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《兼愛中 - Universal Love II》

English translation: W. P. Mei [?] Library Resources
1 兼愛中:
子墨子言曰:「仁人之所以為事者,必興天下之利,除去天下之害,以此為事者也。」然則天下之利何也?天下之害何也?子墨子言曰:「今若國之與國之相攻,家之與家之相篡,人之與人之相賊,君臣不惠忠,父子不慈孝,兄弟不和調,此則天下之害也。」
Universal Love II:
Mozi said: The purpose of the magnanimous is to be found in procuring benefits for the world and eliminating its calamities. But what are the benefits of the world and what its calamities? Mozi said: Mutual attacks among states, mutual usurpation among houses, mutual injuries among individuals; the lack of grace and loyalty between ruler and ruled, the lack of affection and filial piety between father and son, the lack of harmony between elder and younger brothers - these are the major calamities in the world.

2 兼愛中:
然則察1此害亦何用生哉?以不相愛生邪?子墨子言:「以不相愛生。今諸侯獨知愛其國,不愛人之國,是以不憚舉其國以攻人之國。今家主獨知愛其家,而不愛人之家,是以不憚舉其家以篡人之家。今人獨知愛其身,不愛人之身,是以不憚舉其身以賊人之身。是故諸侯不相愛則必野戰。家主不相愛則必相篡,人與人不相愛則必相賊,君臣不相愛則不惠忠,父子不相愛則不慈孝,兄弟不相愛則不和調。天下之人皆不相愛,強必執弱,富必侮貧,貴必敖賤,詐必欺愚。凡天下禍篡怨恨,其所以起者,以不相愛生也,是以仁者非之。」
Universal Love II:
But whence did these calamities arise, out of mutual love? Mozi said: They arise out of want of mutual love. At present feudal lords have learned only to love their own states and not those of others. Therefore they do not scruple about attacking other states. The heads of houses have learned only to love their own houses and not those of others. Therefore they do not scruple about usurping other houses. And individuals have learned only to love themselves and not others. Therefore they do not scruple about injuring others. When feudal lords do not love one another there will be war on the fields. When heads of houses do not love one another they will usurp one another's power. When individuals do not love one another they will injure one another. When ruler and ruled do not love one another they will not be gracious and loyal. When father and son do not love each other they will not be affectionate and filial. When older and younger brothers do not love each other they will not be harmonious. When nobody in the world loves any other, naturally the strong will overpower the weak, the many will oppress the few, the wealthy will mock the poor, the honoured will disdain the humble, the cunning will deceive the simple. Therefore all the calamities, strifes, complaints, and hatred in the world have arisen out of want of mutual love. Therefore the benevolent disapproved of this want.

1. 察 : Originally read: "崇". Corrected by 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

3 兼愛中:
既以非之,何以易之?子墨子言曰:「以兼相愛交相利之法易之。」然則兼相愛交相利之法將柰何哉?子墨子言:「視人之國若視其國,視人之家若視其家,視人之身若視其身。是故諸侯相愛則不野戰,家主相愛則不相篡,人與人相愛則不相賊,
君臣相愛則惠忠,父子相愛則慈孝,兄弟相愛則和調。天下之人皆相愛,強不執弱,眾不劫寡,富不侮貧,
1貴不敖賤,詐不欺愚。凡天下禍篡怨恨可使毋起者,
以相愛生也,是
2以仁者譽之。」
Universal Love II:
Now that there is disapproval, how can we have the condition altered? Mozi said it is to be altered by the way of universal love and mutual aid. But what is the way of universal love and mutual aid? Mozi said: It is to regard the state of others as one's own, the houses of others as one's own, the persons of others as one's self. When feudal lords love one another there will be no more war; when heads of houses love one another there will be no more mutual usurpation; when individuals love one another there will be no more mutual injury. When ruler and ruled love each other they will be gracious and loyal; when father and son love each other they will be affectionate and filial; when older and younger brothers love each other they will be harmonious. When all the people in the world love one another, then the strong will not overpower the weak, the many will not oppress the few, the wealthy will not mock the poor, the honoured will not disdain the humble, and the cunning will not deceive the simple. And it is all due to mutual love that calamities, strife, complaints, and hatred are prevented from arising. Therefore the benevolent exalt it.

1. 君臣相愛則惠忠,父子相愛則慈孝,兄弟相愛則和調。天下之人皆相愛,強不執弱,眾不劫寡,富不侮貧, : Moved here from entry 4. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 以相愛生也,是 : Inserted.

4 兼愛中:
然而今天下之士
君臣相愛則惠忠,父子相愛則慈孝,兄弟相愛則和調。天下之人皆相愛,強不執弱,眾不劫寡,富不侮貧,
1君子2曰:「然,乃若兼則善矣,雖然,天下之難物于故也。」子墨子言曰:「天下之士君子,特不識其利,辯其故也。今若夫攻城野戰,殺身為名,此天下百姓之所皆難也,苟君說之,則士眾能為之。況於兼相愛,交相利,則與此異。夫愛人者,人必從而愛之;利人者,人必從而利之;惡人者,人必從而惡之;害人者,人必從而害之。此何難之有!特上弗以為政,士不以為行故也。
Universal Love II:
But the gentlemen of the world would say: "So far so good. It is of course very excellent when love becomes universal. But it is only a difficult and distant ideal." Mozi said: This is simply because the gentlemen of the world do not recognize what is to the benefit of the world, or understand what is its calamity. Now, to besiege a city, to fight in the fields, or to achieve a name at the cost of death -- these are what men find difficult. Yet when the superior encourages them, the multitude can do them. Besides, universal love and mutual aid is quite different from these. Whoever loves others is loved by others; whoever benefits others is benefited by others; whoever hates others is hated by others; whoever injures others is injured by others. Then, what difficulty is there with it (universal love)? Only, the ruler fails to embody it in his government and the ordinary man in his conduct.

1. 君臣相愛則惠忠,父子相愛則慈孝,兄弟相愛則和調。天下之人皆相愛,強不執弱,眾不劫寡,富不侮貧, : Moved to entry 3. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 君子 : Originally read: "子墨子". Corrected by 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

5 兼愛中:
昔者晉文公好士之惡衣,故文公之臣皆牂羊之裘,韋以帶劍,練帛之冠,入以見於君,出以踐
1朝。是其故何也?君說之,故臣為之也。昔者楚靈王好士細要,故靈王之臣皆以一飯為節,肱息然後帶,扶牆然後起。比期年,朝有黧黑之色。是其故何也?君說之,故臣能之也。昔越王句踐好士之勇,教馴其臣,和合之焚舟失火,試其士曰:『越國之寶盡在此!』越王親自鼓其士而進之。
2士聞鼓音,破碎亂行,蹈火而死者左右百人有餘。越王擊金而退之。」
Universal Love II:
Formerly, Lord Wen of the state of Jin (about 630 B.C.) liked the uncouth uniform of the soldier. And so all his ministers and officers wore sheepskin jackets, carried their swords in leather girdles, and put on silk-spun hats. (1) Thus attired, they attended the Lord when they went in and paced the court when they stayed out. What was the reason for this? It was that what the ruler encourages the ruled will carry out. And Lord Ling of the state of Chu (about 535 B.C.) liked slender waists. And so all his ministers and officers limited themselves to a single meal (a day). They tied their belts after exhaling, and could not stand up without leaning against the wall. Within a year the court looked grim and dark. What was the reason for this? It was that what the ruler encourages the ruled will carry out. Again, Lord Goujian of the state of Yue (about 480 B.C.) liked the warrior's courage, and trained his subjects accordingly. He had his palace boat set on fire. To test his soldiers he proclaimed that all the treasures of the state were contained therein. And he beat the drum himself to urge them on. Hearing the drum the soldiers rushed on in disorder. More than a hundred strong perished in the flames. Thereupon the Lord beat the gong to let them retreat.

1. 於 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 曰 : Deleted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

6 兼愛中:
是故子墨子言曰:「乃若夫少食惡衣,殺身而為名,此天下百姓之所皆難也,若苟君說之,則眾能為之。況兼相愛,交相利,與此異矣。夫愛人者,人亦從而愛之;利人者,人亦從而利之;惡人者,人亦從而惡之;害人者,人亦從而害之。此何難之有焉,特上不以為政而士不以為行故也。」
Universal Love II:
Therefore Mozi said: Now, things like scanty diet, coarse clothing, and the achievement of a name at the cost of death are those in which people find difficulty. Yet when the ruler encourages them the multitude can stand them. Besides, universal love and mutual aid are different from these. Whoever loves others is loved by others; whoever benefits others is benefited by others; whoever hates others is hated by others; whoever injures others is injured by others. Then what difficulty is there with it (universal love)? Only, the ruler fails to embody it in his government and the ordinary man in his conduct.

7 兼愛中:
然而今天下之士君子曰:「然,乃若兼則善矣。雖然,不可行之物也,譬若挈太山越河濟也。」子墨子言:「是非其譬也。夫挈太山而越河濟,可謂畢劫有力矣,自古及今未有能行之者也。況乎兼相愛,交相利,則與此異,古者聖王行之。何以知其然?古者禹治天下,西為西河漁竇,以泄渠孫皇之水;北為防原泒,注后之邸,呼池之竇,洒為底柱,鑿為龍門,以利燕、代、胡、貉與西河之民;東方漏之陸防孟諸之澤,灑為九澮,以楗東土之水,以利冀州之民;南為江、漢、淮、汝,東流之,注五湖之處,以利荊、楚、干、1越與南夷之民。此言禹之事,吾今行兼矣。昔者文王之治西土,若日若月,乍光于四方于西土,不為大國侮小國,不為眾庶侮鰥寡,不為暴勢奪穡人黍、稷、狗、彘。天屑臨文王慈,是以老而無子者,有所得終其壽;連獨無兄弟者,有所雜於生人之閒;少失其父母者,有所放依而長。此文王之事,則吾今行兼矣。昔者武王將事泰山隧,傳曰:『泰山,有道曾孫周王有事,大事既獲,仁人尚作,以祗商夏,蠻夷醜貉。雖有周親,不若仁人,萬方有罪,維予一人。』此言武王之事,吾今行兼矣。」
Universal Love II:
Nevertheless. the gentlemen in the empire think that, though it would be an excellent thing if love can be universalized, it is something quite impracticable. It is like carrying Mt. Tai and leaping over the Ji River. Mozi said: The illustration is a faulty one. Of course to be able to carry Mt. Tai and leap over the Ji River would be an extreme feat of strength. Such has never been performed from antiquity to the present time. But universal love and mutual aid are quite different from this. And the ancient sage-kings did practise it. How do we know they did? When Yu was working to bring the Deluge under control, he dug the West River and the Youdou River in the west in order to let off the water from the Qu, Sun, and Huang Rivers. In the north he built a dam across the Yuan and Gu Rivers in order to fill the Houzhidi (a basin) and the Huzhi River. Mt. Dizhu was made use of as a water divide, and a tunnel was dug through Mt. Lungmen. All these were done to benefit the peoples west of the (Yellow) River and various barbarian tribes, Yan, Dai, Hu, Ho, of the north. In the east he drained the great Plain and built dykes along the Mengzhu River. The watercourse was divided into nine canals in order to regulate the water in the east and in order to benefit the people of the District of Ji. In the south he completed the Yangtze, Han, Huai, and Ru Rivers. These ran eastward and emptied themselves into the Five Lakes. This was done in order to benefit the peoples of Jing, Qi, Gan, Yue, and the barbarians of the south. All these are the deeds of Yu. We can, then, universalize love in conduct. When King Wen was ruling the Western land, he shone forth like the sun and the moon all over the four quarters as well as in the Western land. He did not allow the big state to oppress the small state, he did not allow the multitude to oppress the singlehanded, he did not allow the influential and strong to take away the grain and live stock from the farmers. Heaven visited him with blessing. And, therefore, the old and childless had the wherewithal to spend their old age, the solitary and brotherless had the opportunity to join in the social life of men, and the orphans had the support for their growth. This was what King Wen had accomplished. We can, then, universalize love in conduct. When King Wu was about to do service to Mt. Tai it was recorded thus: "Blessed is Mt. Tai. Duke of Zhou by a long descent is about to perform his duty. As I have obtained the approval of Heaven, the magnanimous arise to save the people of Shang Xia as well as the barbarians (from the tyranny of Emperor Zhou). Though (Emperor Zhou) has many near relatives, they cannot compare with the magnanimous. If there is sin anywhere, I am solely responsible." This relates the deeds of King Wu. We can, then, universalize love in conduct.

1. 荊、楚、干、 : Originally read: "楚荊". Corrected by 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

8 兼愛中:
是故子墨子言曰:「今天下之君子,忠實欲天下之
1富,而惡其貧;欲天下之治,而惡其亂,當兼相愛,交相利,此聖王之法,天下之治道也,不可不務為也。」
Universal Love II:
Therefore Mozi said: If the rulers sincerely desire the empire to be wealthy and dislike to have it poor, desire to have it orderly and dislike to have it chaotic, they should bring about universal love and mutual aid. This is the way of the sage-kings and the way to order for the world, and it should not be neglected.

1. 士 : Deleted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

URN: ctp:mozi/universal-love-ii