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Chinese Text Project
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《境內 - Within the Borders》

English translation: J. J. L. Duyvendak [?]
Books referencing 《境內》 Library Resources
1 境內:
四境之內,丈夫女子皆有名於上,生者著,死者削。其有爵者乞無爵者以為庶子,級乞一人。其無役事也,其庶子役其大夫,月六日;其役事也,隨而養之。
Within the Borders:
Within the four frontiers, men and women are known by name to their superiors; at birth they are registered and at death they are erased. Those who have rank ask of those who have no rank to act as bodyguard; for each degree the service of one man is requested. When they have no military service, the bodyguards serve their great officers six days in the month; in times of military service, they follow their great officers and are fed by them.

2 境內:
軍爵,自一級已下至小夫,命曰校徒操士。公爵,自二級已上至不更,命曰卒。其戰也,五人束簿為伍;一人死,而剄其四人。能人得一首,則復。五人一屯長,百人一將。其戰,百將屯長必得斬首;得三十三首以上,盈論,百將屯長賜爵一級。五百主,短兵五十人。二五百,主將之,短兵百。千石之令,短兵百人。八百之令,短兵八十人。七百之令,短兵七十人。六百之令,短兵六十人。國尉,短兵千人。大將,短兵四千人。戰及死事,而剄短兵;能人得一首,則復。
Within the Borders:
The military ranks from the first degree down to the small prefects are called xiao, tu, cao, shi; the public ranks from the second degree upwards to the degree of bu-geng are called military officials, zu. In battle five men are organized into a squad; if one of them is killed, the other four are beheaded. If a man can capture one head then he is exempted from taxes. For every five men is there a corporal, tun-chang, and for every hundred men a centurion, chiang. If in a battle the centurions and corporals are unsuccessful, they are beheaded; if they are successful, thirty-three heads or more are accounted ample, and to the centurions and corporals one degree in rank is given. An officer of 500 men has 50 swordsmen with short weapons; an officer of twice 500 men, in commanding them has 100 swordsmen; a prefect with an income of 1,000 piculs of grain has 100 swordsmen; a prefect with an income of 800 piculs of grain has 80 swordsmen; one with 700 piculs has 70 swordsmen; one with 600 piculs has 60 swordsmen; the guo-wei has 1,000 swordsmen, and the general has 4,000 swordsmen. If in a battle, it comes so far that he is killed, then the swordsmen are beheaded. If a man can capture one head, he is exempted from taxes.

3 境內:
能攻城圍邑斬首八千已上,則盈論;野戰斬首二千,則盈論。吏自操及校以上大將,盡賞行間之吏也。故爵公士也,就為上造也。故爵上造,就為簪褭。故爵簪褭,就為不更。故爵不更,就為大夫。爵吏而為縣尉,則賜虜,六加五千六百。爵大夫而為國尉,就為官大夫。故爵官大夫,就為公大夫。故爵公大夫,就為公乘。故爵公乘,就為五大夫,則稅邑三百家。故爵五大夫,就為庶長;故爵庶長,就為左更;故爵三更也,就為大良造;皆有賜邑三百家,有賜稅三百家。爵五大夫有稅邑六百家者,受客。大將御參,皆賜爵三級。故客卿相論盈,就正卿。
Within the Borders:
If in attacking a city or besieging a town they can capture 8,000 heads or more, it is accounted ample; if in a battle in the open field they take 2,000 heads, it is accounted ample. From the cao officers up to xiao officers, the great general fully rewards the officers in the ranks. He who was formerly gong-shi is promoted to shang-zao; a shang-zao to zan-niao; a zan-niao to bu-geng; a bu-geng to great officer, da-fu. When an officer is raised to the rank of a district commander, hsien-wei, then he is presented with six prisoner-slaves, and provided with 5,000 soldiers and an income of 600 piculs of grain; da-fu are raised to the rank of guo-wei; one who was formerly a da-fu is promoted to gong-da-fu; a gong-da-fu to gong-sheng; a gong-sheng to wu-da-fu, and then receives a tax-paying city of 300 families. A former wu-da-fu is promoted to shu-zhang: a shu-zhang to a zuo-keng; one of the three kengs to a da-liang-zao. In all these cases there is presented a town of 300 families, or the taxes of three hundred families. Where there is a tax-paying town of six hundred families, an office of vice-chancellor is conferred. Those who ride in the company of the great general are all promoted three degrees. He who was formerly assistant chancellor, when he is accounted to have the full merit, is promoted to the actual chancellorship.

4 境內:
以戰故,暴首三,乃校三日,將軍以不疑致士大夫勞爵。夫勞爵,其縣過三日,有不致士大夫勞爵,能。其縣四尉,訾由丞尉,能得甲首一者,賞爵一級,益田一頃,益宅九畝。級除庶子一人,乃得入兵官之吏。其獄法:高爵訾下爵級。高爵能,無給有爵人隸僕。爵自二級以上,有刑罪則貶。爵自一級以下,有刑罪則已。小夫死,以上至大夫,其官級一等,其墓樹級一樹。
Within the Borders:
When three heads are captured in battle, they are exposed for three days; the general confers, in the cases where there is no doubt that it is deserved, the titles of shi and da-fu in reward. When the heads have been hanging for three days and no titles of shi or da-fu have been conferred on any one in reward, then they are removed. The four wei of a district are under the critical supervision of a cheng-wei. If he succeeds in capturing the head of a man of rank, he receives one qing of land and nine mu of estate, apart from the conferment of one degree of rank and a bodyguard for each rank, and he is allowed to enter amongst the military officers. In case of transgression of the law, then those of higher rank criticize those of lower rank and degree. If a man of high rank has been cashiered, he may not be given as servant to a man of rank. Those holding rank from the second degree upwards, in case of an offence, are degraded; those holding rank not higher than the first degree, when guilty of an offence, lose it. At the death of a xiao-fu up to a da-fu, coffins should be of a different kind for each degree, and the number of trees on the graves should be one for each degree in rank.

5 境內:
其攻城圍邑也,國司空訾其城之廣厚之數;國尉分地以徒校分積尺而攻之,為期曰:「先已者,當為最啟;後已者,訾為最殿;再訾則廢。」穴通則積薪,積薪則燔柱。陷隊之士,面十八人。陷隊之士知疾鬥,得斬首隊五人,則陷隊之士,人賜爵一級。死,則一人後;不能死之,千人環睹,黥劓於城下。國尉分地,以中卒隨之。將軍為木臺,與國正監,與王御史,參望之。其先入者,舉為最啟;其後入者,舉為最殿。其陷隊也,盡其幾者;幾者不足,乃以次級益之。
Within the Borders:
In attacking a city or besieging a town, the minister of public works of the state examines critically the size and resources of that city. The guo-wei assigns the places, dividing the area according to the number of tu and xiao officers for the attack, and he sets them a time-limit, saying: 'Those who are first will be rewarded as the vanguard and those who hold back will be reprimanded, as being in the rear, and on a second reprimand will be dismissed.' They dig out subterranean passages and pile up fuel; when the fuel has been piled up they set fire to the beams. From the corps of sappers, on each side of the town, there are eighteen men. The soldiers from the corps of sappers, if they know how to fight fiercely, although they cannot capture the heads of any men in the ranks, are rewarded with one degree for each man; for every one man that is killed, freedom from taxes is given, and for every one man that cannot fight to the death, ten are torn to pieces by chariots. Those who make critical remarks are branded or their noses are sliced off under the city wall. The guo-wei, in assigning their various places to all, cause the several detachments to be followed by zhong-zu. The general erects a wooden platform, wherefrom, together with the Chief Supervisor of the state and the Chief Secretary, he watches (the battle). Those who enter first are rewarded as men of the vanguard, and those who enter last are treated as men of the rearguard; as to the corps of sappers, the utmost use is made of their few men; if these few men are not sufficient, they are supplemented by those who are anxious to receive a rank.

URN: ctp:shang-jun-shu/within-the-borders