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《虞书 - Yu Shu》

English translation: James Legge [?]
Books referencing 《虞书》 Library Resources

尧典 - Canon of Yao

English translation: James Legge [?]
Books referencing 《尧典》 Library Resources
[Also known as: 《帝典》]


1 尧典:
Canon of Yao:
Examining into antiquity, (we find that) the Di Yao was styled Fang-xun. He was reverential, intelligent, accomplished, and thoughtful - naturally and without effort. He was sincerely courteous, and capable of (all) complaisance. The bright (influence of these qualities) was felt through the four quarters (of the land), and reached to (heaven) above and (earth) beneath. He made the able and virtuous distinguished, and thence proceeded to the love of (all in) the nine classes of his kindred, who (thus) became harmonious. He (also) regulated and polished the people (of his domain), who all became brightly intelligent. (Finally), he united and harmonized the myriad states; and so the black-haired people were transformed. The result was (universal) concord.

2 尧典:
Canon of Yao:
He commanded the Xis and Hes, in reverent accordance with (their observation of) the wide heavens, to calculate and delineate (the movements and appearances of) the sun, the moon, the stars, and the zodiacal spaces, and so to deliver respectfully the seasons to be observed by the people.
He separately commanded the second brother Xi to reside at Yu-yi, in what was called the Bright Valley, and (there) respectfully to receive as a guest the rising sun, and to adjust and arrange the labours of the spring. 'The day,' (said he), 'is of the medium length, and the star is in Niao - you may thus exactly determine mid-spring. The people are dispersed (in the fields), and birds and beasts breed and copulate.'
He further commanded the third brother Xi to reside at Nan-jiao, (in what was called the Brilliant Capital). to adjust and arrange the transformations of the summer, and respectfully-to observe the exact limit (of the shadow). 'The day,' (said he), 'is at its longest, and the star is in Huo - you may thus exactly determine mid-summer. The people are more dispersed; and birds and beasts have their feathers and hair thin, and change their coats.'
He separately commanded the second brother He to reside at the west, in what was called the Dark Valley, and (there) respectfully to convoy the setting sun, and to adjust and arrange the completing labours of the autumn. 'The night' (said he), 'is of the medium length, and the star is in Xu - you may thus exactly determine mid-autumn. The people feel at ease, and birds and beasts have their coats in good condition.'
He further commanded the third brother He to reside in the northern region, in what was called the Sombre Capital, and (there) to adjust and examine the changes of the winter. 'The day,' (said he), 'is at its shortest, and the star is in Mao - you may thus exactly determine mid-winter. The people, keep in their houses, and the coats of birds and beasts are downy and thick.'
The Di said, 'Ah! you, Xis and Hes, a round year consists of three hundred, sixty, and six days. Do you, by means of the intercalary month, fix the four seasons, and complete (the period of) the year. (Thereafter), the various officers being regulated, in accordance with this, all the works (of the year) will be fully performed.'

3 尧典:
Canon of Yao:
The Di said, 'Who will search out (for me) a man according to the times, whom I can raise and employ?' Fang-qi said, '(Your) heir-son Zhu is highly intelligent.' The Di said, 'Alas; he is insincere and quarrelsome - can he do?'
The Di said, 'Who will search out (for me) a man equal to the exigency of my affairs?' Huan-dou said, 'Oh! the merits of the Minister of Works have just been displayed on a wide scale.' The Di said, 'Alas! when all is quiet, he talks; but when, employed, his actions turn out differently. he is respectful (only) in appearance. See! the floods assail the heavens!'
The Di said, 'Ho! (President of) the Four Mountains, destructive in their overflow are the waters of the inundation. In their vast extent they embrace the hills and overtop the great heights, threatening the heavens with their floods, so that the lower people groan and murmur 'Is there a capable man to whom I can assign the correction (of this calamity)?' All (in the court) said, 'Ah! is there not Kuan?' The Di said, 'Alas! how perverse is he! He is disobedient to orders, and tries to injure his peers.' (The President of) the Mountains said, 'Well but--. Try if he can (accomplish the work).' (Kuan) was employed accordingly.
The Di said (to him), 'Go; and be reverent!' For nine years he laboured, but the work was unaccomplished.

4 尧典:
Canon of Yao:
The Di said, 'Ho! (President of) the Four Mountains, I have been on the throne seventy years. You can carry out my commands - I will resign my place to you.' The Chief said, 'I have not the virtue; I should disgrace your place.' (The Di) said, 'Show me some one among the illustrious, or set forth one from among the poor and mean.' All (then) said to the Di, 'There is an unmarried man among the lower people, called Shun of Yu'. The Di said, 'Yes, I have heard of him. What have you to say about him?' The Chief said,' He is the son of a blind man. His father was obstinately unprincipled; his (step-)mother was insincere; his (half-) brother Xiang was arrogant. He has been able (however), by his filial piety to live in harmony with them, and to lead them gradually to self-government, so that they (no longer) proceed to great wickedness.' The Di said, 'I will try him; I will wive him, and thereby see his behaviour with my two daughters.' (Accordingly) he arranged and sent down his two daughters to the north of the Gui, to be wives in (the family of) Yu. The Di said to them, 'Be reverent!'

舜典 - Canon of Shun

English translation: James Legge [?]
Books referencing 《舜典》 Library Resources

1 舜典:
Canon of Shun:
Examining into antiquity, (we find that) the Di Shun was styled Chong-hua. His character was entirely conformed to (that of) the (former) Di, he was profound, wise, accomplished, and intelligent. He was mild and courteous, and truly sincere. The report of his mysterious virtue was heard on high, and he was appointed to office.

2 舜典:
Canon of Shun:
(Shun) carefully set forth the beauty of the five cardinal duties, and they came to be (universally) observed. Being appointed to be General Regulator, the affairs of every (official) department were arranged in their proper seasons. (Being charged) to receive (the princes) from the four quarters of the land, they were all docilely submissive. Being sent to the great plains at the foot of the mountains, notwithstanding the tempests of wind, thunder, and rain, he did not go astray. The Di said, 'Come, you Shun. I have consulted you on (all) affairs, and examined your words, and found that they can be carried into practice - (now) for three years. Do you ascend the seat of the Di.' Shun wished to decline in favour of some one more virtuous, and not to consent to be (Yao's) successor. On the first day of the first month, (however), he received (Yao's) retirement (from his duties) in the temple of the Accomplished Ancestor.

3 舜典:
Canon of Shun:
He examined the pearl-adorned turning sphere, with its transverse tube of jade, and reduced to a harmonious system (the movements of) the Seven Directors. Thereafter, he sacrificed specially, but with the ordinary forms, to God; sacrificed with reverent purity to the Six Honoured Ones; offered their appropriate sacrifices to the hills and rivers; and extended his worship to the host of spirits. He called in (all) the five jade-symbols of rank; and when the month was over, he gave daily audience to (the President of) the Four Mountains, and all the Pastors, (finally) returning their symbols to the various princes.

4 舜典:
Canon of Shun:
In the second month of the year he made a tour of inspection eastwards, as far as Dai-zong, where he presented a burnt-offering to Heaven, and sacrificed in order to the hills and rivers. Thereafter he gave audience to the princes of the east. He set in accord their seasons and months, and regulated the days; he made uniform the standard-tubes, with the measures of length and of capacity, and the steelyards, he regulated the five (classes of) ceremonies, with (the various) articles of introduction - the five symbols of jade, the three kinds of silk, the two living (animals) and the one dead one. As to the five instruments of rank, when all was over, he returned them. In the fifth month he made a similar tour southwards, as far as the mountain of the south, where he observed the same ceremonies as at Dai. In the eighth month he made a tour westwards, as far as the mountain of the west, where he did as before. In the eleventh month he made a tour northwards, as far as the mountain of the north', where he observed the same ceremonies as in the west. He (then) returned (to the capital), went to (the temple of) the Cultivated Ancestor, and sacrificed a single bull. In five years there was one tour of inspection, and there were four appearances of the princes at court. They gave a report (of their government) in words, which was clearly tested by their works. They received chariots and robes according to their merits.

5 舜典:
Canon of Shun:
He instituted the division (of the land) into twelve provinces, raising altars upon twelve hills in them. He (also) deepened the rivers.

6 舜典:
Canon of Shun:
He exhibited (to the people) the statutory punishments, enacting banishment as a mitigation of the five (great) inflictions; with the whip to be employed in the magistrates' courts, the stick to be employed in schools, and money to be received for redeemable offences. Inadvertent offences and those which could be ascribed to misfortune were to be pardoned, but those who transgressed presumptuously and repeatedly were to be punished with death. 'Let me be reverent! Let me be reverent!' (he said to himself.) 'Let compassion rule in punishment!' He banished the Minister of Works to You island; confined Huan-dou on mount Chong; drove (the chief of) San-miao (and his people) into San-wei, and kept them there; and held Gun a prisoner till death on mount Yu. These four criminals being thus dealt with, all under heaven acknowledged the justice (of Shun's administration).

7 舜典:
Canon of Shun:
After twenty-eight years the Di deceased, when the people mourned for him as for a parent for three years. Within the four seas all the eight kinds of instruments of music were stopped and hushed.

8 舜典:
Canon of Shun:
On the first day of the first month (of the) next year, Shun went to (the temple of) the Accomplished Ancestor. He deliberated with (the President of) the Four Mountains how to throw open the doors (of communication between himself and the) four (quarters of the land), and how he could see with the eyes, and hear with the ears of all. He consulted with the twelve Pastors, and said to them, 'The food!--it depends on observing the seasons. Be kind to the distant, and cultivate the ability of the near. Give honour to the virtuous, and your confidence to the good, while you discountenance the artful - so shall the barbarous tribes lead on one another to make their submission.'

9 舜典:
Canon of Shun:
Shun said, 'Ho! (President of) the Four Mountains, is there any one who can with vigorous service attend to all the affairs of the Di, whom I may appoint to be General Regulator, to assist me in (all) affairs, managing each department according to its nature?' All (in the court) replied, 'There is Bo-Yu, the Minister of Works.' The Di said, 'Yes. Ho! Yu, you have regulated the water and the land. In this (new office) exert yourself.' Yu did obeisance with his head to the ground, and wished to decline in favour of the Minister of Agriculture, or Xie, or Gao-Yao. The Di said, 'Yes, but do you go (and undertake the duties).'

10 舜典:
Canon of Shun:
The Di said, 'Qi, the black-haired people are (still) suffering from famine. Do you, O prince, as Minister of Agriculture, (continue to) sow (for them) the various kinds of grain.'

11 舜典:
Canon of Shun:
The Di said, 'Xie, the people are (still) wanting in affection for one another, and do not docilely, observe the five orders of relationship. It is yours, as the Minister of Instruction, reverently, to set forth the lessons of duty belonging to those five orders. Do so with gentleness.'

12 舜典:
Canon of Shun:
The Di said, 'Gao-Yao, the barbarous tribes trouble our great land. There are (also) robbers, murderers, insurgents, and traitors. It is yours, as the Minister of Crime, to use the five punishments to deal with their offences. For the infliction of these there are the three appointed places. There are the five cases in which banishment in the appropriate places is to be resorted to, to which places, though five, three localities are assigned. Perform your duties with intelligence, and you will secure a sincere (submission).'

13 舜典:
Canon of Shun:
The Di said, 'Who can superintend my works, as they severally require?' All (in the court) replied, 'Is there not Chui?' The Di said, 'Yes. Ho! Chui, you must be Minister of Works.' Chui did obeisance with his head to the ground, and wished to decline in favour of Shu, Qiang, or Bo-Yu. The Di said, 'Yes, but do you go (and undertake the duties). Effect a harmony (in all the departments).'

14 舜典:
Canon of Shun:
The Di said, 'Who can superintend, as the nature of the charge requires, the grass and trees, with the birds and beasts on my hills and in my marshes?' All (in the court) replied, 'Is there not Yi?' The Di said, 'Yes. Ho! Yi do you be my Forester.' Yi did obeisance with his head to the ground, and wished to decline in favour of Zhu, Hu, Xiong, or Pi. The Di said, 'Yes, but do you go (and undertake the duties). You must manage them harmoniously.'

15 舜典:
Canon of Shun:
The Di said, 'Ho! (President of the) Four Mountains, is there any one able to direct my three (religious) ceremonies?' All (In the court) answered, 'Is there not Bo-yi?' The Di said, 'Yes. Ho! Bo, you must be the Arranger in the Ancestral Temple. Morning and night be reverent. Be upright, be pure.' Bo did obeisance with his head to the ground, and wished to decline in favour of Kui or Long. The Di said, 'Yes, but do you go (and undertake the duties). Be reverential!'

16 舜典:
Canon of Shun:
The Di said, 'Kui, I appoint you to be Director of Music, and to teach our sons, so that the straightforward shall yet be mild; the gentle, dignified: the strong, not tyrannical: and the impetuous, not arrogant. Poetry is the expression of earnest thought; singing is the prolonged utterance of that expression; the notes accompany that utterance, and they are harmonized themselves by the standard tubes. (In this way) the eight different kinds of musical instruments can be adjusted so that one shall not take from or interfere with another; and spirits and men are brought into harmony.' Kui said, 'I smite the (sounding-) stone, I gently strike it, and the various animals lead on one another to dance.'

17 舜典:
Canon of Shun:
The Di said, 'Long, I abominate slanderous speakers and destroyers of the (right) ways, who agitate and alarm my people. I appoint you to be the Minister of Communication. Early and late give forth my orders and report to me, seeing that everything is true.'

18 舜典:
Canon of Shun:
The Di said, 'Ho! you, twenty and two men, be reverent; so shall you be helpful to the business (entrusted to me by) Heaven.'

19 舜典:
Canon of Shun:
Every three years there was an examination of merits, and after three examinations the undeserving were degraded, and the deserving advanced. (By this arrangement) the duties of all the departments were fully discharged; the (people of) San-miao (also) were discriminated and separated.

20 舜典:
Canon of Shun:
In the thirtieth year of his age, Shun was called to employment. Thirty years he was on the throne (with Yao). Fifty years afterwards he went on high and died.

21 舜典:

大禹谟 - Counsels of the Great Yu

English translation: James Legge [?]
Books referencing 《大禹谟》 Library Resources

1 大禹谟:
Counsels of the Great...:
Examining into antiquity, (we find that) the Great Yu was styled Wen-ming. Having arranged and divided (the land), all to the four seas, in reverent response to the Di, he said, 'If the sovereign can realize the difficulty of his sovereignship, and the minister the difficulty of his ministry, the government will be well ordered, and the black-haired people will sedulously seek to be virtuous.'

2 大禹谟:
Counsels of the Great...:
The Di said, 'Yes; let this really be the case, and good words will nowhere lie hidden; no men of virtue and talents will be left neglected, away from court, and the myriad states will all enjoy repose. (But) to obtain the views of all; to give tip one's opinion and follow that of others; to keep from oppressing the helpless, and not to neglect the straitened and poor - it was only the (former) Di who could attain to this.'

3 大禹谟:
Counsels of the Great...:
Yi said, 'Oh! your virtue, O Di, is vast and incessant. It is sagely, spirit-like, awe-inspiring, and adorned with all accomplishments. Great Heaven regarded you with its favour, and bestowed on you its appointment. Suddenly you possessed all within the four seas, and became ruler of all under heaven.'

4 大禹谟:
Counsels of the Great...:
Yu said, 'Accordance with the right leads to good fortune; following what is opposed to it, to bad - the shadow and the echo.'

5 大禹谟:
Counsels of the Great...:
Yi said, 'Alas! be cautious! Admonish yourself to caution, when there seems to be no occasion for anxiety. Do not fail to observe the laws and ordinances. Do not find your enjoyment in idleness. Do not go to excess in pleasure. In your employment of men of worth, let none come between you and them. Put away evil without hesitation. Do not carry out plans, of (the wisdom of) which you have doubts. Study that all your purposes may be with the light of reason. Do not go against what is right, to get the praise of the people. Do not oppose the people's (wishes), to follow your own desires. (Attend to these things) without idleness or omission, and the barbarous tribes all around will come and acknowledge your sovereignty.'

6 大禹谟:
Counsels of the Great...:
Yu said, 'Oh! think (of these things), O Di. The virtue (of the ruler) is seen in (his) good government, and that government in the nourishing of the people. There are water, fire, metal, wood, the earth, and grain - these must be duly regulated; there are the rectification of (the people's) virtue, (the tools and other things) that supply the conveniences of life, and the securing abundant means of sustentation - these must be harmoniously attended to. When the nine services (thus indicated) have been orderly accomplished, that accomplishment will be hailed by (the people's) songs. Caution them with gentle (words), correct them with the majesty (of law), stimulate them with the songs on those nine subjects - in order that (your success) may not suffer diminution.'

7 大禹谟:
Counsels of the Great...:
The Di said, 'The earth has been reduced to order, and the (influences of) heaven produce their complete effect; those six magazines and three departments of (governmental) action are all truly regulated, and may be depended on for a myriad generations - this is your merit.'

8 大禹谟:
Counsels of the Great...:
The Di said, 'Come, you Yu. I have occupied my place for thirty and three years. I am between ninety and a hundred years old, and the laborious duties weary me. Do you, eschewing all indolence, take the leading of my people.'

9 大禹谟:
Counsels of the Great...:
Yu replied, 'My virtue is not equal (to the position), and the people will not repose in me. (But there is) Gao-Yao with vigorous activity sowing abroad his virtue, which has descended on the black-haired people, till they cherish him in their hearts. O Di, think of him! When I think of him, (my mind) rests on him (as the man fit for this place); when I would put him out of my thoughts, (my mind still) rests on him; when I name and speak of him, (my mind) rests on him (for this); the sincere outgoing of my thoughts about him is that he is the man. O Di, think of his merits.'

10 大禹谟:
Counsels of the Great...:
The Di said, 'Gao-Yao, that of these my ministers and all (my people) hardly one is found to offend against the regulations of the government is owing to your being Minister of Crime, and intelligent in the use of the five punishments, thereby assisting (the inculcation of) the five cardinal duties, with a view to the perfection of my government, and that through punishment there may come to be no punishments, but the people accord with (the path of) the Mean. (Continue to) be strenuous.'

11 大禹谟:
Counsels of the Great...:
Gao-Yao replied, 'Your virtue, O Di, is faultless. You condescend to your ministers with a kindly ease; you preside over the multitudes with a generous forbearance. Punishments do not extend to (the criminal's) heirs, while rewards reach to (succeeding) generations. You pardon inadvertent faults, however great, and punish purposed crimes, however small. In cases of doubtful crimes, you deal with them lightly; in cases of doubtful merit, you prefer the high estimation. Rather than put an innocent person to death, you will run the risk of irregularity and error. This life-loving virtue has penetrated the minds of the people, and this is why they do not render themselves liable to be punished by your officers.'

12 大禹谟:
Counsels of the Great...:
The Di said, 'That I am able to follow and obtain what I desire in my government, the people responding everywhere as if moved by the wind - this is your excellence.'

13 大禹谟:
Counsels of the Great...:
The Di said, 'Come Yu. The inundating waters filled me with dread, when you accomplished truly (all that you had represented), and completed your service - thus showing your superiority to other men. Full of toilsome earnestness in the service of the country, and sparing in your expenditure on your family, and this without being full of yourself and elated - you (again.) show your superiority to other men. You are without any prideful assumption, but no one under heaven can contest with you the palm of ability; you make no boasting, but no one under heaven can contest with you the palm of merit. I see how great is your virtue, how admirable your vast achievements. The determinate appointment of Heaven rests on your person; you must eventually ascend (the throne) of the great sovereign. The mind of man is restless, prone (to err); its affinity to what is right is small. Be discriminating, be uniform (in the pursuit of what is right), that you may sincerely hold fast the Mean, Do not listen to unsubstantiated words; do not follow plans about which you have not sought counsel. Of all who are to be loved, is not the ruler the chief? Of all who are to be feared, are not the people the chief? If the multitude were without their sovereign Head, whom should they sustain aloft? If the sovereign had not the multitude, there would be none to guard the country for him. Be reverential! Carefully maintain the throne which you are to occupy, cultivating (the virtues) that are to be desired in you. If within the four seas there be distress and poverty, your Heaven conferred revenues will come to a perpetual end. It is the mouth which sends forth what is good, and raises up war. I will not alter my words.'

14 大禹谟:
Counsels of the Great...:
Yu said, 'Submit the meritorious ministers one by one to the trial of divination, and let the favouring indication be followed.'

15 大禹谟:
Counsels of the Great...:
The Di replied, '(According to the rules for) the regulation of divination, one should first make up his mind, and afterwards refer (his judgment) to the great tortoise-shell. My mind (in this matter) was determined in the first place; I consulted and deliberated with all (my ministers and people), and they were of one accord with me. The spirits signified their assent, and the tortoise-shell and divining stalks concurred. Divination, when fortunate, should not be repeated.' Yu did obeisance with his head to the ground, and firmly declined (the place).

16 大禹谟:
Counsels of the Great...:
The Di said, 'You must not do so. It is you who can suitably (occupy my place).'

17 大禹谟:
Counsels of the Great...:
On the first morning of the first month, (Yu) received the appointment in the temple (dedicated by Shun) to the spirits of his ancestors, and took the leading of all the officers, as had been done by the Di at the commencement (of his government).

18 大禹谟:
Counsels of the Great...:
The Di said, 'Alas! O Yu, there is only the lord of Miao who refuses obedience; do you go and correct him.'

19 大禹谟:
Counsels of the Great...:
Yu on this assembled all the princes, and made a speech to the host, saying, 'Ye multitudes here arrayed, listen all of you to my orders. Stupid is this lord of Miao, ignorant, erring, and disrespectful. Despiteful and insolent to others, he thinks that all ability and virtue are with himself. A rebel to the right, he destroys (all the obligations of) virtue. Superior men are kept by him in obscurity, and mean men fill (all) the offices. The people reject him and will not protect him. Heaven is sending down calamities upon him. I therefore, along with you, my multitude of gallant men, bear the instructions (of the Di) to punish his crimes. Do you proceed with united heart and strength, so shall our enterprize be crowned with success.'

20 大禹谟:
Counsels of the Great...:
At the end of three decades, the people of Miao continued rebellious against the commands (issued to them), when Yi came to the help of Yu, saying, 'It is virtue that moves Heaven; there is no distance to which it does not reach. Pride brings loss, and humility receives increase - this is the way of Heaven. In the early time of the Di, when he was living by mount Li, he went into the fields, and daily cried with tears to compassionate Heaven, and to his parents, taking to himself all guilt, and charging himself with (their) wickedness. (At the same time) with respectful service he appeared before Gu-sou, looking grave and awe-struck, till Gu also became transformed by his example. Entire sincerity moves spiritual beings - how much more will it move this lord of Miao!'

21 大禹谟:
Counsels of the Great...:
Yu did homage to the excellent words, and said, 'Yes.' (Thereupon) he led back his army, having drawn off the troops. The Di set about diffusing on a grand scale the virtuous influences of peace - with shields and feathers they danced between the two staircases (in his courtyard). In seventy days, the lord of Miao came (and made his submission).

皋陶谟 - Counsels of Gao-yao

English translation: James Legge [?]
Books referencing 《皋陶谟》 Library Resources
1 皋陶谟:
Counsels of Gao-yao:
Examining into antiquity, (we find that) Gao-Yao said, 'If (the sovereign) sincerely pursues the course of his virtue, the counsels (offered to him) will be intelligent, and the aids (of admonition that he receives) will be harmonious.'
Yu said, 'Yes, but explain yourself.'
Gao-Yao said, 'Oh! let him be careful about his personal cultivation, with thoughts that are far-reaching, and thus he will produce a generous kindness and nice observance of distinctions among the nine branches of his kindred. All the intelligent (also) will exert themselves in his service; and in this way from what is near he will reach to what is distant.'
Yu did homage to the excellent words, and said, 'Yes.'
Gao-Yao continued, 'Oh! it lies in knowing men, and giving repose to the people.'
Yu said, 'Alas! to attain to both these things might well be a difficulty even to the Di. When (the sovereign) knows men, he is wise, and can put every one into the office for which he is fit. When he gives repose to the people, his kindness is felt, and the black-haired race cherish him in their hearts. When he can be (thus) wise and kind, what occasion will he have for anxiety about a Huan-dou? what to be removing a lord of Miao? what to fear any one of fair words, insinuating appearance, and great artfulness?'

2 皋陶谟:
Counsels of Gao-yao:
Gao-Yao said, 'Oh! there are in all nine virtues to be discovered in conduct, and when we say that a man possesses (any) virtue, that is as much as to say he does such and such things.'
Yu asked, 'What (are the nine virtues)?'
Gao-Yao replied, 'Affability combined with dignity; mildness combined with firmness; bluntness combined with respectfulness; aptness for government combined with reverent caution; docility combined with boldness; straightforwardness combined with gentleness; an easy negligence combined with discrimination; boldness combined with sincerity; and valour combined with righteousness. (When these qualities are) displayed, and that continuously, have we not the good (officer)? When there is a daily display of three (of these) virtues, their possessor could early and late regulate and brighten the clan (of which he was made chief). When there is a daily severe and reverent cultivation of six of them, their possessor could brilliantly conduct the affairs of the state (with which he was invested). When (such men) are all received and advanced, the possessors of those nine virtues will be employed in (the public) service. The men of a thousand and men of a hundred will be in their offices; the various ministers will emulate one another; all the officers will accomplish their duties at the proper times, observant of the five seasons (as the several elements predominate in them) - and thus their various duties will be fully accomplished. Let not (the Son of Heaven) set to the holders of states the example of indolence or dissoluteness. Let him be wary and fearful, (remembering that) in one day or two days there may occur ten thousand springs of things. Let him not have his various officers cumberers of their places. The work is Heaven's; men must act for it!
From Heaven are the (social) relationships with their several duties; we are charged with (the enforcement of) those five duties - and lo! we have the five courses of honourable conduct. From Heaven are the (social) distinctions with their several ceremonies; from us come the observances of those five ceremonies - and lo! they appear in regular practice. When (sovereign and ministers show) a common reverence and united respect for these, lo! the moral nature (of the people) is made harmonious. Heaven graciously distinguishes the virtuous - are there not the five habiliments, five decorations of them? Heaven punishes the guilty - are there not the five punishments, to be severally used for that purpose? The business of government! - ought we not to be earnest in it? ought we not to be earnest in it? Heaven hears and sees as our people hear and see; Heaven brightly approves and displays its terrors as our people brightly approve and would awe - such connexion is there between the upper and lower (worlds). How reverent ought the masters of territories to be!'

3 皋陶谟:
Counsels of Gao-yao:
Gao-Yao said, 'My words are in accordance with reason, and maybe put in practice.'
Yu said, 'Yes, your words may be put in practice, and crowned with success.'
Gao-Yao added, '(As to that) I do not know, but I wish daily to be helpful. May (the government) be perfected!'

1. 砥 : Originally read: "底". 据下文及《四部丛刊》本等改。

益稷 - Yi and Ji

English translation: James Legge [?]
Books referencing 《益稷》 Library Resources
1 益稷:
Yi and Ji:
The Di said, 'Come Yu, you also must have excellent words (to bring before me).' Yu did obeisance, and said, 'Oh! what can I say, O Di, (after Gao-Yao)? I can (only) think of maintaining a daily assiduity.' Gao-Yao said, 'Alas! will you describe it?' Yu replied, 'The inundating waters seemed to assail the heavens, and in their vast extent embraced the hills and overtopped the great mounds, so that the people were bewildered and overwhelmed. I mounted my four conveyances, and all along the hills hewed down the trees, at the same time, along with Yi, showing the multitudes how to get flesh to eat. I (also) opened passages for the streams (throughout the) nine (provinces), and conducted them to the four seas. I deepened (moreover) the channels and canals, and conducted them to the streams, sowing (grain), at the same time, along with Ji, and showing the multitudes how to procure the food of toil, (in addition to) the flesh meat. I urged them (further) to exchange what they had for what they had not, and to dispose of their accumulated stores. (In this way) all the people got grain to eat, and the myriad regions began to come under good rule.' Gao-Yao said, 'Yes, we ought to model ourselves after your excellent words.'

2 益稷:
Yi and Ji:
Yu said, 'Oh! carefully maintain, O Di, the throne which you occupy.' The Di replied, 'Yes;' and Yu went on, 'Find your repose in your (proper) resting-point. Attend to the springs of things; study stability; and let your assistants be the upright - then shall your movements be grandly responded to, (as if the people only) waited for your will. Thus you will brightly receive (the favour of) God - will not Heaven renew its appointment of you, and give you blessing?'

3 益稷:
Yi and Ji:
The Di said, 'Alas! what are ministers? - are they not (my) associates? What are associates? - are they not (my) ministers?' Yu replied, 'Yes'.
The Di went on, 'My ministers constitute my legs and arms, my ears and eyes. I wish to help and support my people - you give effect to my wishes. I wish to spread the influence (of my government) through the four quarters - you act as my agents. I wish to see the emblematic figures of the ancients - the sun, the moon, the stars, the mountain, the dragons, and the flowery fowl (the pheasant), which are depicted (on the upper garment); the temple cups, the pondweed, the flames, the grains of rice, the hatchet, and the symbol of distinction, which are embroidered (on the lower Garment) - (I wish to see all these) fully displayed in the five colours, so as to form the (ceremonial) robes - it is yours to see them clearly (for me). I wish to hear the six pitch-tubes, the five notes (determined by them), and the eight kinds of musical instruments (regulated again by these), examining thereby the virtues and defects of government, according as (the odes that) go forth (from the court, set to music), and come in (from the people), are ordered by those five notes - it is yours to hear them (for me). When I am doing wrong, it is yours to correct me; do not follow me to my face, and, when you have retired, have other remarks to make. Be reverent, ye associates, who are before and behind and on each side of me! As to all the obstinately stupid and calumniating talkers, who are found not to be doing what is right, are there not the target to exhibit (their true character), the scourge to make them recollect, and the book of remembrance? Do we not wish them to live along with us? There are also the masters (of music) to receive their compositions, (set them to music), and continually publish them (as corrected by themselves). If they become reformed they are to be received and employed; if they do not, let the terrors (of punishment) overtake them.'
Yu said, 'So far good! But let your light shine, O Di, all under heaven, even to every grassy corner of the sea-shore, and throughout the myriad regions the most worthy of the people will all (wish) to be your ministers. Then, O Di, you may advance them to office. They will set forth, and you will receive, their reports; you will make proof of them according to their merits; you will confer chariots and robes according to their services. Who will then dare not to cultivate a humble virtue? who will dare not to respond to you with reverence? If you, O Di, do not act thus, all (your ministers) together will daily proceed to a meritless character.'

4 益稷:
Yi and Ji:
'Be not haughty like Zhu of Dan, who found his pleasure only in indolence and dissipation, and pursued a proud oppressive course. Day and night without ceasing he was thus. He would make boats go where there was no water. He introduced licentious associates into his family. The consequence was that he brought the prosperity of his house to an end. I took warning from his course. When I married in Tu-shan, (I remained with my wife only the days) xin, ren, gui, and jia. When (my son) Qi was wailing and weeping, I did not regard him, but kept planning with all my might my labour on the land. (Then) I assisted in completing the five Tenures, extending over 5000 li; (in appointing) in the provinces twelve Tutors, and in establishing in the regions beyond, reaching to the four seas, five Presidents. These all pursue the right path, and are meritorious; but there are still (the people of) Miao, who obstinately refuse to render their service. Think of this, O Di.' The Di said, 'That my virtue is followed is the result of your meritorious services so orderly displayed. And now Gao-Yao, entering respectfully into your arrangements, is on every hand displaying the (various) punishments, as represented, with entire intelligence.'

1. 帝曰: : Inserted. 孙星衍《尚书今古文注疏》

5 益稷:
Yi and Ji:
Kui said, 'When the sounding-stone is tapped or struck with force, and the lutes are strongly swept or gently touched, to accompany the singing, the progenitors (of the Di) come (to the service), the guest of Yu is in his place, and all the princes show their virtue in giving place to one another. (In the court) below (the hall) there are the flutes and hand-drums, which join in at the sound of the rattle, and cease at that of the stopper, when the organ and bells take their place. (This makes) birds and beasts fall moving. When the nine parts of the service, as arranged by the Di, have all been performed, the male and female phœnix come with their measured gambolings (into the court).' Kui said, 'Oh! when I smite the (sounding-) stone, or gently strike it, the various animals lead on one another to dance, and all the chiefs of the official departments become truly harmonious.'

6 益稷:
Yi and Ji:
The Di on this made a song, saying, 'We must deal cautiously with the favouring appointment of Heaven, at every moment and in the smallest particular.' He then sang.

'When the members (work) joyfully,
The head rises (grandly);
And the duties of all the offices are fully discharged!

Gao-Yao did obeisance with his head to his hands and then to the ground, and with a loud and rapid voice said,' Think (O Di). It is your to lead on and originate things. Pay careful attention to your laws (in doing so). Be reverential! and often examine what has been accomplished (by your officers). Be reverential!' With this he continued the song,

'When the head is intelligent,
The members are good;
And all affairs will be happily performed!'

Again he continued the song,

'When the head is vexatious,
The members are idle;
And all affairs will go to ruin!'

The Di said, 'Yes, go and be reverently (attentive to your duties).'

URN: ctp:shang-shu/yu-shu