Follow us on Facebook to receive important updates - thanks for your support! Follow us on Twitter to receive important updates - thanks for your support! Follow us on sina.com's microblogging site to receive important updates - thanks for your support! Follow us on Douban to receive important updates - thanks for your support!
Chinese Text Project
Show translation:[None] [Modern Chinese] [English]
-> -> -> -> Will of Heaven I

《天志上 - Will of Heaven I》

English translation: W. P. Mei [?] Library Resources
1 天志上:
子墨子言曰:「今天下之士君子,知小而不知大。何以知之?以其處家者知之。若處家得罪於家長,猶有鄰家所避逃之。然且親戚兄弟所知識,共相儆戒,皆曰:『不可不戒矣!不可不慎矣!惡有處家而得罪於家長,而可為也!』非獨處家者為然,雖處國亦然。處國得罪於國君,猶有鄰國所避逃之,然且親戚兄弟所知識,共相儆戒皆曰:『不可不戒矣!不可不慎矣!誰亦有處國得罪於國君,而可為也』!此有所避逃之者也,相儆戒猶若此其厚,況無所避逃之者,相儆戒豈不愈厚,然後可哉?且語言有之曰:『焉而晏日焉而得罪,將惡避逃之?』曰無所避逃之。夫天不可為林谷幽門無人,明必見之。然而天下之
1君子
之於
2天也,忽然不知以相儆戒,此我所以知天下士君子知小而不知大也。
Will of Heaven I:
Mozi said: The gentlemen of the world all understand only trifles but not things of importance. How do we know? We know this from one's conduct in the family. If one should offend the patriarch of the family, there are still the homes of the neighbours in which to seek shelter. Yet parents, brothers, and friends all keep on reminding one to be obedient and careful. For, how can one offend the patriarch and stay in the family? Not only is this true about conduct in the family, but also in the state. If one should offend the lord of the state there are still the neighbouring states whither he may flee. Yet parents, brothers, and friends all keep on reminding one to be obedient and careful. For, how can one offend the lord of the state and stay in it? From these there are yet shelters to flee to, yet there are such constant counsels. Should there not be more counsels in a case from which there is nowhere to flee? As the saying goes: "Sinning in broad daylight, whither can one flee?" Really there is nowhere to flee. For, Heaven clearly discerns it even if it be in the woods, valleys, or solitary caves where there is no man. But, contrary to our expectation, regarding Heaven, the gentlemen of the world do not understand mutually to give counsel. This is how we know the gentlemen in the world understand only trifles and not things of importance.

1. 士 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 之於 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

2 天志上:
然則天亦何欲何惡?天欲義而惡不義。然則率天下之百姓以從事於義,則我乃為天之所欲也。我為天之所欲,天亦為我所欲。然則
1何欲何惡?我欲福祿而惡禍祟。
若我不為天之所欲,而為天之所不欲,
2然則我率天下之百姓,以從事於禍祟中也。然則何
3知天之欲義而惡不義?曰天下有義則生,無義則死;有義則富,無義則貧;有義則治,無義則亂。然則天欲其生而惡其死,欲其富而惡其貧,欲其治而惡其亂,此我所以知天欲義而惡不義也。
Will of Heaven I:
Now, what does Heaven desire and what does it abominate? Heaven desires righteousness and abominates unrighteousness. Therefore, in leading the people in the world to engage in doing righteousness I should be doing what Heaven desires. When I do what Heaven desires, Heaven will also do what I desire. Now, what do I desire and what do I abominate? I desire blessings and emoluments, and abominate calamities and misfortunes. When I do not do what Heaven desires, neither will Heaven do what I desire. Then I should be leading the people into calamities and misfortunes. But how do we know Heaven desires righteousness and abominates unrighteousness? For, with righteousness the world lives and without it the world dies; with it the world becomes rich and without it the world becomes poor; with it the world becomes orderly and without it the world becomes chaotic. And if Heaven likes to have the world live and dislikes to have it die, likes to have it rich and dislikes to have it poor, and likes to have it orderly and dislikes to have it disorderly. Therefore we know Heaven desires righteousness and abominates unrighteousness.

1. 我 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 若我不為天之所欲,而為天之所不欲, : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
3. 以 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

3 天志上:
曰且夫義者政也,無從下之政上,必從上之政下。是故庶人竭力從事,未得次己而為政,有士政之;士竭力從事,未得次己而為政,有將軍大夫政之;將軍大夫竭力從事,未得次己而為政,有三公諸侯政之;三公諸侯竭力聽治,未得次己而為政,有天子政之;天子未得次己而為政,有天政之。天子為政於三公、諸侯、士、庶人,天下之士君子固明知,天之為政於天子,天下百姓未得之明知也。故昔三代聖王禹湯文武,欲以天之為政於天子,明說天下之百姓,故莫不犓牛羊,豢犬彘,潔
為粢
1盛酒醴,以祭祀上帝鬼神,而求祈福於天。我未嘗聞天下之所求祈福於天子者也,我所以知天之為政於天子者也。
Will of Heaven I:
Moreover, righteousness is the standard. A standard is not to be given by the subordinates to the superior but by the superior to the subordinates. Therefore, while the common people should spare no pains at work they may not make the standard at will. There are the scholars to give them the standard. While the scholars should spare no pains at work, they may not make the standard at will. There are the ministers and secretaries to give them the standard. While the ministers and secretaries should spare no pains at work, they may not make the standard at will. There are the high duke and feudal lords to give them the standard. While the high duke and the feudal lords should spare no pains at work, they may not make the standard at will. There is the emperor to give them the standard. The emperor may not make the standard at will (either). There is Heaven to give him the standard. That the emperor gives the standard to the high dukes, to the feudal lords, to the scholars, and to the common people, the gentlemen in the world clearly understand. But that Heaven gives the standard to the emperor, the people do not know well. Therefore the ancient sage-kings of the Three Dynasties, Yu, Tang, Wen, and Wu, desiring to make it clear to the people that Heaven gives the standard to the emperor, fed oxen and sheep with grass, and pigs and dogs with grain, and cleanly prepared the cakes and wine to do sacrifice to God on High and the spirits, and invoked Heaven's blessing. But I have not yet heard of Heaven invoking the emperor for blessing. So I know Heaven gives the standard to the emperor.

1. 為粢 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

4 天志上:
故天子者,天下之窮貴也,天下之窮富也,故於富且貴者,當天意而不可不順,順天意者,兼相愛,交相利,必得賞。反天意者,別相惡,交相賊,必得罰。然則是誰順天意而得賞者?誰反天意而得罰者?」子墨子言曰:「昔三代聖王禹湯文武,此順天意而得賞也。昔三代之暴王桀紂幽厲,此反天意而得罰者也。然則禹湯文武其得賞何以也?」子墨子言曰:「其事上尊天,中事鬼神,下愛人,故天意曰:『此之我所愛,兼而愛之;我所利,兼而利之。愛人者此為博焉,利人者此為厚焉。』故使貴為天子,富有天下,業萬世子孫,傳稱其善,方施天下,至今稱之,謂之聖王。」然則桀紂幽厲得其罰何以也?」子墨子言曰:「其事上詬天,中詬鬼,下賊人,故天意曰:『此之我所愛,別而惡之,我所利,交而賊之。惡人者此為之博也,賊人者此為之厚也。』故使不得終其壽,不歿其世,至今毀之,謂之暴王。
Will of Heaven I:
The emperor is the most honourable of the world and the richest of the world. So, the honoured and the rich cannot but obey the will of Heaven. He who obeys the will of Heaven, loving universally and benefiting others, will obtain rewards. He who opposes the will of Heaven, by being partial and unfriendly and harming others, will incur punishment. Now, who were those that obeyed the will of Heaven and obtained rewards, and who were those that opposed the will of Heaven and incurred punishment? Mozi said: The ancient sage-kings of the Three Dynasties, Yu, Tang, Wen, and Wu, were those that obeyed the will of Heaven and obtained reward. And the wicked kings of the Three Dynasties, Jie, Zhou, You, and Li, were those that opposed the will of Heaven and incurred punishment. How did Yu, Tang, Wen, and Wu obtain their reward? Mozi said: In the highest sphere they revered Heaven, in the middle sphere they worshipped the spirits, and in the lower sphere they loved the people. Thereupon the will of Heaven proclaimed: "All those whom I love these love also, and all those whom I benefit these benefit also. Their love to men is all-embracing and their benefit to men is most substantial." And so, they were raised to the honour of Sons of Heaven and enriched with the heritage of the empire. They were succeeded by descendants for ten thousand generations to continue the spread of their righteousness all over the world. And people praise them unto this day, calling them righteous sage-kings. How did Jie, Zhou, You, and Li incur their punishment? Mozi said: In the highest sphere they blasphemed against Heaven, in the middle sphere they blasphemed against the spirits, and in the sphere below they oppressed the people. Thereupon the will of Heaven proclaimed: "From those whom I love these turn away and hate, and those whom I want to benefit they oppress. Their hate of men is without limit and their oppression of men the most severe." And, so, they were not permitted to finish out their lives, or to survive a single generation. And people condemn them unto this day, calling them wicked kings.

5 天志上:
然則何以知天之愛天下之百姓?以其兼而明之。何以知其兼而明之?以其兼而有之。何以知其兼而有之?以其兼而食焉。何以知其兼而食焉?四海之內,粒食之民,莫不犓牛羊,豢犬彘,潔為粢盛酒醴,以祭祀於上帝鬼神,天有邑人,何用弗愛也?且吾言殺一不辜者必有一不祥。殺不辜者誰也?則人也。予之不祥者誰也?則天也。若以天為不愛天下之百姓,則何故以人與人相殺,而天予之不祥?此我所以知天之愛天下之百姓也。
Will of Heaven I:
How do we know Heaven loves the people? Because it teaches them all. How do we know it teaches them all? Because it claims them all. How do we know it claims them all? Because it accepts sacrifices from them all. How do we know it accepts sacrifices from all? Because within the four seas all who live on grains feed oxen and sheep with grass, and dogs and pigs with grains, and prepare clean cakes and wine to do sacrifice to God on High and the spirits. Claiming all the people, why will Heaven not love them? Moreover, as I have said, for the murder of one innocent individual there will be one calamity. Who is it that murders the innocent? It is man. Who is it that sends down the calamity? It is Heaven. If Heaven should be thought of as not loving the people, why should it send down calamities for the murder of man by man? So, I know Heaven loves the people.

6 天志上:
順天意者,義政也。反天意者,力政也。然義
1將柰何哉?」子墨子言曰:「處大國不攻小國,處大家不篡小家,強者不劫弱,貴者不傲賤,多詐者不欺愚。此必上利於天,中利於鬼,下利於人,三利無所不利,故舉天下美名加之,謂之聖王,力政者則與此異,言非此,行反此,猶倖馳也。處大國攻小國,處大家篡小家,強者劫弱,貴者傲賤,多詐欺愚。此上不利於天,中不利於鬼,下不利於人。三不利無所利,故舉天下惡名加之,謂之暴王。」
Will of Heaven I:
To obey the will of Heaven is to accept righteousness as the standard. To oppose the will of Heaven is to accept force as the standard. Now what will the standard of righteousness do? Mozi said: He who rules a large state does not attack small states: he who rules a large house does not molest small houses. The strong does not plunder the weak. The honoured does not demean the humble. The clever does not deceive the stupid. This is beneficial to Heaven above, beneficial to the spirits in the middle sphere, and beneficial to the people below. Being beneficial to these three it is beneficial to all. So the most excellent name is attributed to such a man and he is called sage-king. The standard of force is different from this. It is contradictory to this in word and opposed to this in deed like galloping with back to back. Leading a large state, he whose standard is force attacks small states; leading a large house he molests small houses. The strong plunders the weak. The honoured disdains the humble. The clever deceives the stupid. This is not beneficial to Heaven above, or to the spirits in the middle sphere, or to the people below. Not being beneficial to these three, it is beneficial to none. So, the most evil name in the world is attributed to him and he is called the wicked king.

1. 政 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

7 天志上:
子墨子言曰:「我有天志,譬若輪人之有規,匠人之有矩,輪匠執其規矩,以度天下之方圜,曰:『中者是也,不中者非也。』今天下之士君子之書,不可勝載,言語不可盡計,上說諸侯,下說列士,其於仁義則大相遠也。何以知之?曰我得天下之明法以度之。」
Will of Heaven I:
Mozi said: The will of Heaven to me is like the compasses to the wheelwright and the square to the carpenter. The wheelwright and the carpenter measure all the square and circular objects with their square and compasses and accept those that fit as correct and reject those that do not fit as incorrect. The writings of the gentlemen of the world of the present day cannot be all loaded (in a cart), and their doctrines cannot be exhaustively enumerated. They endeavour to convince the feudal lords on the one hand and the scholars on the other. But from magnanimity and righteousness they are far off. How do we know? Because I have the most competent standard in the world to measure them with.

URN: ctp:mozi/will-of-heaven-i