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Chinese Text Project
Simplified Chinese version
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《虞书 - Yu Shu》

English translation: James Legge [?]
Books referencing 《虞书》 Library Resources

尧典 - Canon of Yao

English translation: James Legge [?]
Books referencing 《尧典》 Library Resources
[Also known as: 《帝典》]

尧典:
昔在帝尧,聪明文思,光宅天下。将逊于位,让于虞舜,作《尧典》。

1 尧典:
曰若稽古帝尧,曰放勋,钦、明、文、思、安安,允恭克让,光被四表,格于上下。克明俊德,以亲九族。九族既睦,平章百姓。百姓昭明,协和万邦。黎民于变时雍。
Canon of Yao:
Examining into antiquity, (we find that) the Di Yao was styled Fang-xun. He was reverential, intelligent, accomplished, and thoughtful - naturally and without effort. He was sincerely courteous, and capable of (all) complaisance. The bright (influence of these qualities) was felt through the four quarters (of the land), and reached to (heaven) above and (earth) beneath. He made the able and virtuous distinguished, and thence proceeded to the love of (all in) the nine classes of his kindred, who (thus) became harmonious. He (also) regulated and polished the people (of his domain), who all became brightly intelligent. (Finally), he united and harmonized the myriad states; and so the black-haired people were transformed. The result was (universal) concord.

2 尧典:
乃命羲和,钦若昊天,历象日月星辰,敬授人时。分命羲仲,宅嵎夷,曰旸谷。寅宾出日,平秩东作。日中,星鸟,以殷仲春。厥民析,鸟兽孳尾。申命羲叔,宅南交。平秩南讹,敬致。日永,星火,以正仲夏。厥民因,鸟兽希革。分命和仲,宅西,曰昧谷。寅饯纳日,平秩西成。宵中,星虚,以殷仲秋。厥民夷,鸟兽毛毨。申命和叔,宅朔方,曰幽都。平在朔易。日短,星昴,以正仲冬。厥民隩,鸟兽氄毛。帝曰:“咨!汝羲暨和。朞三百有六旬有六日,以闰月定四时,成岁。允厘百工,庶绩咸熙。”
Canon of Yao:
He commanded the Xis and Hes, in reverent accordance with (their observation of) the wide heavens, to calculate and delineate (the movements and appearances of) the sun, the moon, the stars, and the zodiacal spaces, and so to deliver respectfully the seasons to be observed by the people.
He separately commanded the second brother Xi to reside at Yu-yi, in what was called the Bright Valley, and (there) respectfully to receive as a guest the rising sun, and to adjust and arrange the labours of the spring. 'The day,' (said he), 'is of the medium length, and the star is in Niao - you may thus exactly determine mid-spring. The people are dispersed (in the fields), and birds and beasts breed and copulate.'
He further commanded the third brother Xi to reside at Nan-jiao, (in what was called the Brilliant Capital). to adjust and arrange the transformations of the summer, and respectfully-to observe the exact limit (of the shadow). 'The day,' (said he), 'is at its longest, and the star is in Huo - you may thus exactly determine mid-summer. The people are more dispersed; and birds and beasts have their feathers and hair thin, and change their coats.'
He separately commanded the second brother He to reside at the west, in what was called the Dark Valley, and (there) respectfully to convoy the setting sun, and to adjust and arrange the completing labours of the autumn. 'The night' (said he), 'is of the medium length, and the star is in Xu - you may thus exactly determine mid-autumn. The people feel at ease, and birds and beasts have their coats in good condition.'
He further commanded the third brother He to reside in the northern region, in what was called the Sombre Capital, and (there) to adjust and examine the changes of the winter. 'The day,' (said he), 'is at its shortest, and the star is in Mao - you may thus exactly determine mid-winter. The people, keep in their houses, and the coats of birds and beasts are downy and thick.'
The Di said, 'Ah! you, Xis and Hes, a round year consists of three hundred, sixty, and six days. Do you, by means of the intercalary month, fix the four seasons, and complete (the period of) the year. (Thereafter), the various officers being regulated, in accordance with this, all the works (of the year) will be fully performed.'

3 尧典:
帝曰:“畴咨若时登庸?”放齐曰:“胤子朱启明。”帝曰:“吁!嚚讼可乎?”
Canon of Yao:
The Di said, 'Who will search out (for me) a man according to the times, whom I can raise and employ?' Fang-qi said, '(Your) heir-son Zhu is highly intelligent.' The Di said, 'Alas; he is insincere and quarrelsome - can he do?'
帝曰:“畴咨若予采?”驩兜曰:“都!共工方鸠僝功。”帝曰:“吁!静言庸违,象恭滔天。”
The Di said, 'Who will search out (for me) a man equal to the exigency of my affairs?' Huan-dou said, 'Oh! the merits of the Minister of Works have just been displayed on a wide scale.' The Di said, 'Alas! when all is quiet, he talks; but when, employed, his actions turn out differently. he is respectful (only) in appearance. See! the floods assail the heavens!'
帝曰:“咨!四岳,汤汤洪水方割,荡荡怀山襄陵,浩浩滔天。下民其咨,有能俾乂?”佥曰:“于!鲧哉。”帝曰:“吁!咈哉,方命圮族。”岳曰:“异哉!试可乃已。”
The Di said, 'Ho! (President of) the Four Mountains, destructive in their overflow are the waters of the inundation. In their vast extent they embrace the hills and overtop the great heights, threatening the heavens with their floods, so that the lower people groan and murmur 'Is there a capable man to whom I can assign the correction (of this calamity)?' All (in the court) said, 'Ah! is there not Kuan?' The Di said, 'Alas! how perverse is he! He is disobedient to orders, and tries to injure his peers.' (The President of) the Mountains said, 'Well but--. Try if he can (accomplish the work).' (Kuan) was employed accordingly.
帝曰,“往,钦哉!”九载,绩用弗成。
The Di said (to him), 'Go; and be reverent!' For nine years he laboured, but the work was unaccomplished.

4 尧典:
帝曰:“咨!四岳。朕在位七十载,汝能庸命,巽朕位?”岳曰:“否德忝帝位。”曰:“明明扬侧陋。”师锡帝曰:“有鳏在下,曰虞舜。”帝曰:“俞?予闻,如何?”岳曰:“瞽子,父顽,母嚚,象傲;克谐以孝,烝烝乂,不格奸。”帝曰:“我其试哉!女于时,观厥刑于二女。”厘降二女于妫汭,嫔于虞。帝曰:“钦哉!”
Canon of Yao:
The Di said, 'Ho! (President of) the Four Mountains, I have been on the throne seventy years. You can carry out my commands - I will resign my place to you.' The Chief said, 'I have not the virtue; I should disgrace your place.' (The Di) said, 'Show me some one among the illustrious, or set forth one from among the poor and mean.' All (then) said to the Di, 'There is an unmarried man among the lower people, called Shun of Yu'. The Di said, 'Yes, I have heard of him. What have you to say about him?' The Chief said,' He is the son of a blind man. His father was obstinately unprincipled; his (step-)mother was insincere; his (half-) brother Xiang was arrogant. He has been able (however), by his filial piety to live in harmony with them, and to lead them gradually to self-government, so that they (no longer) proceed to great wickedness.' The Di said, 'I will try him; I will wive him, and thereby see his behaviour with my two daughters.' (Accordingly) he arranged and sent down his two daughters to the north of the Gui, to be wives in (the family of) Yu. The Di said to them, 'Be reverent!'

舜典 - Canon of Shun

English translation: James Legge [?]
Books referencing 《舜典》 Library Resources
舜典:
虞舜侧微,尧闻之聪明,将使嗣位,历试诸难,作《舜典》。

1 舜典:
曰若稽古帝舜,曰重华协于帝。浚哲文明,温恭允塞,玄德升闻,乃命以位。
Canon of Shun:
Examining into antiquity, (we find that) the Di Shun was styled Chong-hua. His character was entirely conformed to (that of) the (former) Di, he was profound, wise, accomplished, and intelligent. He was mild and courteous, and truly sincere. The report of his mysterious virtue was heard on high, and he was appointed to office.

2 舜典:
慎徽五典,五典克从;纳于百揆,百揆时叙;宾于四门,四门穆穆;纳于大麓,烈风雷雨弗迷。帝曰:“格!汝舜。询事考言,乃言砥可绩,三载。汝陟帝位。”舜让于德,弗嗣。正月上日,受终于文祖。
Canon of Shun:
(Shun) carefully set forth the beauty of the five cardinal duties, and they came to be (universally) observed. Being appointed to be General Regulator, the affairs of every (official) department were arranged in their proper seasons. (Being charged) to receive (the princes) from the four quarters of the land, they were all docilely submissive. Being sent to the great plains at the foot of the mountains, notwithstanding the tempests of wind, thunder, and rain, he did not go astray. The Di said, 'Come, you Shun. I have consulted you on (all) affairs, and examined your words, and found that they can be carried into practice - (now) for three years. Do you ascend the seat of the Di.' Shun wished to decline in favour of some one more virtuous, and not to consent to be (Yao's) successor. On the first day of the first month, (however), he received (Yao's) retirement (from his duties) in the temple of the Accomplished Ancestor.

3 舜典:
在璇玑玉衡,以齐七政。肆类于上帝,禋于六宗,望于山川,徧于群神。辑五瑞。既月乃日,觐四岳群牧,班瑞于群后。
Canon of Shun:
He examined the pearl-adorned turning sphere, with its transverse tube of jade, and reduced to a harmonious system (the movements of) the Seven Directors. Thereafter, he sacrificed specially, but with the ordinary forms, to God; sacrificed with reverent purity to the Six Honoured Ones; offered their appropriate sacrifices to the hills and rivers; and extended his worship to the host of spirits. He called in (all) the five jade-symbols of rank; and when the month was over, he gave daily audience to (the President of) the Four Mountains, and all the Pastors, (finally) returning their symbols to the various princes.

4 舜典:
岁二月,东巡守,至于岱宗,柴。望秩于山川,肆觐东后。协时月正日,同律度量衡。修五礼、五玉、三帛、二生、一死贽。如五器,卒乃复。五月南巡守,至于南岳,如岱礼。八月西巡守,至于西岳,如初。十有一月朔巡守,至于北岳,如西礼。归,格于艺祖,用特。五载一巡守,群后四朝。敷奏以言,明试以功,车服以庸。
Canon of Shun:
In the second month of the year he made a tour of inspection eastwards, as far as Dai-zong, where he presented a burnt-offering to Heaven, and sacrificed in order to the hills and rivers. Thereafter he gave audience to the princes of the east. He set in accord their seasons and months, and regulated the days; he made uniform the standard-tubes, with the measures of length and of capacity, and the steelyards, he regulated the five (classes of) ceremonies, with (the various) articles of introduction - the five symbols of jade, the three kinds of silk, the two living (animals) and the one dead one. As to the five instruments of rank, when all was over, he returned them. In the fifth month he made a similar tour southwards, as far as the mountain of the south, where he observed the same ceremonies as at Dai. In the eighth month he made a tour westwards, as far as the mountain of the west, where he did as before. In the eleventh month he made a tour northwards, as far as the mountain of the north', where he observed the same ceremonies as in the west. He (then) returned (to the capital), went to (the temple of) the Cultivated Ancestor, and sacrificed a single bull. In five years there was one tour of inspection, and there were four appearances of the princes at court. They gave a report (of their government) in words, which was clearly tested by their works. They received chariots and robes according to their merits.

5 舜典:
肇十有二州,封十有二山,浚川。
Canon of Shun:
He instituted the division (of the land) into twelve provinces, raising altars upon twelve hills in them. He (also) deepened the rivers.

6 舜典:
象以典刑,流宥五刑,鞭作官刑,扑作教刑,金作赎刑。眚灾肆赦,怙终贼刑。钦哉,钦哉,惟刑之恤哉!流共工于幽洲,放驩兜于崇山,窜三苗于三危,殛鲧于羽山,四罪而天下咸服。
Canon of Shun:
He exhibited (to the people) the statutory punishments, enacting banishment as a mitigation of the five (great) inflictions; with the whip to be employed in the magistrates' courts, the stick to be employed in schools, and money to be received for redeemable offences. Inadvertent offences and those which could be ascribed to misfortune were to be pardoned, but those who transgressed presumptuously and repeatedly were to be punished with death. 'Let me be reverent! Let me be reverent!' (he said to himself.) 'Let compassion rule in punishment!' He banished the Minister of Works to You island; confined Huan-dou on mount Chong; drove (the chief of) San-miao (and his people) into San-wei, and kept them there; and held Gun a prisoner till death on mount Yu. These four criminals being thus dealt with, all under heaven acknowledged the justice (of Shun's administration).

7 舜典:
二十有八载,帝乃殂落。百姓如丧考妣,三载,四海遏密八音。
Canon of Shun:
After twenty-eight years the Di deceased, when the people mourned for him as for a parent for three years. Within the four seas all the eight kinds of instruments of music were stopped and hushed.

8 舜典:
月正元日,舜格于文祖,询于四岳,辟四门,明四目,达四聪。“咨,十有二牧!”曰,“食哉惟时!柔远能迩,敦德允元,而难任人,蛮夷率服。”
Canon of Shun:
On the first day of the first month (of the) next year, Shun went to (the temple of) the Accomplished Ancestor. He deliberated with (the President of) the Four Mountains how to throw open the doors (of communication between himself and the) four (quarters of the land), and how he could see with the eyes, and hear with the ears of all. He consulted with the twelve Pastors, and said to them, 'The food!--it depends on observing the seasons. Be kind to the distant, and cultivate the ability of the near. Give honour to the virtuous, and your confidence to the good, while you discountenance the artful - so shall the barbarous tribes lead on one another to make their submission.'

9 舜典:
舜曰:“咨,四岳!有能奋庸熙帝之载,使宅百揆亮采,惠畴?”佥曰:“伯禹作司空。”帝曰:“俞,咨!禹,汝平水土,惟时懋哉!”禹拜稽首,让于稷、契暨皋陶。帝曰:“俞,汝往哉!”
Canon of Shun:
Shun said, 'Ho! (President of) the Four Mountains, is there any one who can with vigorous service attend to all the affairs of the Di, whom I may appoint to be General Regulator, to assist me in (all) affairs, managing each department according to its nature?' All (in the court) replied, 'There is Bo-Yu, the Minister of Works.' The Di said, 'Yes. Ho! Yu, you have regulated the water and the land. In this (new office) exert yourself.' Yu did obeisance with his head to the ground, and wished to decline in favour of the Minister of Agriculture, or Xie, or Gao-Yao. The Di said, 'Yes, but do you go (and undertake the duties).'

10 舜典:
帝曰:“弃,黎民阻饥,汝后稷,播时百谷。”
Canon of Shun:
The Di said, 'Qi, the black-haired people are (still) suffering from famine. Do you, O prince, as Minister of Agriculture, (continue to) sow (for them) the various kinds of grain.'

11 舜典:
帝曰:“契,百姓不亲,五品不逊。汝作司徒,敬敷五教,在宽。”
Canon of Shun:
The Di said, 'Xie, the people are (still) wanting in affection for one another, and do not docilely, observe the five orders of relationship. It is yours, as the Minister of Instruction, reverently, to set forth the lessons of duty belonging to those five orders. Do so with gentleness.'

12 舜典:
帝曰:“皋陶,蛮夷猾夏,寇贼奸宄。汝作士,五刑有服,五服三就。五流有宅,五宅三居。惟明克允!”
Canon of Shun:
The Di said, 'Gao-Yao, the barbarous tribes trouble our great land. There are (also) robbers, murderers, insurgents, and traitors. It is yours, as the Minister of Crime, to use the five punishments to deal with their offences. For the infliction of these there are the three appointed places. There are the five cases in which banishment in the appropriate places is to be resorted to, to which places, though five, three localities are assigned. Perform your duties with intelligence, and you will secure a sincere (submission).'

13 舜典:
帝曰:“畴若予工?”佥曰:“垂哉!”帝曰:“俞,咨!垂,汝共工。”垂拜稽首,让于殳斨暨伯与。”帝曰:“俞,往哉!汝谐。”
Canon of Shun:
The Di said, 'Who can superintend my works, as they severally require?' All (in the court) replied, 'Is there not Chui?' The Di said, 'Yes. Ho! Chui, you must be Minister of Works.' Chui did obeisance with his head to the ground, and wished to decline in favour of Shu, Qiang, or Bo-Yu. The Di said, 'Yes, but do you go (and undertake the duties). Effect a harmony (in all the departments).'

14 舜典:
帝曰:“畴若予上下草木鸟兽?”佥曰:“益哉!”帝曰:“俞,咨!益,汝作朕虞。”益拜稽首,让于朱虎、熊罴。帝曰:“俞,往哉!汝谐。”
Canon of Shun:
The Di said, 'Who can superintend, as the nature of the charge requires, the grass and trees, with the birds and beasts on my hills and in my marshes?' All (in the court) replied, 'Is there not Yi?' The Di said, 'Yes. Ho! Yi do you be my Forester.' Yi did obeisance with his head to the ground, and wished to decline in favour of Zhu, Hu, Xiong, or Pi. The Di said, 'Yes, but do you go (and undertake the duties). You must manage them harmoniously.'

15 舜典:
帝曰:“咨!四岳,有能典朕三礼?”佥曰:“伯夷!”帝曰:“俞,咨!伯,汝作秩宗。夙夜惟寅,直哉惟清。”伯拜稽首,让于夔、龙。帝曰:“俞,往,钦哉!”
Canon of Shun:
The Di said, 'Ho! (President of the) Four Mountains, is there any one able to direct my three (religious) ceremonies?' All (In the court) answered, 'Is there not Bo-yi?' The Di said, 'Yes. Ho! Bo, you must be the Arranger in the Ancestral Temple. Morning and night be reverent. Be upright, be pure.' Bo did obeisance with his head to the ground, and wished to decline in favour of Kui or Long. The Di said, 'Yes, but do you go (and undertake the duties). Be reverential!'

16 舜典:
帝曰:“夔!命汝典乐,教胄子,直而温,宽而栗,刚而无虐,简而无傲。诗言志,歌永言,声依永,律和声。八音克谐,无相夺伦,神人以和。”夔曰:“于!予击石拊石,百兽率舞。”
Canon of Shun:
The Di said, 'Kui, I appoint you to be Director of Music, and to teach our sons, so that the straightforward shall yet be mild; the gentle, dignified: the strong, not tyrannical: and the impetuous, not arrogant. Poetry is the expression of earnest thought; singing is the prolonged utterance of that expression; the notes accompany that utterance, and they are harmonized themselves by the standard tubes. (In this way) the eight different kinds of musical instruments can be adjusted so that one shall not take from or interfere with another; and spirits and men are brought into harmony.' Kui said, 'I smite the (sounding-) stone, I gently strike it, and the various animals lead on one another to dance.'

17 舜典:
帝曰:“龙,朕堲谗说殄行,震惊朕师。命汝作纳言,夙夜出纳朕命,惟允!”
Canon of Shun:
The Di said, 'Long, I abominate slanderous speakers and destroyers of the (right) ways, who agitate and alarm my people. I appoint you to be the Minister of Communication. Early and late give forth my orders and report to me, seeing that everything is true.'

18 舜典:
帝曰:“咨!汝二十有二人,钦哉!惟时亮天功。”
Canon of Shun:
The Di said, 'Ho! you, twenty and two men, be reverent; so shall you be helpful to the business (entrusted to me by) Heaven.'

19 舜典:
三载考绩,三考,黜陟幽明,庶绩咸熙。分北三苗。
Canon of Shun:
Every three years there was an examination of merits, and after three examinations the undeserving were degraded, and the deserving advanced. (By this arrangement) the duties of all the departments were fully discharged; the (people of) San-miao (also) were discriminated and separated.

20 舜典:
舜生三十徵庸,三十在位。五十载,陟方乃死。
Canon of Shun:
In the thirtieth year of his age, Shun was called to employment. Thirty years he was on the throne (with Yao). Fifty years afterwards he went on high and died.

21 舜典:
帝厘下土,方设居方,别生分类。作《汨作》、《九共》九篇、《槀饫》。

大禹谟 - Counsels of the Great Yu

English translation: James Legge [?]
Books referencing 《大禹谟》 Library Resources
大禹谟:
皋陶矢厥谟,禹成厥功,帝舜申之。作《大禹》、《皋陶谟》、《益稷》。

1 大禹谟:
曰若稽古大禹,曰文命,敷于四海,祗承于帝。曰:“后克艰厥后,臣克艰厥臣,政乃乂,黎民敏德。”
Counsels of the Great...:
Examining into antiquity, (we find that) the Great Yu was styled Wen-ming. Having arranged and divided (the land), all to the four seas, in reverent response to the Di, he said, 'If the sovereign can realize the difficulty of his sovereignship, and the minister the difficulty of his ministry, the government will be well ordered, and the black-haired people will sedulously seek to be virtuous.'

2 大禹谟:
帝曰:“俞!允若兹,嘉言罔攸伏,野无遗贤,万邦咸宁。稽于众,舍己从人,不虐无告,不废困穷,惟帝时克。”
Counsels of the Great...:
The Di said, 'Yes; let this really be the case, and good words will nowhere lie hidden; no men of virtue and talents will be left neglected, away from court, and the myriad states will all enjoy repose. (But) to obtain the views of all; to give tip one's opinion and follow that of others; to keep from oppressing the helpless, and not to neglect the straitened and poor - it was only the (former) Di who could attain to this.'

3 大禹谟:
益曰:“都,帝德广运,乃圣乃神,乃武乃文。皇天眷命,奄有四海为天下君。”
Counsels of the Great...:
Yi said, 'Oh! your virtue, O Di, is vast and incessant. It is sagely, spirit-like, awe-inspiring, and adorned with all accomplishments. Great Heaven regarded you with its favour, and bestowed on you its appointment. Suddenly you possessed all within the four seas, and became ruler of all under heaven.'

4 大禹谟:
禹曰:“惠迪吉,从逆凶,惟影响。”
Counsels of the Great...:
Yu said, 'Accordance with the right leads to good fortune; following what is opposed to it, to bad - the shadow and the echo.'

5 大禹谟:
益曰:“吁!戒哉!儆戒无虞,罔失法度。罔游于逸,罔淫于乐。任贤勿贰,去邪勿疑。疑谋勿成,百志惟熙。罔违道以干百姓之誉,罔咈百姓以从己之欲。无怠无荒,四夷来王。”
Counsels of the Great...:
Yi said, 'Alas! be cautious! Admonish yourself to caution, when there seems to be no occasion for anxiety. Do not fail to observe the laws and ordinances. Do not find your enjoyment in idleness. Do not go to excess in pleasure. In your employment of men of worth, let none come between you and them. Put away evil without hesitation. Do not carry out plans, of (the wisdom of) which you have doubts. Study that all your purposes may be with the light of reason. Do not go against what is right, to get the praise of the people. Do not oppose the people's (wishes), to follow your own desires. (Attend to these things) without idleness or omission, and the barbarous tribes all around will come and acknowledge your sovereignty.'

6 大禹谟:
禹曰:“于!帝念哉!德惟善政,政在养民。水、火、金、木、土、谷,惟修;正德、利用、厚生、惟和。九功惟叙,九叙惟歌。戒之用休,董之用威,劝之以九歌俾勿坏。”
Counsels of the Great...:
Yu said, 'Oh! think (of these things), O Di. The virtue (of the ruler) is seen in (his) good government, and that government in the nourishing of the people. There are water, fire, metal, wood, the earth, and grain - these must be duly regulated; there are the rectification of (the people's) virtue, (the tools and other things) that supply the conveniences of life, and the securing abundant means of sustentation - these must be harmoniously attended to. When the nine services (thus indicated) have been orderly accomplished, that accomplishment will be hailed by (the people's) songs. Caution them with gentle (words), correct them with the majesty (of law), stimulate them with the songs on those nine subjects - in order that (your success) may not suffer diminution.'

7 大禹谟:
帝曰:“俞!地平天成,六府三事允治,万世永赖,时乃功。”
Counsels of the Great...:
The Di said, 'The earth has been reduced to order, and the (influences of) heaven produce their complete effect; those six magazines and three departments of (governmental) action are all truly regulated, and may be depended on for a myriad generations - this is your merit.'

8 大禹谟:
帝曰:“格,汝禹!朕宅帝位三十有三载,耄期倦于勤。汝惟不怠,总朕师。”
Counsels of the Great...:
The Di said, 'Come, you Yu. I have occupied my place for thirty and three years. I am between ninety and a hundred years old, and the laborious duties weary me. Do you, eschewing all indolence, take the leading of my people.'

9 大禹谟:
禹曰:“朕德罔克,民不依。皋陶迈种德,德乃降,黎民怀之。帝念哉!念兹在兹,释兹在兹,名言兹在兹,允出兹在兹,惟帝念功。”
Counsels of the Great...:
Yu replied, 'My virtue is not equal (to the position), and the people will not repose in me. (But there is) Gao-Yao with vigorous activity sowing abroad his virtue, which has descended on the black-haired people, till they cherish him in their hearts. O Di, think of him! When I think of him, (my mind) rests on him (as the man fit for this place); when I would put him out of my thoughts, (my mind still) rests on him; when I name and speak of him, (my mind) rests on him (for this); the sincere outgoing of my thoughts about him is that he is the man. O Di, think of his merits.'

10 大禹谟:
帝曰:“皋陶,惟兹臣庶,罔或干予正。汝作士,明于五刑,以弼五教。期于予治,刑期于无刑,民协于中,时乃功,懋哉。”
Counsels of the Great...:
The Di said, 'Gao-Yao, that of these my ministers and all (my people) hardly one is found to offend against the regulations of the government is owing to your being Minister of Crime, and intelligent in the use of the five punishments, thereby assisting (the inculcation of) the five cardinal duties, with a view to the perfection of my government, and that through punishment there may come to be no punishments, but the people accord with (the path of) the Mean. (Continue to) be strenuous.'

11 大禹谟:
皋陶曰:“帝德罔愆,临下以简,御众以宽;罚弗及嗣,赏延于世。宥过无大,刑故无小;罪疑惟轻,功疑惟重;与其杀不辜,宁失不经;好生之德,洽于民心,兹用不犯于有司。”
Counsels of the Great...:
Gao-Yao replied, 'Your virtue, O Di, is faultless. You condescend to your ministers with a kindly ease; you preside over the multitudes with a generous forbearance. Punishments do not extend to (the criminal's) heirs, while rewards reach to (succeeding) generations. You pardon inadvertent faults, however great, and punish purposed crimes, however small. In cases of doubtful crimes, you deal with them lightly; in cases of doubtful merit, you prefer the high estimation. Rather than put an innocent person to death, you will run the risk of irregularity and error. This life-loving virtue has penetrated the minds of the people, and this is why they do not render themselves liable to be punished by your officers.'

12 大禹谟:
帝曰:“俾予从欲以治,四方风动,惟乃之休。”
Counsels of the Great...:
The Di said, 'That I am able to follow and obtain what I desire in my government, the people responding everywhere as if moved by the wind - this is your excellence.'

13 大禹谟:
帝曰:“来,禹!降水儆予,成允成功,惟汝贤。克勤于邦,克俭于家,不自满假,惟汝贤。汝惟不矜,天下莫与汝争能。汝惟不伐,天下莫与汝争功。予懋乃德,嘉乃丕绩,天之历数在汝躬,汝终陟元后。人心惟危,道心惟微,惟精惟一,允执厥中。无稽之言勿听,弗询之谋勿庸。可爱非君?可畏非民?众非元后,何戴?后非众,罔与守邦?钦哉!慎乃有位,敬修其可愿,四海困穷,天禄永终。惟口出好兴戎,朕言不再。”
Counsels of the Great...:
The Di said, 'Come Yu. The inundating waters filled me with dread, when you accomplished truly (all that you had represented), and completed your service - thus showing your superiority to other men. Full of toilsome earnestness in the service of the country, and sparing in your expenditure on your family, and this without being full of yourself and elated - you (again.) show your superiority to other men. You are without any prideful assumption, but no one under heaven can contest with you the palm of ability; you make no boasting, but no one under heaven can contest with you the palm of merit. I see how great is your virtue, how admirable your vast achievements. The determinate appointment of Heaven rests on your person; you must eventually ascend (the throne) of the great sovereign. The mind of man is restless, prone (to err); its affinity to what is right is small. Be discriminating, be uniform (in the pursuit of what is right), that you may sincerely hold fast the Mean, Do not listen to unsubstantiated words; do not follow plans about which you have not sought counsel. Of all who are to be loved, is not the ruler the chief? Of all who are to be feared, are not the people the chief? If the multitude were without their sovereign Head, whom should they sustain aloft? If the sovereign had not the multitude, there would be none to guard the country for him. Be reverential! Carefully maintain the throne which you are to occupy, cultivating (the virtues) that are to be desired in you. If within the four seas there be distress and poverty, your Heaven conferred revenues will come to a perpetual end. It is the mouth which sends forth what is good, and raises up war. I will not alter my words.'

14 大禹谟:
禹曰:“枚卜功臣,惟吉之从。”
Counsels of the Great...:
Yu said, 'Submit the meritorious ministers one by one to the trial of divination, and let the favouring indication be followed.'

15 大禹谟:
帝曰:“禹!官占惟先蔽志,昆命于元龟。朕志先定,询谋佥同,鬼神其依,龟筮协从,卜不习吉。”禹拜稽首,固辞。
Counsels of the Great...:
The Di replied, '(According to the rules for) the regulation of divination, one should first make up his mind, and afterwards refer (his judgment) to the great tortoise-shell. My mind (in this matter) was determined in the first place; I consulted and deliberated with all (my ministers and people), and they were of one accord with me. The spirits signified their assent, and the tortoise-shell and divining stalks concurred. Divination, when fortunate, should not be repeated.' Yu did obeisance with his head to the ground, and firmly declined (the place).

16 大禹谟:
帝曰:“毋!惟汝谐。”
Counsels of the Great...:
The Di said, 'You must not do so. It is you who can suitably (occupy my place).'

17 大禹谟:
正月朔旦,受命于神宗,率百官若帝之初。
Counsels of the Great...:
On the first morning of the first month, (Yu) received the appointment in the temple (dedicated by Shun) to the spirits of his ancestors, and took the leading of all the officers, as had been done by the Di at the commencement (of his government).

18 大禹谟:
帝曰:“咨,禹!惟时有苗弗率,汝徂征。”
Counsels of the Great...:
The Di said, 'Alas! O Yu, there is only the lord of Miao who refuses obedience; do you go and correct him.'

19 大禹谟:
禹乃会群后,誓于师曰;“济济有众,咸听朕命。蠢兹有苗,昏迷不恭,侮慢自贤,反道败德,君子在野,小人在位,民弃不保,天降之咎,肆予以尔众士,奉辞伐罪。尔尚一乃心力,其克有勋。”
Counsels of the Great...:
Yu on this assembled all the princes, and made a speech to the host, saying, 'Ye multitudes here arrayed, listen all of you to my orders. Stupid is this lord of Miao, ignorant, erring, and disrespectful. Despiteful and insolent to others, he thinks that all ability and virtue are with himself. A rebel to the right, he destroys (all the obligations of) virtue. Superior men are kept by him in obscurity, and mean men fill (all) the offices. The people reject him and will not protect him. Heaven is sending down calamities upon him. I therefore, along with you, my multitude of gallant men, bear the instructions (of the Di) to punish his crimes. Do you proceed with united heart and strength, so shall our enterprize be crowned with success.'

20 大禹谟:
三旬,苗民逆命。益赞于禹曰:“惟德动天,无远弗届。满招损,谦受益,时乃天道。帝初于历山,往于田,日号泣于旻天,于父母,负罪引慝。祗载见瞽瞍,夔夔斋栗,瞽亦允若。至諴感神,矧兹有苗。”
Counsels of the Great...:
At the end of three decades, the people of Miao continued rebellious against the commands (issued to them), when Yi came to the help of Yu, saying, 'It is virtue that moves Heaven; there is no distance to which it does not reach. Pride brings loss, and humility receives increase - this is the way of Heaven. In the early time of the Di, when he was living by mount Li, he went into the fields, and daily cried with tears to compassionate Heaven, and to his parents, taking to himself all guilt, and charging himself with (their) wickedness. (At the same time) with respectful service he appeared before Gu-sou, looking grave and awe-struck, till Gu also became transformed by his example. Entire sincerity moves spiritual beings - how much more will it move this lord of Miao!'

21 大禹谟:
禹拜昌言曰:“俞!”班师振旅。帝乃诞敷文德,舞干羽于两阶,七旬有苗格。
Counsels of the Great...:
Yu did homage to the excellent words, and said, 'Yes.' (Thereupon) he led back his army, having drawn off the troops. The Di set about diffusing on a grand scale the virtuous influences of peace - with shields and feathers they danced between the two staircases (in his courtyard). In seventy days, the lord of Miao came (and made his submission).

皋陶谟 - Counsels of Gao-yao

English translation: James Legge [?]
Books referencing 《皋陶谟》 Library Resources
1 皋陶谟:
曰若稽古。皋陶曰:“允迪厥德,谟明弼谐。”
Counsels of Gao-yao:
Examining into antiquity, (we find that) Gao-Yao said, 'If (the sovereign) sincerely pursues the course of his virtue, the counsels (offered to him) will be intelligent, and the aids (of admonition that he receives) will be harmonious.'
禹曰:“俞!如何?”
Yu said, 'Yes, but explain yourself.'
皋陶曰:“都!慎厥身,修思永。敦叙九族,庶明励翼,迩可远,在兹。”
Gao-Yao said, 'Oh! let him be careful about his personal cultivation, with thoughts that are far-reaching, and thus he will produce a generous kindness and nice observance of distinctions among the nine branches of his kindred. All the intelligent (also) will exert themselves in his service; and in this way from what is near he will reach to what is distant.'
禹拜昌言曰:“俞!”
Yu did homage to the excellent words, and said, 'Yes.'
皋陶曰:“都!在知人,在安民。”
Gao-Yao continued, 'Oh! it lies in knowing men, and giving repose to the people.'
禹曰:“吁!咸若时,惟帝其难之。知人则哲,能官人安民则惠。黎民怀之,能哲而惠,何忧乎驩兜?何迁乎有苗?何畏乎巧言令色孔壬?”
Yu said, 'Alas! to attain to both these things might well be a difficulty even to the Di. When (the sovereign) knows men, he is wise, and can put every one into the office for which he is fit. When he gives repose to the people, his kindness is felt, and the black-haired race cherish him in their hearts. When he can be (thus) wise and kind, what occasion will he have for anxiety about a Huan-dou? what to be removing a lord of Miao? what to fear any one of fair words, insinuating appearance, and great artfulness?'

2 皋陶谟:
皋陶曰:“都!亦行有九德,亦言其人有德,乃言曰,载采采。”
Counsels of Gao-yao:
Gao-Yao said, 'Oh! there are in all nine virtues to be discovered in conduct, and when we say that a man possesses (any) virtue, that is as much as to say he does such and such things.'
禹曰:“何?”
Yu asked, 'What (are the nine virtues)?'
皋陶曰:“宽而栗。柔而立,愿而恭,乱而敬,扰而毅,直而温,简而廉,刚而塞,强而义,彰厥有常。吉哉!日宣三德,夙夜浚明有家。日严祗敬六德,亮采有邦,翕受敷施。九德咸事,俊乂在官。百僚师师,百工惟时。抚于五辰,庶绩其凝。无教逸欲。有邦兢兢业业,一日二日万几。无旷庶官,天工人其代之。天叙有典,勑我五典五敦哉!天秩有礼,自我五礼有庸哉!同寅协恭和衷哉!天命有德,五服五章哉!天讨有罪,五刑五用哉!政事懋哉懋哉!天聪明,自我民聪明,天明畏自我民明威。达于上下,敬哉有土。”
Gao-Yao replied, 'Affability combined with dignity; mildness combined with firmness; bluntness combined with respectfulness; aptness for government combined with reverent caution; docility combined with boldness; straightforwardness combined with gentleness; an easy negligence combined with discrimination; boldness combined with sincerity; and valour combined with righteousness. (When these qualities are) displayed, and that continuously, have we not the good (officer)? When there is a daily display of three (of these) virtues, their possessor could early and late regulate and brighten the clan (of which he was made chief). When there is a daily severe and reverent cultivation of six of them, their possessor could brilliantly conduct the affairs of the state (with which he was invested). When (such men) are all received and advanced, the possessors of those nine virtues will be employed in (the public) service. The men of a thousand and men of a hundred will be in their offices; the various ministers will emulate one another; all the officers will accomplish their duties at the proper times, observant of the five seasons (as the several elements predominate in them) - and thus their various duties will be fully accomplished. Let not (the Son of Heaven) set to the holders of states the example of indolence or dissoluteness. Let him be wary and fearful, (remembering that) in one day or two days there may occur ten thousand springs of things. Let him not have his various officers cumberers of their places. The work is Heaven's; men must act for it!
From Heaven are the (social) relationships with their several duties; we are charged with (the enforcement of) those five duties - and lo! we have the five courses of honourable conduct. From Heaven are the (social) distinctions with their several ceremonies; from us come the observances of those five ceremonies - and lo! they appear in regular practice. When (sovereign and ministers show) a common reverence and united respect for these, lo! the moral nature (of the people) is made harmonious. Heaven graciously distinguishes the virtuous - are there not the five habiliments, five decorations of them? Heaven punishes the guilty - are there not the five punishments, to be severally used for that purpose? The business of government! - ought we not to be earnest in it? ought we not to be earnest in it? Heaven hears and sees as our people hear and see; Heaven brightly approves and displays its terrors as our people brightly approve and would awe - such connexion is there between the upper and lower (worlds). How reverent ought the masters of territories to be!'

3 皋陶谟:
皋陶曰:“朕言惠,可砥1行。”
Counsels of Gao-yao:
Gao-Yao said, 'My words are in accordance with reason, and maybe put in practice.'
禹曰:“俞!乃言砥可绩。”
Yu said, 'Yes, your words may be put in practice, and crowned with success.'
皋陶曰:“予未有知,思曰赞赞襄哉!”
Gao-Yao added, '(As to that) I do not know, but I wish daily to be helpful. May (the government) be perfected!'

1. 砥 : Originally read: "底". 据下文及《四部丛刊》本等改。

益稷 - Yi and Ji

English translation: James Legge [?]
Books referencing 《益稷》 Library Resources
1 益稷:
帝曰:“来,禹!汝亦昌言。”禹拜曰:“都!帝,予何言?予思日孜孜。”皋陶曰:“吁!如何?”禹曰:“洪水滔天,浩浩怀山襄陵,下民昏垫。予乘四载,随山刊木,暨益奏庶鲜食。予决九川,距四海,浚畎浍距川;暨稷播,奏庶艰食鲜食。懋迁有无,化居。烝民乃粒,万邦作乂。”皋陶曰:“俞!师汝昌言。”
Yi and Ji:
The Di said, 'Come Yu, you also must have excellent words (to bring before me).' Yu did obeisance, and said, 'Oh! what can I say, O Di, (after Gao-Yao)? I can (only) think of maintaining a daily assiduity.' Gao-Yao said, 'Alas! will you describe it?' Yu replied, 'The inundating waters seemed to assail the heavens, and in their vast extent embraced the hills and overtopped the great mounds, so that the people were bewildered and overwhelmed. I mounted my four conveyances, and all along the hills hewed down the trees, at the same time, along with Yi, showing the multitudes how to get flesh to eat. I (also) opened passages for the streams (throughout the) nine (provinces), and conducted them to the four seas. I deepened (moreover) the channels and canals, and conducted them to the streams, sowing (grain), at the same time, along with Ji, and showing the multitudes how to procure the food of toil, (in addition to) the flesh meat. I urged them (further) to exchange what they had for what they had not, and to dispose of their accumulated stores. (In this way) all the people got grain to eat, and the myriad regions began to come under good rule.' Gao-Yao said, 'Yes, we ought to model ourselves after your excellent words.'

2 益稷:
禹曰:“都!帝,慎乃在位。”帝曰:“俞!禹曰:“安汝止,惟几惟康。其弼直,惟动丕应。徯志以昭受上帝,天其申命用休。”
Yi and Ji:
Yu said, 'Oh! carefully maintain, O Di, the throne which you occupy.' The Di replied, 'Yes;' and Yu went on, 'Find your repose in your (proper) resting-point. Attend to the springs of things; study stability; and let your assistants be the upright - then shall your movements be grandly responded to, (as if the people only) waited for your will. Thus you will brightly receive (the favour of) God - will not Heaven renew its appointment of you, and give you blessing?'

3 益稷:
帝曰:“吁!臣哉邻哉!邻哉臣哉!”禹曰:“俞!”
Yi and Ji:
The Di said, 'Alas! what are ministers? - are they not (my) associates? What are associates? - are they not (my) ministers?' Yu replied, 'Yes'.
帝曰:“臣作朕股肱耳目。予欲左右有民,汝翼。予欲宣力四方,汝为。予欲观古人之象,日、月、星辰、山、龙、华虫作会;宗彝、藻、火、粉米、黼、黻,絺绣,以五采彰施于五色,作服,汝明。予欲闻六律五声八音,在治忽,以出纳五言,汝听。予违,汝弼,汝无面从,退有后言。钦四邻!庶顽谗说,若不在时,侯以明之,挞以记之,书用识哉,欲并生哉!工以纳言,时而扬之,格则承之庸之,否则威之。”
The Di went on, 'My ministers constitute my legs and arms, my ears and eyes. I wish to help and support my people - you give effect to my wishes. I wish to spread the influence (of my government) through the four quarters - you act as my agents. I wish to see the emblematic figures of the ancients - the sun, the moon, the stars, the mountain, the dragons, and the flowery fowl (the pheasant), which are depicted (on the upper garment); the temple cups, the pondweed, the flames, the grains of rice, the hatchet, and the symbol of distinction, which are embroidered (on the lower Garment) - (I wish to see all these) fully displayed in the five colours, so as to form the (ceremonial) robes - it is yours to see them clearly (for me). I wish to hear the six pitch-tubes, the five notes (determined by them), and the eight kinds of musical instruments (regulated again by these), examining thereby the virtues and defects of government, according as (the odes that) go forth (from the court, set to music), and come in (from the people), are ordered by those five notes - it is yours to hear them (for me). When I am doing wrong, it is yours to correct me; do not follow me to my face, and, when you have retired, have other remarks to make. Be reverent, ye associates, who are before and behind and on each side of me! As to all the obstinately stupid and calumniating talkers, who are found not to be doing what is right, are there not the target to exhibit (their true character), the scourge to make them recollect, and the book of remembrance? Do we not wish them to live along with us? There are also the masters (of music) to receive their compositions, (set them to music), and continually publish them (as corrected by themselves). If they become reformed they are to be received and employed; if they do not, let the terrors (of punishment) overtake them.'
禹曰:“俞哉!帝光天之下,至于海隅苍生,万邦黎献,共惟帝臣,惟帝时举。敷纳以言,明庶以功,车服以庸。谁敢不让,敢不敬应?帝不时敷,同,日奏,罔功。”
Yu said, 'So far good! But let your light shine, O Di, all under heaven, even to every grassy corner of the sea-shore, and throughout the myriad regions the most worthy of the people will all (wish) to be your ministers. Then, O Di, you may advance them to office. They will set forth, and you will receive, their reports; you will make proof of them according to their merits; you will confer chariots and robes according to their services. Who will then dare not to cultivate a humble virtue? who will dare not to respond to you with reverence? If you, O Di, do not act thus, all (your ministers) together will daily proceed to a meritless character.'

4 益稷:
帝曰:
1“无若丹朱傲,惟慢游是好,傲虐是作。罔昼夜頟頟,罔水行舟。朋淫于家,用殄厥世。予创若时,娶于涂山,辛壬癸甲。启呱呱而泣,予弗子,惟荒度土功。弼成五服,至于五千。州十有二师,外薄四海,咸建五长,各迪有功,苗顽弗即工,帝其念哉!”帝曰:“迪朕德,时乃功,惟叙。”皋陶方祗厥叙,方施象刑,惟明。
Yi and Ji:
'Be not haughty like Zhu of Dan, who found his pleasure only in indolence and dissipation, and pursued a proud oppressive course. Day and night without ceasing he was thus. He would make boats go where there was no water. He introduced licentious associates into his family. The consequence was that he brought the prosperity of his house to an end. I took warning from his course. When I married in Tu-shan, (I remained with my wife only the days) xin, ren, gui, and jia. When (my son) Qi was wailing and weeping, I did not regard him, but kept planning with all my might my labour on the land. (Then) I assisted in completing the five Tenures, extending over 5000 li; (in appointing) in the provinces twelve Tutors, and in establishing in the regions beyond, reaching to the four seas, five Presidents. These all pursue the right path, and are meritorious; but there are still (the people of) Miao, who obstinately refuse to render their service. Think of this, O Di.' The Di said, 'That my virtue is followed is the result of your meritorious services so orderly displayed. And now Gao-Yao, entering respectfully into your arrangements, is on every hand displaying the (various) punishments, as represented, with entire intelligence.'

1. 帝曰: : Inserted. 孙星衍《尚书今古文注疏》

5 益稷:
夔曰:“戛击鸣球、搏拊、琴、瑟、以咏。”祖考来格,虞宾在位,群后德让。下管鼗鼓,合止柷敔,笙镛以闲。鸟兽跄跄;《箫韶》九成,凤皇来仪。夔曰:“于!予击石拊石,百兽率舞,庶尹允谐。”
Yi and Ji:
Kui said, 'When the sounding-stone is tapped or struck with force, and the lutes are strongly swept or gently touched, to accompany the singing, the progenitors (of the Di) come (to the service), the guest of Yu is in his place, and all the princes show their virtue in giving place to one another. (In the court) below (the hall) there are the flutes and hand-drums, which join in at the sound of the rattle, and cease at that of the stopper, when the organ and bells take their place. (This makes) birds and beasts fall moving. When the nine parts of the service, as arranged by the Di, have all been performed, the male and female phœnix come with their measured gambolings (into the court).' Kui said, 'Oh! when I smite the (sounding-) stone, or gently strike it, the various animals lead on one another to dance, and all the chiefs of the official departments become truly harmonious.'

6 益稷:
帝庸作歌,曰:“勑天之命,惟时惟几。”乃歌曰:“股肱喜哉!元首起哉!百工熙哉!”皋陶拜手稽首扬言曰:“念哉!率作兴事,慎乃宪,钦哉!屡省乃成,钦哉!”乃赓载歌曰:“元首明哉,股肱良哉,庶事康哉!”又歌曰:“元首丛脞哉,股肱惰哉,万事堕哉!”帝拜曰:“俞,往钦哉!”
Yi and Ji:
The Di on this made a song, saying, 'We must deal cautiously with the favouring appointment of Heaven, at every moment and in the smallest particular.' He then sang.

'When the members (work) joyfully,
The head rises (grandly);
And the duties of all the offices are fully discharged!

Gao-Yao did obeisance with his head to his hands and then to the ground, and with a loud and rapid voice said,' Think (O Di). It is your to lead on and originate things. Pay careful attention to your laws (in doing so). Be reverential! and often examine what has been accomplished (by your officers). Be reverential!' With this he continued the song,

'When the head is intelligent,
The members are good;
And all affairs will be happily performed!'

Again he continued the song,

'When the head is vexatious,
The members are idle;
And all affairs will go to ruin!'

The Di said, 'Yes, go and be reverently (attentive to your duties).'

URN: ctp:shang-shu/yu-shu