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Chinese Text Project
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《洪範 - Great Plan》

English translation: James Legge [?]
Books referencing 《洪範》 Library Resources
洪範:
武王勝殷,殺受,立武庚,以箕子歸。作《洪範》。

1 洪範:
惟十有三祀,王訪于箕子。王乃言曰:「嗚呼!箕子。惟天陰騭下民,相協厥居,我不知其彝倫攸敘。」
Great Plan:
In the thirteenth year, the king went to enquire of the count of Qi, and said to him, Oh! count of Qi, Heaven, (working) unseen, secures the tranquillity of the lower people, aiding them to be in harmony with their condition. I do not know how the unvarying principles (of its method in doing so) should be set forth in due order.'
箕子乃言曰:「我聞在昔,鯀堙洪水,汩陳其五行。帝乃震怒,不畀『洪範』九疇,彝倫攸斁。鯀則殛死,禹乃嗣興,天乃錫禹『洪範』九疇,彝倫攸敘。
The count of Qi thereupon replied, 'I have heard that in old time Gun dammed up the inundating waters, and thereby threw into disorder the arrangement of the five elements. God was consequently roused to anger, and did not give him the Great Plan with its nine divisions, and thus the unvarying principles (of Heaven's method) were allowed to go to ruin. Gun was therefore kept a prisoner till his death, and his son Yu rose up (and entered on the same undertaking). To him Heaven gave the Great Plan with its nine divisions, and the unvarying principles (of its method) were set forth in their due order.'

2 洪範:
初一曰五行,次二曰敬用五事,次三曰農用八政,次四曰協用五紀,次五曰建用皇極,次六曰乂用三德,次七曰明用稽疑,次八曰念用庶徵,次九曰嚮用五福,威用六極。
Great Plan:
'(Of those divisions) the first is called "the five elements;" the second, "reverent attention to the five (personal) matters;" the third, "earnest devotion to the eight (objects of) government;" the fourth, "the harmonious use of the five dividers of time;" the fifth, "the establishment and use of royal perfection;" the sixth, "the discriminating use of the three virtues;" the seventh, "the intelligent use of (the means for) the examination of doubts;" the eighth, "the thoughtful use of the various verifications;" the ninth, "the hortatory use of the five (sources of) happiness, and the awing use of the six (occasions of) Suffering."'

3 洪範:
一、五行:一曰水,二曰火,三曰木,四曰金,五曰土。水曰潤下,火曰炎上,木曰曲直,金曰從革,土爰稼穡。潤下作鹹,炎上作苦,曲直作酸,從革作辛,稼穡作甘。
Great Plan:
i. 'First, of the five elements. The first is water; the second is fire; the third, wood; the fourth, metal; and the fifth, earth. (The nature of) water is to soak and descend; of fire, to blaze and ascend; of wood, to be crooked and straight; of metal, to yield and change; while (that of) earth is seen in seed-sowing and in-gathering. That which soaks and descends becomes salt; that which blazes and ascends becomes bitter; that which is crooked and straight becomes sour; that which yields and changes becomes acrid; and from seed-sowing and in-gathering comes sweetness.'

4 洪範:
二、五事:一曰貌,二曰言,三曰視,四曰聽,五曰思。貌曰恭,言曰從,視曰明,聽曰聰,思曰睿。恭作肅,從作乂,明作哲,聰作謀,睿作聖。
Great Plan:
ii. 'Second, of the five (personal) matters. The first is the bodily demeanour; the second, speech; the third, seeing; the fourth, hearing; the fifth, thinking. (The virtue of) the bodily appearance is respectfulness; of speech, accordance (with reason); of seeing, clearness; of hearing distinctness; of thinking, perspicaciousness. The respectfulness becomes manifest in gravity; accordance (with reason), in orderliness; the clearness, in wisdom; the distinctness, in deliberation; and the perspicaciousness, in sageness.'

5 洪範:
三、八政:一曰食,二曰貨,三曰祀,四曰司空,五曰司徒,六曰司寇,七曰賓,八曰師。
Great Plan:
iii. 'Third, of the eight (objects of) government. The first is food; the second, wealth and articles of convenience; the third, sacrifices; the fourth, (the business of) the Minister of Works; the fifth, (that of) the Minister of Instruction; the sixth, (that of) the Minister of Crime; the seventh, the observances, to be paid to guests; the eighth, the army.'

6 洪範:
四、五紀:一曰歲,二曰月,三曰日,四曰星辰,五曰歷數。
Great Plan:
iv. 'Fourth, of the five dividers of time. The first is the year (or the planet Jupiter); the second, the moon; the third, the sun; the fourth, the stars and planets, and the zodiacal spaces; and the fifth, the calendaric calculations.'

7 洪範:
五、皇極:皇建其有極。斂時五福,用敷錫厥庶民。惟時厥庶民于汝極。錫汝保極:凡厥庶民,無有淫朋,人無有比德,惟皇作極。凡厥庶民,有猷有為有守,汝則念之。不協于極,不罹于咎,皇則受之。而康而色,曰:『予攸好德。』汝則錫之福。時人斯其惟皇之極。無虐煢獨而畏高明,人之有能有為,使羞其行,而邦其昌。凡厥正人,既富方谷,汝弗能使有好于而家,時人斯其辜。于其無好德,汝雖錫之福,其作汝用咎。無偏無陂,遵王之義;無有作好,遵王之道;無有作惡,尊王之路。無偏無黨,王道蕩蕩;無黨無偏,王道平平;無反無側,王道正直。會其有極,歸其有極。曰:皇,極之敷言,是彝是訓,于帝其訓,凡厥庶民,極之敷言,是訓是行,以近天子之光。曰:天子作民父母,以為天下王。
Great Plan:
v. 'Fifth, of royal perfection. The sovereign, having established (in himself) the highest degree and pattern of excellence, concentrates in his own person the five (sources of) happiness, and proceeds to diffuse them, and give them to the multitudes of the people. Then they, on their part, embodying your perfection, will give it (back) to you, and secure the preservation of it. Among all the multitudes of the people there will be no unlawful confederacies, and among men (in office) there will be no bad and selfish combinations; let the sovereign establish in (himself) the highest degree and pattern of excellence. Among all the multitudes of the people there will be those who have ability to plan and to act, and who keep themselves (from evil) - do you keep such in mind; and there will be those who, not coming up to the highest point of excellence, yet do not involve themselves in evil - let the sovereign receive such. And when a placid satisfaction appears in their countenances, and they say, "Our love is fixed on virtue," do you then confer favours on them; those men will in this way advance to the perfection of the sovereign. Do not let him oppress the friendless and childless, nor let him fear the high and distinguished. When men (in office) have ability and administrative power, let them be made still more to cultivate their conduct; and the prosperity of the country will be promoted. All (such) right men, having a competency, will go on in goodness. If you cannot cause them to have what they love in their families, they will forthwith proceed to be guilty of crime. As to those who have not the love of virtue, although you confer favours (and emoluments) on them, they will (only) involve you in the of employing the evil

Without deflection, without unevenness,
Pursue the royal righteousness.
Without selfish likings,
Pursue the royal way.
Without selfish dislikings,
Pursue the royal path.
Avoid deflection, avoid partiality;
Broad and long is the royal way.
Avoid partiality, avoid deflection;
Level and easy is the royal way.
Avoid perversity, avoid one-sidedness;
Correct and straight is the royal way.
(Ever) seek for this perfect excellence,
(Ever) turn to this perfect excellence.

He went on to say, 'This amplification of the royal perfection contains the unchanging (rule), and is the (great) lesson; yea, it is the lesson of God. All the multitudes of the people, instructed in this amplification of the perfect excellence, and carrying it into practice, will thereby approximate to the glory of the Son of Heaven, and say, "The Son of Heaven is the parent of the people, and so becomes the sovereign of all under the sky."'

8 洪範:
六、三德:一曰正直,二曰剛克,三曰柔克。平康,正直;彊弗友,剛克;燮友,柔克。沈潛,剛克;高明,柔克。惟闢作福,惟闢作威,惟辟玉食。臣無有作福、作威、玉食。臣之有作福、作威、玉食,其害于而家,凶于而國。人用側頗僻,民用僭忒。
Great Plan:
vi. 'Sixth, of the three virtues. The first is correctness and straightforwardness; the second, strong rule; and the third, mild rule. In peace and tranquillity, correctness and straightforwardness (must sway); in violence and disorder, strong rule; in harmony and order, mild rule. For the reserved and retiring there should be (the stimulus of) the strong rule; for the high(-minded) and distinguished, (the restraint of) the mild rule. It belongs only to the sovereign to confer dignities and rewards, to display the terrors of majesty, and to receive the revenues (of the kingdom). There should be no such thing as a minister's conferring dignities or rewards, displaying the terrors of majesty, or receiving the revenues. Such a thing is injurious to the clans, and fatal to the states (of the kingdom); smaller affairs are thereby managed in a one-sided and perverse manner, and the people fall into assumptions and excesses.'

9 洪範:
七、稽疑:擇建立卜筮人,乃命十筮。曰雨,曰霽,曰蒙,曰驛,曰克,曰貞,曰悔,凡七。卜五,佔用二,衍忒。立時人作卜筮,三人占,則從二人之言。汝則有大疑,謀及乃心,謀及卿士,謀及庶人,謀及卜筮。汝則從,龜從,筮從,卿士從,庶民從,是之謂大同。身其康彊,子孫其逢,汝則從,龜從,筮從,卿士逆,庶民逆吉。卿士從,龜從,筮從,汝則逆,庶民逆,吉。庶民從,龜從,筮從,汝則逆,卿士逆,吉。汝則從,龜從,筮逆,卿士逆,庶民逆,作內吉,作外凶。龜筮共違于人,用靜吉,用作凶。
Great Plan:
vii. 'Seventh, of the (means for the) examination of doubts. Officers having been chosen and appointed for divining by the tortoise-shell and the stalks of the Achillea, they are to be charged (on occasion) to execute their duties. (In doing this), they will find (the appearances of) rain, of clearing up, of cloudiness, of want of connexion, and of crossing; and the inner and outer diagrams. In all (the indications) are seven;--five given by the shell, and two by the stalks; and (by means) of these any errors (in the mind) may be traced out. These officers having been appointed, when the divination is proceeded with, three men are to interpret the indications, and the (consenting) words of two of them are to be followed. When you have doubts about any great matter, consult with your own mind; consult with your high ministers and officers; consult with the common people; consult the tortoise-shell and divining stalks. If you, the shell, the stalks, the ministers and officers, and the common people, all agree about a course, this is what is called a great concord, and the result will be the welfare of your person and good fortune to your descendants. If you, the shell, and the stalks agree, while the ministers, and officers, and the common people oppose, the result will be fortunate. If the ministers and officers, with the shell and stalks, agree, while you and the common people oppose, the result will be fortunate. If the common people, the shell, and the stalks agree, while you, with the ministers and officers, oppose, the result will be fortunate. If you and the shell agree. while the stalks, with the ministers and officers, and the common people, oppose, internal operations will be fortunate, and external undertakings unlucky. When the shell and stalks are both opposed to the views of men, there will be good fortune in being still, and active operations will be unlucky.'

10 洪範:
八、庶徵:曰雨,曰暘,曰燠,曰寒,曰風。曰時五者來備,各以其敘,庶草蕃廡。一極備,凶;一極無,凶。曰休徵;曰肅、時雨若;曰乂,時暘若;曰晰,時燠若;曰謀,時寒若;曰聖,時風若。曰咎徵:曰狂,恆雨若;曰僭,恆暘若;曰豫,恆燠若;曰急,恆寒若;曰蒙,恆風若。曰王省惟歲,卿士惟月,師尹惟日。歲月日時無易,百穀用成,乂用明,俊民用章,家用平康。日月歲時既易,百穀用不成,乂用昏不明,俊民用微,家用不寧。庶民惟星,星有好風,星有好雨。日月之行,則有冬有夏。月之從星,則以風雨。
Great Plan:
viii. 'Eighth, of the various verifications. They are rain, sunshine, heat, cold, wind, and seasonableness. When the five come, all complete, and each in its proper order, (even) the various plants will be richly luxuriant. Should any one of them be either excessively abundant or excessively deficient, there will be evil. There are the favourable verifications: namely, of gravity, which is emblemed by seasonable rain; of orderliness, emblemed by seasonable sunshine; of wisdom, emblemed by seasonable heat; of deliberation, emblemed by seasonable cold; and of sageness, emblemed by seasonable wind, There are (also) the unfavourable verifications - namely, of recklessness, emblemed by constant rain; of assumption, emblemed by constant sunshine; of indolence, emblemed by constant heat; of hastiness, emblemed by constant cold; and of stupidity, emblemed by constant wind.
He went on to say, 'The king should examine the (character of the whole) year; the high ministers and officers (that of) the month; and the inferior officers (that of) the day. If, throughout the year, the month, the day, there be an unchanging seasonableness, all the grains will be matured; the measures of government will be wise, heroic men will stand forth distinguished; and in the families (of the. people) there will be peace and prosperity. If, throughout the year, the month, the day, the seasonableness be interrupted, the various kinds of grain will not be matured; the measures of government will be dark and unwise; heroic men will be kept in obscurity; and in the families (of the people) there will be an absence of repose. By the common people the stars should be examined. Some stars love wind, and some love rain. The courses of the sun and moon give winter and summer. The way in which the moon follows the stars gives wind and rain.'

11 洪範:
九、五福:一曰壽,二曰富,三曰康寧,四曰攸好德,五曰考終命。六極:一曰凶、短、折,二曰疾,三曰憂,四曰貧,五曰惡,六曰弱。
Great Plan:
ix. 'Ninth, of the five (sources of) happiness. The first is long life; the second, riches; the third, soundness of body and serenity of mind; the fourth, the love of virtue; and the fifth, fulfilling to the end the will (of Heaven). Of the six extreme evils, the first is misfortune shortening the life; the second, sickness; the third, distress of mind; the fourth, poverty; the fifth, wickedness; the sixth, weakness.'

12 洪範:
武王既勝殷,邦諸侯,班宗彝,作《分器》。

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