Follow us on Facebook to receive important updates - thanks for your support! Follow us on Twitter to receive important updates - thanks for your support! Follow us on sina.com's microblogging site to receive important updates - thanks for your support! Follow us on Douban to receive important updates - thanks for your support!
Chinese Text Project
Show translation:[None] [Modern Chinese] [English]
-> -> -> -> Will of Heaven II

《天志中 - Will of Heaven II》

English translation: W. P. Mei [?] Library Resources
1 天志中:
子墨子言曰:「今天下之君子之欲為仁義者,則不可不察義之所從出。既曰不可以不察義之所從出,然則義何從出?」子墨子曰:「義不從愚且賤者出,必自貴且知者出。何以知義之不從愚且賤者出,而必自貴且知者出也?曰:義者,善政也。何以知義之
1善政也?曰:天下有義則治,無義則亂,是以知義之
2善政也。夫愚且賤者,不得為政乎貴且知者,然後得為政乎愚且賤者,此吾所以知義之不從愚且賤者出,而必自貴且知者出也。然則孰為貴?孰為知?曰:天為貴,天為知而已矣。然則義果自天出矣。」
Will of Heaven II:
Mozi said: Those gentlemen in the world who want to practise magnanimity and righteousness cannot but examine the origin of righteousness. Since we want to examine the origin of righteousness, then where does it originate? Mozi said: Righteousness does not originate with the stupid and humble but with the honourable and wise. How do we know it does not originate with the dull and humble but with the honourable and wise? For, righteousness is the standard. How do we know righteousness is the standard? For, with righteousness the world will be orderly and without it the world will be disorderly. Therefore righteousness is known to be the standard. As the dull and the humble cannot make the standard, and only the wise and honourable can, therefore I know righteousness does not come from the stupid and humble but from the honourable and wise. Now who is honourable and who is wise? Heaven is honourable, Heaven is wise. So, then, righteousness must originate with Heaven.

1. 為 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 為 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

2 天志中:
今天下之人曰:「當若天子之貴
1諸侯,諸侯之貴
2大夫,傐明知之。然吾未知天之貴且知於天子也。」子墨子曰:「吾所以知天之貴且知於天子者有矣。曰:天子為善,天能賞之;天子為暴,天能罰之;天子有疾病禍祟,必齋戒沐浴,潔為酒醴粢盛,以祭祀天鬼,則天能除去之,然吾未知天之祈福於天子也。此吾所以知天之貴且知於天子者。不止此而已矣,又以先王之書馴天明不解之道也知之。曰:『明哲維天,臨君下土。』則此語天之貴且知於天子。不知亦有貴知夫天者乎?曰:天為貴,天為知而已矣。然則義果自天出矣。」
Will of Heaven II:
People in the world would say: "That the emperor is more honourable than the feudal lords and that the feudal lords are more honourable than the ministers, we clearly see. But that Heaven is more honourable and wise than the emperor, we do not see." Mozi said: I know Heaven is more honourable and wise than the emperor for a reason: When the emperor practises virtue Heaven rewards, when the emperor does evil Heaven punishes. When there are disease and calamities the emperor will purify and bathe himself and prepare clean cakes and wine to do sacrifice and libation to Heaven and the spirits. Heaven then removes them. But I have not yet heard of Heaven invoking the emperor for blessing. So I know Heaven is more honourable and wise than the emperor. And, this is not all. We also learn of this from the book of the ancient kings which instructs us the vast and ineffable Dao of Heaven. It says: "Brilliant and perspicacious Heaven on High, who enlightens and watches over the earth below!" This shows Heaven is more honourable and wise than the emperor. But is there yet any one more honourable and wise than Heaven? Heaven is really the most honourable and wise. Therefore, righteousness surely comes from Heaven.

1. 於 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 於 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

3 天志中:
是故子墨子曰:「今天下之君子,中實將欲遵道利民,本察仁義之本,天之意不可不慎也。」既以天之意以為不可不慎已,然則天之將何欲何憎?子墨子曰:「天之意不欲大國之攻小國也,大家之亂小家也,強之暴寡,詐之謀愚,貴之傲賤,此天之所不欲也。
12此而已,欲人之有力相營,有道相教,有財相分也。又欲上之強聽治也,下之強從事也。上強聽治,則國家治矣,下強從事則財用足矣。若國家治
3用足,則內有以潔為酒醴粢盛,以祭祀天鬼;外有以為環璧珠玉,以聘撓四鄰。諸侯之冤不興矣,邊境兵甲不作矣。內有以食飢息勞,持養其萬民,則君臣上下惠忠,父子弟兄慈孝。故唯毋明乎順天之意,奉而光施之天下,則刑政治,萬民和,國家富,財用足,百姓皆得煖衣飽食,便寧無憂。」是故子墨子曰:「今天下之君子,中實將欲遵道利民,本察仁義之本,天之意不可不慎也!
Will of Heaven II:
And hence Mozi said: If the gentlemen of the world really desire to follow the way and benefit the people, they must not disobey the will of Heaven, the origin of magnanimity and righteousness. Now that we must obey the will of Heaven, what does the will of Heaven desire and what does it abominate? Mozi said: The will of Heaven abominates the large state which attacks small states, the large house which molests small houses, the strong who plunder the weak, the clever who deceive the stupid, and the honoured who disdain the humble - these are what the will of Heaven abominates. On the other hand, it desires people having energy to work for each other, those knowing the way to teach each other, and those possessing wealth to share with each other. And it desires the superior diligently to attend to government and the subordinates diligently to attend to their work. When the superior attends to the government diligently, the country will be orderly. When the subordinates attend to work diligently, wealth will be abundant. When the country is orderly and wealth is abundant, within the state there will be wherewith to prepare clean cakes and wine to sacrifice to God and the spirits, and in relation with outside countries there will be wherewith to furnish rings, stones, pearls, and jades by which to befriend surrounding neighbours. With the grudges of the feudal lords inactive and fighting on the borders suspended, and the people within provided with food and rest, the emperor and the ministers and the superiors and subordinates will be gracious and loyal respectively, and father and son and elder and younger brothers will be affectionate and filial respectively. Therefore when the principle of obeying the will of Heaven is understood and widely practiced in the world, then justice and government will be orderly, the multitudes will be harmonious, the country will be wealthy, the supplies will be plenteous, and the people will be warmly clothed and sufficiently fed, peaceful and without worry. Therefore Mozi said: If the gentlemen of the world really desire to follow the way and benefit the people they must carefully investigate the principle that the will of Heaven is the origin of magnanimity and righteousness.

1. 不 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 止 : Originally read: "上". Corrected by 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
3. 財 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

4 天志中:
且夫天子之有天下也,辟之無以異乎國君諸侯之有四境之內也。今國君諸侯之有四境之內也,夫豈欲其臣國萬民之相為不利哉?今若處大國則攻小國,處大家則亂小家,欲以此求賞譽,終不可得,誅罰必至矣。夫天之有天下也,將無已異此。今若處大國
1攻小國,處大都則伐小都,欲以此求福祿於天,福祿終不得,而禍祟必至矣。然有所不為天之所欲,而為天之所不欲,則夫天亦且不為人之所欲,而為人之所不欲矣。人之2所不欲者何也?曰病疾
3祟也。若已不為天之所欲,而為天之所不欲,是率天下之萬民以從事乎禍祟之中也。故古者聖王明知天鬼之所福,而辟天鬼之所憎,以求興天下之利,而除天下之害。是以天之為寒熱也節,四時調,陰陽雨露也時,五穀孰,六畜遂,疾災戾疫凶饑則不至。」是故子墨子曰:「今天下之君子,中實將欲遵
4利民,本察仁義之本,天意不可不慎也!
Will of Heaven II:
The rule of Heaven over the world is not unlike the rule of the feudal lord over the state. In ruling the state does the feudal lord desire his ministers and people to work for mutual disadvantage? If leading a large state one attacks small states, if leading a large house one molests small houses - if by doing this one seeks reward and commendation (from the feudal lord) he cannot obtain it. On the contrary, punishment will visit him. Now, the rule of Heaven over the world is not unlike this. If leading a large state one attacks small states, if leading a large house one molests small houses -- if by doing this one seeks reward and commendation (from Heaven) he cannot obtain it. On the contrary, punishment will visit him. When (man) does not do what Heaven desires, but does what Heaven abominates, Heaven will also not do what man desires but do what he abominates. What man abominates are disease and calamities. Therefore not to do what Heaven desires but do what it abominates is to lead the multitudes in the world to calamity. Therefore the ancient sage-kings studied what Heaven and the spirits would bless and avoided what they would curse in order to procure benefits for the world and avoid calamities. Thereupon, Heaven made heat and cold temperate, the four seasons harmonious, the Yin and Yang and rain and dew timely. The five grains are enabled to ripen and the six animals to mature. And disease, pestilence, and famine did not happen. Therefore Mozi said: If the gentlemen of the world really desire to follow the Dao and benefit the people they must be mindful of the principle that the will of Heaven is the origin of magnanimity and righteousness.

1. 則 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 之 : Originally read: "不".
3. 禍 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
4. 道 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

5 天志中:
且夫天下蓋有不仁不祥者,曰當若子之不事父,弟之不事兄,臣之不事君也。故天下之君子,與謂之不祥者。今夫天兼天下而愛之,撽遂萬物以利之,若豪之末,非天之所為也,而民得而利之,則可謂否矣。然獨無報夫天,而不知其為不仁不祥也。此吾所謂君子明細而不明大也。
Will of Heaven II:
In the world those who lack benevolence are unfortunate. If a son does not serve his father, a younger brother does not serve his elder brother, or a subordinate does not serve his superior, then all the gentlemen of the world will call him unfortunate. Now Heaven loves the whole world universally. Everything is prepared for the good of man. Even the tip of a hair is the work of Heaven. Substantial may be said of the benefits that are enjoyed by man. Yet there is no service in return. And they do not even know this to be unmagnanimous and unfortunate. This is why I say the gentlemen understand only trifles and not things of importance.

6 天志中:
且吾所以知天之愛民之厚者有矣,曰以磨為日月星辰,以昭道之;制為四時春秋冬夏,以紀綱之;雷降雪霜雨露,以長遂五穀麻絲,使民得而財利之;列為山川谿谷,播賦百事,以臨司民之善否;為王公侯伯,使之賞賢而罰暴;賊金木鳥獸,從事乎五穀麻絲,以為民衣食之財。自古及今,未嘗不有此也。今有人於此,驩若愛其子,竭力單務以利之,其子長,而無報子求父,故天下之君子與謂之不仁不祥。今夫天兼天下而愛之,撽遂萬物以利之,若豪之末,非天之所為,而民得而利之,則可謂否矣,然獨無報夫天,而不知其為不仁不祥也。此吾所謂君子明細而不明大也。
Will of Heaven II:
Moreover I know Heaven loves men dearly not without reason. Heaven ordered the sun, the moon, and the stars to enlighten and guide them. Heaven ordained the four seasons, Spring, Autumn, Winter, and Summer, to regulate them. Heaven sent down snow, frost, rain, and dew to grow the five grains and flax and silk that so the people could use and enjoy them. Heaven established the hills and rivers, ravines and valleys, and arranged many things to minister to man's good or bring him evil. He appointed the dukes and lords to reward the virtuous and punish the wicked, and to gather metal and wood, birds and beasts, and to engage in cultivating the five grains and flax and silk to provide for the people's food and clothing. This has been taking from antiquity to the present. Suppose there is a man who is deeply fond of his son and has used his energy to the limit to work for his benefit. But when the son grows up he returns no love to the father. The gentlemen of the world will all call him unmagnanimous and miserable. Now Heaven loves the whole world universally. Everything is prepared for the good of man. The work of Heaven extends to even the smallest things that are enjoyed by man. Such benefits may indeed be said to be substantial, yet there is no service in return. And they do not even know this to be unmagnanimous. This is why I say the gentlemen of the world understand only trifles but not things of importance.

7 天志中:
且吾所以知天愛民之厚者,不止此而足矣。曰殺不辜者,天予不祥。不辜者誰也?曰人也。予之不祥者誰也?曰天也。若天不愛民之厚,夫胡說人殺不辜,而天予之不祥哉?此吾
之所
1以知天之愛民之厚也。
Will of Heaven II:
Yet this does not exhaust my reasons whereby I know Heaven loves man dearly. It is said the murder of an innocent individual will call down a calamity. Who is the innocent? Man is. From whom is the visitation? From Heaven. If Heaven does not love the people dearly, why should Heaven send down a visitation upon the man who murders the innocent? Thus I know Heaven loves man dearly.

1. 之所 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

8 天志中:
且吾所以知天之愛民之厚者,不止此而已矣。曰愛人利人,順天之意,得天之賞者有之;憎人
賊人
1,反天之意,得天之罰者亦有矣。夫愛人利人,順天之意,得天之賞者誰也?曰若昔三代聖王,堯舜禹湯文武者是也。堯舜禹湯文武焉所從事?曰從事兼,不從事別。兼者,處大國不攻小國,
2大家不亂小家,強不劫弱,眾不暴寡,詐不謀愚,貴不傲賤。觀其事,上利乎天,中利乎鬼,下利乎人,三利無所不利,是謂天德。聚斂天下之美名而加之焉,曰:此仁也,義也,愛人利人,順天之意,得天之賞者也。不止此而已,書於竹帛,鏤之金石,琢之槃盂,傳遺後世子孫。曰將何以為?將以識夫愛人利人,順天之意,得天之賞者也。皇矣道之曰:『帝謂文王,予懷明德,不大聲以色,不長夏以革,不識不知,順帝之則。』帝善其順法則也,故舉殷以賞之,使貴為天子,富有天下,名譽至今不息。故夫愛人利人,順天之意,得天之賞者,既可得留而已。夫憎人賊人,反天之意,得天之罰者誰也?曰若昔者三代暴王桀紂幽厲者是也。桀紂幽厲焉所從事?曰從事別,不從事兼。別者,處大國則攻小國,處大家則亂小家,強劫弱,眾暴寡,詐謀愚,貴傲賤。觀其事,上不利乎天,中不利乎鬼,下不利乎人,三不利無所利,是謂天賊。聚斂天下之醜名而加之焉,曰此非仁也,非義也。憎人賊人,反天之意,得天之罰者也。不止此而已,又書其事於竹帛,鏤之金石,琢之槃盂,傳遺後世子孫。曰將何以為?將以識夫憎人賊人,反天之意,得天之罰者也。大誓之道之曰:『紂越厥夷居,不肯事上帝,棄厥先神祇不祀,乃曰吾有命,毋廖𠏿務
天下
3。天亦縱棄紂而不葆。』察天以縱棄紂而不葆者,反天之意也。故夫憎人賊人,反天之意,得天之罰者,既可得而知也。」
Will of Heaven II:
This is still not all by which I know Heaven loves man dearly. There are those who love the people and benefit the people and obey the will of Heaven and obtain reward from Heaven. There are also those who hate the people and oppress the people and oppose the will of Heaven and incur punishment from Heaven. Who are those that love the people and benefit the people, obey the will of Heaven and obtain reward from Heaven? They are the ancient sage-kings of the Three Dynasties, Yao, Shun, Yu, Tang, Wen, and Wu. What did Yao, Shun, Yu, Tang, Wen, and Wu do? They engaged themselves in universality and not partiality (in love). Loving universally, they did not attack the small states with their large states, they did not molest the small houses with their large houses. The strong did not plunder the weak, the many did not oppress the few, the clever did not deceive the stupid, the honoured did not disdain the humble. Such a regime was agreeable to Heaven above, to the spirits in the middle sphere, and to the people below. Being helpful to these three, it was helpful to all. And this was Heavenly virtue. The most excellent names in the world were gathered and attributed to them, and they were called magnanimous, righteous, beloved of man and beneficial to the people, obedient to the will of Heaven and rewarded of Heaven. Besides this, it is also recorded on the bamboos and silk, cut in metals and stones, and engraved on the dishes and cups to be handed down to posterity. What is this for? It is to mark out those who loved the people and benefited them, obeyed the will of Heaven and obtained reward from Heaven. Thus the ode of Huang Yi says: "God said to King Wen, 'I cherish your intelligent virtue. It was not proclaimed with much noise or gesture. It was not modified after the possession of the empire. How instructively and naturally submissive to the scheme of Heaven!'" Because he was obedient to God's scheme, He rewarded him with Yin and honoured him to be emperor and enriched him with the empire. And his fame is not forgotten even unto this day. Hence we are enabled to know who are those that loved the people and benefited them, obeyed the will of Heaven and obtained reward from Heaven. Now, who are those that hated the people and oppressed them, opposed the will of Heaven and incurred punishment from Heaven? They are the ancient wicked kings of the Three Dynasties, Jie, Zhou, You, and Li. What did they do? They were selfish and ungenerous. Being selfish they attacked the small states with their large states, they molested the small houses with their large houses. The strong plundered the weak, the many oppressed the few, the clever deceived the ignorant, the honoured disdained the humble. Such a regime was not helpful to Heaven above, to the spirits in the middle sphere, or to the people below. Since it was not helpful to these three it was helpful to none. And they were called the enemies of Heaven. The most evil names in the world were gathered and attributed to them, and they were called unmagnanimous, unrighteous, haters of man and oppressors of the people, disobedient to the will of Heaven and punished by Heaven. Besides this, it is also recorded on the bamboos and silk, cut in the metals and stones, and engraved on the plates and cups to be handed down to posterity. What is this for? It is to mark out those that hated the people and oppressed them, opposed the will of Heaven and incurred punishment from Heaven. Thus relates the "Great Declaration": "Zhou went beyond the proper limits and became insolent. He would not worship God and pushed away the ancestors and spirits without offering them sacrifices. And he said: 'Fortune is with me,' and neglected and betrayed his duty. Heaven thereupon deserted him and withdrew its protection." Heaven deserted Zhou and withdrew its support because Zhou opposed the will of Heaven. Hence we are enabled to know who are those that hated the people and oppressed them, opposed the will of Heaven and incurred punishment from Heaven.

1. 賊人 : Inserted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》
2. 處 : Inserted.
3. 天下 : Deleted. 孫詒讓《墨子閒詁》

9 天志中:
是故子墨子之有天之,辟人無以異乎輪人之有規,匠人之有矩也。今夫輪人操其規,將以量度天下之圜與不圜也,曰:中吾規者謂之圜,不中吾規者謂之不圜。是以圜與不圜,皆可得而知也。此其故何?則圜法明也。匠人亦操其矩,將以量度天下之方與不方也。曰:中吾矩者謂之方,不中吾矩者謂之不方。是以方與不方,皆可得而知之。此其故何?則方法明也。故子墨子之有天之意也,上將以度天下之王公大人之為刑政也,下將以量天下之萬民為文學出言談也。觀其行,順天之意,謂之善意行,反天之意,謂之不善意行;觀其言談,順天
1意,謂之善言談,反天之意,謂之不善言談;觀其刑政,順天之意,謂之善刑政,反天之意,謂之不善刑政。故置此以為法,立此以為儀,將以量度天下之王公大人卿大夫之仁與不仁,譬之猶分黑白也。是故子墨子曰:「今天下之王公大人士君子,中實將欲遵道利民,本察仁義之本,天之意不可不順也。順天之意者,義之法也。」
Will of Heaven II:
Therefore the will of Heaven is like the compasses to the wheelwright and the square to the carpenter. The wheelwright tests the circularity of every object in the world with his compasses, saying: "That which satisfies my compasses is circular. That which does not is not circular." Therefore whether an object is circular or not is all known, because the standard of circularity is all established. The carpenter also tests the squareness of every object in the world with his square, saying: "That which satisfies my square is square; that which does not is not square." Therefore whether any object is square or not is all known. Why so? Because the standard of squareness is established. Similarly, with the will of Heaven Mozi will measure the jurisdiction and government of the lords in the empire on the one hand, and the doctrines and teachings of the multitudes in the empire on the other. If some conduct is observed to be in accordance with the will of Heaven, it is called good conduct; if it is in opposition to the will of Heaven it is called bad conduct. If a teaching is observed to be in accordance with the will of Heaven it is called good teaching; if it is in opposition to the will of Heaven it is called bad teaching. And if a government is observed to be in accordance with the will of Heaven it is called good government; if it is in opposition to the will of Heaven it is called bad government. With this as the model and with this as the standard, whether the lords and the ministers are magnanimous or not can be measured as (easily as) to distinguish black and white. Therefore Mozi said: If the rulers and the gentlemen of the world really desire to follow the way and benefit the people they have only to obey the will of Heaven, the origin of magnanimity and righteousness. Obedience to the will of Heaven is the standard of righteousness.

1. 之 : Inserted.

Advertise on this site or log in for reduced advertising.