者 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

16 明鬼下:
是故子墨子曰:「嘗若鬼神之能賞賢如罰暴也。蓋本施之國家,施之萬民,實所以治國家利萬民之道也。若以為不然,是以吏治官府之不絜廉,男女之為無別者,鬼神見之;民之為淫暴寇亂盜賊,以兵刃毒藥水火,退無罪人乎道路,奪人車馬衣裘以自利者,有鬼神見之。是以吏治官府,不敢不絜廉,見善不敢不賞,見暴不敢不罪。民之為淫暴寇亂盜賊,以兵刃毒藥水火,退無罪人乎道路,奪車馬衣裘以自利者,由此止。是以莫放幽閒,擬乎鬼神之明顯,明有一人畏上誅罰,是以天下治。
On Ghosts III:
Mozi said: As to the fact that ghosts and spirits can reward virtue as well as punish vice, if it could be proclaimed to the whole country and to all the people it would really be a source of orderliness in the country and blessing to the people. The corruption of the officials in their public charges and the immorality among men and women will all be seen by ghosts and spirits. The vice of those who, with weapons, poisons, and water and fire, waylay innocent travellers and rob them of their carts and horses, coats and fur coats to enrich themselves will be seen by ghosts and spirits. Thereupon the officials will not dare be corrupt in office, withholding reward when they find the virtuous or withholding punishment when they find the wicked. And those among the people who commit vice and cruelties and with weapons, poisons, and water and fire waylay the innocent travellers, robbing them of their carts and horses, coats and fur coats to enrich themselves - all these will be no more. And the world will have order.

17 明鬼下:
故鬼神之明,不可為幽閒廣澤,山林深谷,鬼神之明必知之。鬼神之罰,不可
1富貴眾強,勇力強武,堅甲利兵,鬼神之罰必勝之。若以為不然,昔者夏王桀,貴為天子,富有天下,上詬天侮鬼,下殃傲天下之萬民,祥上帝伐元山帝行,故於此乎,天乃使湯至明罰焉。湯以車九兩,鳥陳鴈行,湯乘大贊,犯遂夏眾,入之郊逐,王乎禽推哆大戲。故昔夏王桀,貴為天子,富有天下,有勇
2
3推哆大戲,生列兕虎,指畫殺人,人民之眾兆億,侯盈厥澤陵,然不能以此圉鬼神之誅。此吾所謂鬼神之罰,不可為富貴眾強、勇力強武、堅甲利兵者,此也。
On Ghosts III:
Really the intelligence of the ghosts and spirits cannot be combated. Even in solitary caves, big ponds, woods and valleys, the ghosts and spirits are watching. And the punishments from ghosts and spirits cannot be evaded. Even wealth and great numbers, daring and strength, strong armour and sharp weapons, the punishment of ghosts and spirits will frustrate. If this is doubted, look at the story of the ancient King Jie of Xia. He was an emperor in honour and possessed the whole empire in wealth. He cursed Heaven and blasphemed against the spirits above and destroyed the multitudes below. Thereupon Heaven commissioned Tang to carry out the judicious punishment. With nine chariots Tang arranged the Bird Formation and the Wild Goose March. He climbed the Dacan and scattered the forces of Xia and entered its land. And he captured Tui Yi Da Xi. Now, King Jie of Xia was an emperor in honour and possessed the whole empire in wealth. In his service was the man of great daring and strength, Tui Yi Da Xi, who had torn apart a buffalo alive. He could kill a man at the move of a finger, and the number of those killed amounted to a million, and they were thrown into lakes and mountains. Yet, for all this, Jie coald not evade the punishment from ghosts and spirits. This is why I say even wealth and numbers, daring and strength, strong armour and sharp weapons cannot combat the punishment from ghosts and spirits.

1. 為 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 力 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
3. 人 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

18 明鬼下:
且不惟此為然。昔者殷王紂,貴為天子,富有天下,上詬天侮鬼,下殃傲天下之萬民,播棄黎老,賊誅孩子,楚毒無罪,刲剔孕婦,庶舊鰥寡,號咷無告也。故於此乎,天乃使武王至明罰焉。武王以擇車百兩,虎賁之卒四百人,先庶國節窺戎,與殷人戰乎牧之野,王乎禽費中、惡來,眾畔百走。武王逐奔入宮,萬年梓株折紂而繫之赤環,載之白旗,以為天下諸侯僇。故昔者殷王紂,貴為天子,富有天下,有勇力之人費中、惡來、崇侯虎指寡殺人,人民之眾兆億,侯盈厥澤陵,然不能以此圉鬼神之誅。此吾所謂鬼神之罰,不可為富貴眾強、勇力強武、堅甲利兵者,此也。且禽艾之道之曰:『得璣無小,滅宗無大』。則此言鬼神之所賞,無小必賞之;鬼神之所罰,無大必罰之」。
On Ghosts III:
Not only is this so. Anciently, King Zhou of Yin was also an emperor in honour and possessed the whole empire in wealth. He cursed Heaven and blasphemed against the spirits above and destroyed the multitudes below. He exposed the aged and murdered the children, tortured the innocent, and opened a pregnant woman. The common people and the widows and the widowers cried aloud, but were not heard. Thereupon Heaven commissioned King Wu to carry out the judicious punishment. With a hundred selected chariots and four hundred warriors King Wu appointed his officials and reviewed his forces. He battled the armies of Yin in the Wilderness of Mu. He captured Fei Zhong and E Lai, and the multitude deserted and ran away. King Wu rushed into the palace. He executed Zhou and hung him on a red ring with his crimes published on a white flag, to punish him for the feudal lords in the empire. Now King Zhou of Yin was an emperor in honour and possessed the whole empire in wealth. He had men of such daring and strength as Fei Zhong, E Lai, and Duke Hu of Zhong, who could kill a man at the move of a finger; and the number of those killed amounted to a million, and they were thrown into the lakes and mountains. Yet with all these Zhou could not evade the punishment from the ghosts and spirits. This is why I say even wealth and numbers, daring and strength, strong armour and sharp weapons cannot frustrate the punishment from ghosts and spirits. Moreover, Qin Ai has said: "No virtue is too small, no extermination of a lineage is too big." This is to say, in distribution of rewards by ghosts and spirits no man is too insignificant to be rewarded for his virtue. And in the meting out of punishment by ghosts and spirits no man is too great to be punished.

19 明鬼下:
今執無鬼者曰:「意不忠親之利,而害為孝子乎?」子墨子曰:「古之今之為鬼,非他也,有天鬼,亦有山水鬼神者,亦有人死而為鬼者。今有子先其父死,弟先其兄死者矣,意雖使然,然而天下之陳物曰『先生者先死』,若是,則先死者非父則母,非兄而姒也。今絜為酒醴粢盛,以敬慎祭祀,若使鬼神請有,是得其父母姒兄而飲食之也,豈非厚利哉?若使鬼神請亡,是乃費其所為酒醴粢盛之財耳。自夫費之,
1特注之汙壑而棄之也,內者宗族,外者鄉里,皆得如具飲食之。雖使鬼神請亡,此猶可以合驩聚眾,取親於鄉里。」今執無鬼者言曰:「鬼神者固請無有,是以不共其酒醴粢盛犧牲之財。吾非乃今愛其酒醴粢盛犧牲之財乎?其所得者臣將何哉?」此上逆聖王之書,內逆民人孝子之行,而為上士於天下,此非所以為上士
2
3。是故子墨子曰:「今吾為祭祀也,非直注之汙壑而棄之也,上以交鬼之福,下以合驩聚眾,取親乎鄉里。若神有,則是得吾父母弟兄而食之也。則此豈非天下利事也哉!」
On Ghosts III:
Those who deny the existence of spirits say, "If one does not work for the blessing of one's parents but work for their destruction, would one still be a filial son?" Mozi explained: The ghosts and spirits of all times may be divided into spirits of Heaven, spirits of hills and rivers, and ghosts of men after their death. It is true that there are sons who die before their fathers, and younger brothers before their elder brothers. But, as the saying in the world goes: "He who is born first dies first." So then those who die first would be the mother if not the father, and the elder sister if not the elder brother. At any rate, we should prepare clean cakes and wine reverently to do sacrifice. If ghosts and spirits do exist, then it is to serve father and mother, elder sisters and elder brothers with food and drink. Is not this a great blessing? If ghosts and spirits did not exist it would seem to be a waste of the material for the cakes and wine. But such use is not just to throw it into the ditch or gully. For the relatives from the clan and friends from the village and district can yet eat and drink them. So, even if there were really no ghosts and spirits, a sacrifice will yet gather together a party and the participants can enjoy themselves and befriend the neighbours. Those who hold there are no ghosts say: "Of course there are no ghosts and spirits and therefore I should not expend my wealth on the cakes and wine and victims. This is not because I am miserly about my wealth on the cakes and wine and victims. But (because I do not see) what I can accomplish with it." This is opposed to the records of the sage-kings above and opposed to the practice among the filial sons among the people. Yet they claim to be superior men in the empire. This is no way to be superior men. But Mozi said: For me to offer sacrifice is not to throw it into the ditch or the gully. It is to bless the ghosts above and gather a party and enjoy ourselves and befriend the neighbours below. And if spirits exist, I would be serving my father and mother and brother with food. Is this not a great blessing in the world?

1. 非 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 之 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
3. 也 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

20 明鬼下:
是故子墨子曰:「今天下之王公大人士君子,中實將欲求興天下之利,除天下之害,當若鬼神之有也,將不可不尊明也,聖王之道也」。
On Ghosts III:
Therefore Mozi said: If the rulers and the gentlemen of the world really desire to procure benefits for the world and eliminate its calamities they must believe in and teach the existence of ghosts and spirits. This is the way of the sage-kings.

URN: ctp:mozi/on-ghosts-iii