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-> -> -> -> Annals of the Five Emperors

《五帝本紀 - Annals of the Five Emperors》

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1 五帝本紀:
黃帝者,少典之子,姓公孫,名曰軒轅。生而神靈,弱而能言,幼而徇齊,長而敦敏,成而聰明。
Annals of the Five...:
Huangdi (Yellow emperor) was the son of Shaodian. His surname was Gongsun, and his prename Xuanyuan. Born a genius he could speak when a baby, as a boy he was quick and smart, as a youth simple and earnest, and when grown up intelligent.

2 五帝本紀:
軒轅之時,神農氏世衰。諸侯相侵伐,暴虐百姓,而神農氏弗能征。於是軒轅乃習用干戈,以征不享,諸侯咸來賓從。而蚩尤最為暴,莫能伐。炎帝欲侵陵諸侯,諸侯咸歸軒轅。軒轅乃修德振兵,治五氣,藝五種,撫萬民,度四方,教熊羆貔貅貙虎,以與炎帝戰於阪泉之野。三戰然後得其志。蚩尤作亂,不用帝命。於是黃帝乃徵師諸侯,與蚩尤戰於涿鹿之野,遂禽殺蚩尤。而諸侯咸尊軒轅為天子,代神農氏,是為黃帝。天下有不順者,黃帝從而征之,平者去之,披山通道,未嘗寧居。
Annals of the Five...:
In the time of Xuanyuan, Shennong became enfeebled. The princes made raids on each other and harassed the people, but Shennong could not chastise them, so Xuanyuan exercised himself in the use of weapons of war, so as to be able to punish irregularities. The princes all came and did homage, but Chiyou, the fiercest of all, could not be subdued. Yandi (Flame emperor) wished to oppress the princes, so they turned to Xuanyuan, who practised virtue, marshalled his men, controlled the five elements, cultivated the five kinds of grain, pacified the nations, and went over all parts of his country. Training black bears, grizzly bears, foxes, panthers, lynxes, and tigers, he, with their aid, fought with 'Flame emperor' in the desert of Banquan, and, after three battles, realised his wishes. Chiyou was a rebel, who did not obey the Emperor's command, so Huangdi, levying an army of the princes, fought against Chiyou, captured, and slew him in the desert of Zhuolu. The princes all agreed that Xuanyuan should be the Emperor in place of Shennong, under the title Huangdi. Those in the empire who would not submit, Huangdi pursued and chastised, and when they were subdued he left them. He made cuttings in hills, opened roads, and was never at rest.

3 五帝本紀:
東至于海,登丸山,及岱宗。西至于空桐,登雞頭。南至于江,登熊、湘。北逐葷粥,合符釜山,而邑于涿鹿之阿。遷徙往來無常處,以師兵為營衛。官名皆以雲命,為雲師。置左右大監,監于萬國。萬國和,而鬼神山川封禪與為多焉。獲寶鼎,迎日推筴。舉風后、力牧、常先、大鴻以治民。順天地之紀,幽明之占,死生之說,存亡之難。時播百穀草木,淳化鳥獸蟲蛾,旁羅日月星辰水波土石金玉,勞勤心力耳目,節用水火材物。有土德之瑞,故號黃帝。
Annals of the Five...:
Eastward his empire extended to the sea, Ball hill, and the ancestral Dai mountain; westward to 'Hollow cave' and Cock's-head hills; southward to the Yangtze river and Xiongxiang hill; while in the north he drove out the Xunyu. He made a treaty on Kettle hill, and built a city on the slopes of Zhuolu. He was constantly changing his residence, while his troops formed an encampment about him. He ordered his officers to be named after cloud omens. He appointed a chief and deputy superintendent over international affairs, and the various states being at peace, he worshipped the demons and spirits of the hills and streams with the feng and shan ceremonies in numbers. He obtained a valuable tripod, and made calculations of future events, appointing 'Chief of the winds,' 'Strength-governor,' 'Everfirst,' and 'Great Swan,' to direct the people to act in accordance with the celestial and terrestrial arrangements, the dark and bright prognostications, the disputations on life and death, the planting of the crops, plants, and trees in their seasons, and the transformations of birds, beasts, insects, and moths. He also prepared a record of the movements of the sun, moon, and stars; the flow of the tides; and the properties of clay, stones, metals, and gems. He devoted much careful attention to these things, and his observation was applied to ascertaining how fire, water, wood, and other elements could be used economically. There was an auspicious omen of the earth's energy, and he was therefore called 'Yellow god.'

4 五帝本紀:
黃帝二十五子,其得姓者十四人。
Annals of the Five...:
Huangdi had twenty-five sons, of whom fourteen received surnames.

5 五帝本紀:
黃帝居于軒轅之丘,而娶于西陵之女,是為嫘祖為黃帝正妃,生二子,其後皆有天下:其一曰玄囂,是為青陽,青陽降居江水;其二曰昌意,降居若水。昌意娶蜀山氏女,曰昌仆,生高陽,高陽有聖德焉。黃帝崩,葬橋山。其孫昌意之子高陽立,是為帝顓頊也。
Annals of the Five...:
Huangdi lived at Xuanyuan hill, and married a woman of 'Western range' land called Leizu, who was his principal wife, and bore him two sons, both of whose descendants held Imperial sway. The eldest, named Xuanxiao, or Qingyang, dwelt on the Jiang stream, and the other, who was named Changyi, dwelt on the Ruo stream. Changyi married a woman from the Shu hills (Sichuan) named Changpu, who bore him a son, Gaoyang, who possessed the virtue of a sage. Huangdi died, and was buried at Qiaoshan, and his grandson, Changyi's son Gaoyang, came to the throne under the title Emperor Zhuanxu.

6 五帝本紀:
帝顓頊高陽者,黃帝之孫而昌意之子也。靜淵以有謀,疏通而知事;養材以任地,載時以象天,依鬼神以制義,治氣以教化,絜誠以祭祀。北至于幽陵,南至于交阯,西至于流沙,東至于蟠木。動靜之物,大小之神,日月所照,莫不砥屬。
Annals of the Five...:
Emperor Zhaunxu, or Gaoyang, was Huangdi's grandson and Changyi's son. Calm and unfathomable in his designs, and thoroughly versed in all matters, he exercised his talents in cultivating the ground; he recorded in their seasons the movements of the heavenly bodies, relied on spiritual influences in framing laws, taught reform by controlling the passion nature, and sacrificed with purity and sincerity. Northward his rule extended to 'Dark mound,' southward to Annam, westward to the moving sands, and eastward to 'Coiling tree'. Of animate and inanimate things, of spirits great and small, of those on whom the sun and moon shone, all were equally subject to him.

7 五帝本紀:
帝顓頊生子曰窮蟬。顓頊崩,而玄囂之孫高辛立,是為帝嚳。
Annals of the Five...:
Emperor Zhuanxu had a son, Chiungchan. Zhuanxu died, and Xuanxiao's grandson Gaoxin came to the throne under the title of Emperor Ku.

8 五帝本紀:
帝嚳高辛者,黃帝之曾孫也。高辛父曰蟜極,蟜極父曰玄囂,玄囂父曰黃帝。自玄囂與蟜極皆不得在位,至高辛即帝位。高辛於顓頊為族子。
Annals of the Five...:
Emperor Ku, or Gaoxin was Huangdi's great grandson, his father being Jiaoji, whose father was Xuanxiao, whose father was Huangdi. Neither Xuanxiao, nor Jiaoji came to the throne, but Gaoxin did hold Imperial sway. Gaoxin was a clansman of Zhuanxu.

9 五帝本紀:
高辛生而神靈,自言其名。普施利物,不於其身。聰以知遠,明以察微。順天之義,知民之急。仁而威,惠而信,修身而天下服。取地之財而節用之,撫教萬民而利誨之,歷日月而迎送之,明鬼神而敬事之。其色郁郁,其德嶷嶷。其動也時,其服也士。帝嚳溉執中而遍天下,日月所照,風雨所至,莫不從服。
Annals of the Five...:
Being born a genius Gaoxin spoke from babyhood. He distributed his benefits everywhere, regardless of self. Intelligent enough to understand things far off, and clever enough to search into minutiae, he followed Heaven's laws, and knew the people's needs. Humane yet dignified, kind yet truthful; he practised self-culture and all men submitted to him. He secured the revenue of the land, and spent it economically. He governed and instructed all his subjects, and they profited by the instruction. He made a calendar of the days and months past as well as future. He knew all about spirits, and worshipped them respectfully. His appearance was elegant, and his virtue eminent. His movements were well-timed, and his dress gentlemanly. Emperor Ku was thoroughly impartial all over his empire. There was no one on whom the sun and moon shone, or on whom the rain and wind blew, who was not devoted to him.

10 五帝本紀:
帝嚳娶陳鋒氏女,生放勛。娶娵訾氏女,生摯。帝嚳崩,而摯代立。帝摯立,不善(崩),而弟放勛立,是為帝堯。
Annals of the Five...:
Emperor Ku married a daughter of Chenfeng, who bore a son named Fangxun ('The highly meritorious'). He also married a daughter of Juzi, who bore a son Zhi. Emperor Ku died, and Zhi reigned in his stead. Zhi reigned badly and died, and his brother 'The highly meritorious one' reigned under the title of Emperor Yao.

11 五帝本紀:
帝堯者,放勛。其仁如天,其知如神。就之如日,望之如雲。富而不驕,貴而不舒。黃收純衣,彤車乘白馬。能明馴德,以親九族。九族既睦,便章百姓。百姓昭明,合和萬國。
Annals of the Five...:
Emperor Yao was highly meritorious. His benevolence was like that of heaven, and his wisdom that of a god; when approached he was genial as the sun, and was looked out for as clouds in dry weather. He was rich without being proud, and esteemed yet not lax. He wore a yellow hat and plain silk dress, and drove a red car drawn by white horses. He was able to display his supereminent virtue, by bringing into close alliance the nine degrees of kindred, and they being rendered harmonious, he forthwith regulated the people, and his people having become enlightened, the various states were at peace.

12 五帝本紀:
乃命羲、和,敬順昊天,數法日月星辰,敬授民時。分命羲仲,居郁夷,曰暘谷。敬道日出,便程東作。日中,星鳥,以殷中春。其民析,鳥獸字微。申命羲叔,居南交。便程南為,敬致。日永,星火,以正中夏。其民因,鳥獸希革。申命和仲,居西土,曰昧谷。敬道日入,便程西成。夜中,星虛,以正中秋。其民夷易,鳥獸毛毨。申命和叔;居北方,曰幽都。便在伏物。日短,星昴,以正中冬。其民燠,鳥獸氄毛。歲三百六十六日,以閏月正四時。信飭百官,眾功皆興。
Annals of the Five...:
He then commanded Xi and He in reverent accordance with their observations of the wide heavens to record in a calendar the laws affecting the sun, moon, stars, and zodiacal spaces, and respectfully to communicate to the people the seasons (adapted for labour). He also commanded Xi's younger brother to reside at Yuyi, called the bright valley, so as to hail with respect the rising sun, and arrange the labours of the spring; and the day being of medium length, and the culminating star (the central one of the) 'Bird' quarter of the heavens, he was to determine midspring, when the people begin to disperse, and birds and beasts to breed and copulate. He further commanded Xi's third brother to reside at the southern frontier to arrange the transformations of summer, and respectfully observe the extreme limit (of the shadow), and the day being at its longest, and the star in the zenith that called 'Fire,' he was to fix the exact period of midsummer, when the people are most widely dispersed, birds moult, and beasts change their coats. He further commanded He's younger brother to reside in the west at a place called Dark Valley to respectfully convoy the setting sun, and arrange the completing labours of the autumn, and the night being of medium length, and the culminating star Xu (β in Aquarius) to determine mid-autumn, when people begin to feel comfortable, and birds and beasts look smooth and glossy. He further commanded He's third brother to reside in the northern region in what was called the sombre capital, to examine the hidden things, and the day being at its shortest, and the culminating star Mao (ε in Pleiades) to determine midwinter, when people get into cosy corners, and the coats of birds and beasts are downy and thick. The year consisted of 366 days, an intercalary month being added to adjust the four seasons. Authentic directions were given to the various officers, and their several labours commenced.

13 五帝本紀:
堯曰:「誰可順此事?」放齊曰:「嗣子丹朱開明。」堯曰:「吁!頑凶,不用。」堯又曰:「誰可者?」讙兜曰:「共工旁聚布功,可用。」堯曰:「共工善言,其用僻,似恭漫天,不可。」堯又曰:「嗟,四嶽,湯湯洪水滔天,浩浩懷山襄陵,下民其憂,有能使治者?」皆曰鯀可。堯曰:「鯀負命毀族,不可。」嶽曰:「異哉,試不可用而已。」堯於是聽嶽用鯀。九歲,功用不成。
Annals of the Five...:
Yao said, 'Who can obediently manage these matters?' Fangqi said, 'There is your adopted son Danzhu, who is developing his intelligence.' Yao said, 'Oh! he is unscrupulous and wicked; I cannot employ him.' He said again, 'Who will do it?' Huandou said, 'The minister of works, who is generally popular, and has displayed merit, could be employed.' Yao said, 'The minister of works is talkative; if he is employed, his depravities, although he is apparently respectful, would overspread the heavens, he will not do.' He said further, 'Alas! O president of the four mountains, the waters of the flood rise up to heaven, and in their vast expanse encompass the mountains, and overtop the hills; the common people are troubled about it. Is there a capable man whom I could set to deal with the matter?' They all said, 'Gun might do it.' Yao said, 'Gun disobeys orders, and ruins his companions. He will not do.' The President said, 'Ah! well! try him, and if he is found useless, have done with him.' Whereupon Yao adopting his suggestion, employed Gun for nine years, but his work was not completed.

14 五帝本紀:
堯曰:「嗟!四嶽:朕在位七十載,汝能庸命,踐朕位?」嶽應曰:「鄙德忝帝位。」堯曰:「悉舉貴戚及疏遠隱匿者。」眾皆言於堯曰:「有矜在民閒,曰虞舜。」堯曰:「然,朕聞之。其何如?」嶽曰:「盲者子。父頑,母嚚,弟傲,能和以孝,烝烝治,不至姦。」堯曰:「吾其試哉。」於是堯妻之二女,觀其德於二女。舜飭下二女於媯汭,如婦禮。
Annals of the Five...:
Yao said, 'Alas! O president of the four mountains, I have been on the throne seventy years; you are able to carry out the decrees, do you occupy my throne.' The president replied, 'My moral qualities are of such a low order that I should disgrace the Imperial throne.' Yao said, 'You must all recommend one of your esteemed relations, or even an obscure stranger.' All the courtiers said to Yao, 'There is an unmarried man of the lower orders called Shun of Yu.' Yao said, 'Yes, I have heard of him, what is he like?' The president said, 'He is the son of a blind man; his father was unprincipled, his mother insincere, and his brother arrogant, but he managed by his dutiful conduct to be reconciled to them, so they have gradually improved, and not been extremely wicked.' 'Shall I try him?' said Yao. He then married his two daughters to Shun, and watched his behaviour towards them. Shun sent the two women down to the north of the Gui river, and treated them with the ceremony due to them as his wives.
堯善之,乃使舜慎和五典,五典能從。乃遍入百官,百官時序。賓於四門,四門穆穆,諸侯遠方賓客皆敬。堯使舜入山林川澤,暴風雷雨,舜行不迷。堯以為聖,召舜曰:「女謀事至而言可績,三年矣。女登帝位。」舜讓於德不懌。正月上日,舜受終於文祖。文祖者,堯大祖也。
Yao praised Shun, and told him to carefully harmonize the five human relationships and when they could be obeyed. These became universal among the various officials, who at the proper times arranged the visitors at the four gates in the right order, and when the visitors at the four gates were submissive, the princes and strangers from distant regions became one and all respectful. Yao sent Shun into the hills and forests among rivers and swamps, but although fierce winds and thunderstorms prevailed, Shun did not miss his way. Yao then taking Shun to be a holy man, called him and said, 'For three years your deliberations have been excellent, and I have found that your words can be carried into practice. You shall ascend the Imperial throne.' Shun yielded in favour of some one more virtuous than himself, and was unhappy, but on the first day of the first month Shun accepted Yao's resignation in the temple of the accomplished ancestor, who was Yao's great ancestor.

15 五帝本紀:
於是帝堯老,命舜攝行天子之政,以觀天命。舜乃在璿璣玉衡,以齊七政。遂類于上帝,禋于六宗,望于山川,辯于群神。揖五瑞,擇吉月日,見四嶽諸牧,班瑞。歲二月,東巡狩,至於岱宗,祡,望秩於山川。遂見東方君長,合時月正日,同律度量衡,修五禮五玉三帛二生一死為摯,如五器,卒乃復。五月,南巡狩;八月,西巡狩;十一月,北巡狩:皆如初。歸,至于祖禰廟,用特牛禮。五歲一巡狩,群后四朝。遍告以言,明試以功,車服以庸。肇十有二州,決川。象以典刑,流宥五刑,鞭作官刑,撲作教刑,金作贖刑。眚災過,赦;怙終賊,刑。欽哉,欽哉,惟刑之靜哉!
Annals of the Five...:
The Emperor Yao being old ordered that Shun should be associated with him in the government of the Empire in order to observe Heaven's decrees. Shun thereupon examined the gem-adorned armillary sphere, and the jade transverse, so as to adjust the position of the 'Seven Directors.' He then offered a special sacrifice to the Supreme Ruler, sacrificed purely to the six honoured ones, looked with devotion to the hills and rivers, and worshipped with distinctive rites the hosts of spirits. He called in the five tokens, chose a lucky month and day, gave audience to the president of the four mountains, and all the governors, returning the tokens in due course. In the second month of every year he went eastward on a tour of inspection, and on reaching Daizong he presented a burnt-offering, and sacrificed in order to the hills and rivers. He then gave audience to the chieftains of the East, putting in accord their seasons and months, and rectifying the days. He rendered uniform the standard tubes, the measures of length and capacity, and the scales; and regulated the five kinds of ceremonies. The five gems, the three kinds of silks, the two living animals, and one dead one were brought as presents to the audience, but the five implements were returned at the conclusion. In the fifth month he went to the south, in the eighth month to the west, and in the eleventh month northward on his tours of inspection; in each case observing the same ceremonies as before, and on his return he went to the temple of the ancestral tablets, and offered up a single ox. Every five years there was one tour of inspection, and four audiences of the princes at court, when they presented a full verbal report, which was intelligently tested by their works, and chariots and robes given according to their deserts. Shun instituted the division of the Empire into twelve provinces, and deepened the rivers. He gave delineations of the statutory punishments, enacting banishment as a mitigation of the five chief punishments, the whip being employed for public officers, the stick in schools, and a money penalty being inflicted for redeemable crimes. Inadvertent offences, and those caused by misfortune were to be pardoned, and those who offended presumptuously or repeatedly were to be punished with death. 'Be reverent, be reverent' (said he), 'and in the administration of the law be tranquil.'

16 五帝本紀:
讙兜進言共工,堯曰不可而試之工師,共工果淫辟。四嶽舉鯀治鴻水,堯以為不可,嶽彊請試之,試之而無功,故百姓不便。三苗在江淮、荊州數為亂。於是舜歸而言於帝,請流共工於幽陵,以變北狄;放讙兜於崇山,以變南蠻;遷三苗於三危,以變西戎;殛鯀於羽山,以變東夷:四罪而天下咸服。
Annals of the Five...:
Huandou approached, and spoke about the minister of works. 'I cannot even give him a trial as a workman,' said Yao, 'for he is really profligate.' The president of the four mountains recommended Gun as the proper person to look after the deluge. Yao regarded it as impracticable, but the president vehemently requested that he might be tried, so the trial was made, but without good results. Of old the people had felt that it was undesirable that the three Miao tribes in the districts of Jiang Huai, and Jing should so often rise in rebellion; so Shun on his return spoke to the emperor requesting that the minister of works might be banished to the ridge of Yu to reform the Northern Ti tribes, that Huandou might be detained on mount Chong, to reform the Southern barbarians, that the chief of the three Miao tribes might be removed to Sanwei (three cliffs) to reform the Western Rong people, and that Gun might be imprisoned for life on Mount Yu to reform the Eastern barbarians. These four criminals being thus dealt with, universal submission prevailed throughout the empire.

17 五帝本紀:
堯立七十年得舜,二十年而老,令舜攝行天子之政,薦之於天。堯辟位凡二十八年而崩。百姓悲哀,如喪父母。三年,四方莫舉樂,以思堯。堯知子丹朱之不肖,不足授天下,於是乃權授舜。授舜,則天下得其利而丹朱病;授丹朱,則天下病而丹朱得其利。堯曰:「終不以天下之病而利一人」,而卒授舜以天下。堯崩,三年之喪畢,舜讓辟丹朱於南河之南。諸侯朝覲者不之丹朱而之舜,獄訟者不之丹朱而之舜,謳歌者不謳歌丹朱而謳歌舜。舜曰:「天也」,夫而後之中國踐天子位焉,是為帝舜。
Annals of the Five...:
Yao had sat on the throne seventy years, when he secured Shun's services for twenty years; then, being old, he directed that Shun should be associated with him in the government of the empire, and presented him to Heaven. Yao had abdicated the throne twenty-eight years when he died, and the people mourned for him as for a parent, no music being played for three years throughout the empire, for which reason he was remembered. Yao knew that his son Danzhu was a worthless fellow, who was not fit to reign, and so the authority was conferred on Shun. As it was conferred on Shun, the empire got the advantage and Danzhu was injured. If it had been conferred on Danzhu, the empire would have been injured, and Danzhu gained the advantage. Yao said, 'We certainly cannot cause the empire to suffer loss, and the advantage go to an individual.' In the end the empire was given over to Shun. After the death of Yao, when the three years' mourning was over, Shun gave way to Danzhu, and retired to the south of the southern river. When the princes went to an audience at court, they did not present themselves before Danzhu, but before Shun; litigants did not go before Danzhu, but Shun; and the singers did not sing in praise of Danzhu, but of Shun. Shun said, 'It is from Heaven.' Afterwards he went to the capital, sat on the Imperial throne, and was styled Emperor Shun.

18 五帝本紀:
虞舜者,名曰重華。重華父曰瞽叟,瞽叟父曰橋牛,橋牛父曰句望,句望父曰敬康,敬康父曰窮蟬,窮蟬父曰帝顓頊,顓頊父曰昌意:以至舜七世矣。自從窮蟬以至帝舜,皆微為庶人。
Annals of the Five...:
Shun of Yu was named Chonghua (double splendour); Chonghua's father was Gusou; Gusou's father was Qiaoniu (bridge cow); Qiaoniu's father was Juwang; Juwang's father was Jingkang; Jingkang's father was Qiongchan; Qiongchan's father was Emperor Zhuanxu; Zhuanxu's father was Changyi. From him to Shun we have seven generations. From Qiongchan to Emperor Shun they were all insignificant common people.

19 五帝本紀:
舜父瞽叟盲,而舜母死,瞽叟更娶妻而生象,象傲。瞽叟愛後妻子,常欲殺舜,舜避逃;及有小過,則受罪。順事父及後母與弟,日以篤謹,匪有解。
Annals of the Five...:
Shun's father, Gusou, was blind, and his mother having died, Gusou married again and had a son, Xiang, who was arrogant. Gusou loved his second wife, and frequently tried to kill Shun, who avoided him; when he made slight mistakes he was punished, yet he obediently served his father, stepmother, and brother, and was day by day generous, careful, and never negligent.

20 五帝本紀:
舜,冀州之人也。舜耕歷山,漁雷澤,陶河濱,作什器於壽丘,就時於負夏。舜父瞽叟頑,母嚚,弟象傲,皆欲殺舜。舜順適不失子道,兄弟孝慈。欲殺,不可得;即求,嘗在側。
Annals of the Five...:
Shun was a native of Jizhou, ploughed on Li mountain, fished in Thunder lake, made pots on the bank of the river, fashioned various articles at Shouqiu, and went now and then to Fuxia. Shun's father, Gusou, was unprincipled, his mother insincere, and his brother, Xiang, arrogant. They all tried to kill Shun, who was obedient, and never by chance failed in his duty as a son, or his fraternal love. Though they tried to kill him they did not succeed, and when they sought him he got out of the way.

21 五帝本紀:
舜年二十以孝聞。三十而帝堯問可用者,四嶽咸薦虞舜,曰可。於是堯乃以二女妻舜以觀其內,使九男與處以觀其外。舜居媯汭,內行彌謹。堯二女不敢以貴驕事舜親戚,甚有婦道。堯九男皆益篤。舜耕歷山,歷山之人皆讓畔;漁雷澤,雷澤上人皆讓居;陶河濱,河濱器皆不苦窳。一年而所居成聚,二年成邑,三年成都。堯乃賜舜絺衣,與琴,為筑倉廩,予牛羊。瞽叟尚復欲殺之,使舜上涂廩,瞽叟從下縱火焚廩。舜乃以兩笠自捍而下,去,得不死。後瞽叟又使舜穿井,舜穿井為匿空旁出。舜既入深,瞽叟與象共下土實井,舜從匿空出,去。瞽叟、象喜,以舜為已死。象曰:「本謀者象。」象與其父母分,於是曰:「舜妻堯二女,與琴,象取之。牛羊倉廩予父母。」象乃止舜宮居,鼓其琴。舜往見之。象鄂不懌,曰:「我思舜正郁陶!」舜曰:「然,爾其庶矣!」舜復事瞽叟愛弟彌謹。於是堯乃試舜五典百官,皆治。
Annals of the Five...:
When Shun was twenty years old he was noted for his filial piety, and when he was thirty the Emperor Yao asked if he was fit to reign. The presidents united in bringing Shun of Yu forward as an able man, so Yao gave him his two daughters in marriage in order to observe his conduct at home, and bade his nine sons put him in charge of a post so as to note his behaviour abroad. Shun lived within the bend of the Kuei river, and was especially careful. Yao's two daughters did not dare, on account of their rank, to be proud, but waited on Shun's relations, and were constant in their wifely duties, while Yao's nine sons became more and more generous. When Shun ploughed on Li mountain, the inhabitants yielded the boundaries; when he fished in Thunder lake, the men on the lake yielded to him the best place; and when he made pots on the bank of the river, his vessels had no holes or flaws in them. If he dwelt in a place for a year he formed an assemblage, in two years it became a town, and in three a metropolis. Yao gave Shun clothes made of fine grass-cloth, and a lute, and built him a granary and shed for his oxen and sheep. Gusou again tried to kill Shun by making him go up and plaster the roof of the granary, while he set fire to it from below, but Shun, protecting himself from the fire with a couple of bamboo hats, came down and escaped with his life. Gusou after this told Shun to dig a well, which he did, making a secret tunnel at the side to get out at. When Shun had gone right in, Gusou and Xiang filled up the well with earth, but Shun came out by the secret passage. Gusou and Xiang rejoiced, thinking that Shun was dead, and Xiang said, 'The plot was mine, but I will go shares with my father and mother; I will take Shun's wives, Yao's two daughters, and the lute as my share, while the oxen, sheep, granary and shed shall belong to my parents.' He remained, however, in Shun's house playing on the lute, and when Shun went thither Xiang, startled and not well-pleased to see him, said, 'I was just thinking of you, and getting very anxious.' 'Quite so,' said Shun, 'and so you possessed yourself of all these things.' Shun again served Gusou, loved his brother, and was still more careful in his conduct. Yao thereupon tested Shun as to the five cardinal rules, and the various officers were under control.

22 五帝本紀:
昔高陽氏有才子八人,世得其利,謂之「八愷」。高辛氏有才子八人,世謂之「八元」。此十六族者,世濟其美,不隕其名。至於堯,堯未能舉。舜舉八愷,使主后土,以揆百事,莫不時序。舉八元,使布五教于四方,父義,母慈,兄友,弟恭,子孝,內平外成。
Annals of the Five...:
In former days the Emperor Gaoyang had eight talented sons; the world benefited by them, and they were called the eight benevolent ones. The Emperor Gaoxin had also eight talented sons, and men called them the eight virtuous ones. Of these sixteen men after ages have acknowledged the excellence, and not let their names fall to the ground. In the time of Yao he was not able to raise them to office, but Shun raised the eight benevolent ones to office, and made them superintend the land department and direct all matters, arranging them according to their seasons. He also raised the right virtuous ones to office, employing them to spread throughout the country a knowledge of the duties pertaining to the five social relationships, for fathers became just, mothers loving, elder brothers sociable, younger ones respectful, and children dutiful; within the empire there was peace, and beyond it submission.

23 五帝本紀:
昔帝鴻氏有不才子,掩義隱賊,好行凶慝,天下謂之渾沌。少暤氏有不才子,毀信惡忠,崇飾惡言,天下謂之窮奇。顓頊氏有不才子,不可教訓,不知話言,天下謂之梼杌。此三族世憂之。至于堯,堯未能去。縉云氏有不才子,貪于飲食,冒于貨賄,天下謂之饕餮。天下惡之,比之三凶。舜賓於四門,乃流四凶族,遷于四裔,以御螭魅,於是四門辟,言毋凶人也。
Annals of the Five...:
In ancient days the Emperor Hong (Huangdi) had a son devoid of ability, who shut himself off from duty, and was a villain in secret, delighting in the practice of the worst vices, and all men called him Hundun (Chaos). (The Emperor) Shaohao had a descendant devoid of ability, who overthrew good faith, hated loyalty, extolled specious and evil talk, and all the people called him Qiongji (Monster). Zhuanxu had a son devoid of ability, who would receive no instruction and acknowledge no good words, and all the people called him Taowu (Block). These three men everyone was distressed about until the time of Yao, but Yao could not send them away. Jinyun had a son devoid of ability, who was greedy in eating and drinking, and pursued wealth blindly. All the people called him Taotie (Glutton), hated and compared him to the three other wicked men. Shun received visitors at the four gates, but banished these four wicked ones to the four borders of the empire to manage hobgoblins; and those at the four gates rightly said there were no wicked men among them.

24 五帝本紀:
舜入于大麓,烈風雷雨不迷,堯乃知舜之足授天下。堯老,使舜攝行天子政,巡狩。舜得舉用事二十年,而堯使攝政。攝政八年而堯崩。三年喪畢,讓丹朱,天下歸舜。而禹、皋陶、契、后稷、伯夷、夔、龍、倕、益、彭祖自堯時而皆舉用,未有分職。於是舜乃至於文祖,謀于四嶽,辟四門,明通四方耳目,命十二牧論帝德,行厚德,遠佞人,則蠻夷率服。舜謂四嶽曰:「有能奮庸美堯之事者,使居官相事?」皆曰:「伯禹為司空,可美帝功。」舜曰:「嗟,然!禹,汝平水土,維是勉哉。」禹拜稽首,讓於稷、契與皋陶。舜曰:「然,往矣。」舜曰:「棄,黎民始饑,汝后稷播時百穀。」舜曰:「契,百姓不親,五品不馴,汝為司徒,而敬敷五教,在寬。」舜曰:「皋陶,蠻夷猾夏,寇賊姦軌,汝作士,五刑有服,五服三就;五流有度,五度三居:維明能信。」舜曰:「誰能馴予工?」皆曰垂可。於是以垂為共工。舜曰:「誰能馴予上下草木鳥獸?」皆曰益可。於是以益為朕虞。益拜稽首,讓于諸臣朱虎、熊羆。舜曰:「往矣,汝諧。」遂以朱虎、熊羆為佐。舜曰:「嗟!四嶽,有能典朕三禮?」皆曰伯夷可。舜曰:「嗟!伯夷,以汝為秩宗,夙夜維敬,直哉維靜絜。」伯夷讓夔、龍。舜曰:「然。以夔為典樂,教稚子,直而溫,寬而栗,剛而毋虐,簡而毋傲;詩言意,歌長言,聲依永,律和聲,八音能諧,毋相奪倫,神人以和。」夔曰:「於!予擊石拊石,百獸率舞。」舜曰:「龍,朕畏忌讒說殄偽,振驚朕眾,命汝為納言,夙夜出入朕命,惟信。」舜曰:「嗟!女二十有二人,敬哉,惟時相天事。」三歲一考功,三考絀陟,遠近眾功咸興。分北三苗。
Annals of the Five...:
Shun went to the great plains at the foot of the mountains, and, amid violent wind, thunder, and rain, did not go astray. Yao then knew that Shun was fit to accept the empire, and being old, caused Shun to be associated with him in the government, and when he went on a tour of inspection Shun was promoted and employed in the administration of affairs for twenty years; and Yao having directed that he should be associated in the government, he was so associated for eight years. Yao died, and when the three years' mourning was over, Shun yielded to Danzhu, but the people of the empire turned to Shun. Now Yu, Gaoyao, Xie, Houji, Boyi, Kui, Long, Chui Yi, and Pengzu were all from the time of Yao promoted to office, but had not separate appointments. Shun having then proceeded to the temple of the accomplished ancestor, deliberated with the president of the four mountains, threw open the four gates, and was in direct communication with officers in all four quarters of the empire, who were eyes and ears to him. He ordered the twelve governors to talk of the Emperor's virtue, to be kind to the virtuous, and keep the artful at a distance, so that the barbarians of the south might lead on one another to be submissive. He said to the president of the four mountains, 'Is there anyone who can vigorously display his merits, aud beautify Yao's undertakings, and whom I can make prime minister?' They all said, 'There is Baron Yu, the superintendent of works,' he can beautify the Emperor's labours. Shun said, 'Ah! yes, Yu, you have put in order the water and the land, but in this matter you must exert yourself.' Yu did obeisance with his head to the ground, while declining in favour of Hou Ji (Millet), Xie, or Gaoyao. Shun said, 'Yes; but do you go and set about it.' Shun said, 'Qi, the black-haired people begin to be famished. Do you, Prince Millet, sow in their seasons the various kinds of grain.' He also said, 'Xie, the people do not love one another, and the five orders of relationship are not observed. You, as minister of instruction, must carefully diffuse abroad those five lessons of duty, but do so with gentleness.' He also said, 'Gaoyao, the southern barbarians are disturbing the summer region, while robbers, murderers, villains, and traitors abound. Do you, as minister of crime, exercise repression by use of the five kinds of punishment—for the infliction of which there are three appointed places—and the five banishments with their several places of detention, and the three degrees of distance. Be intelligent and you will inspire confidence.' Shun said, 'Who can direct the workmen?' They all said 'Chui can do it'; so he made Chui minister of works. Shun said, 'Who can superintend my uplands and lowlands, pastures and woods, birds and beasts?' They all said, 'Yi is the man'; so Yi was made imperial forester. Yi did obeisance with his head to the ground, and declined in favour of the officials Fir, Tiger, Black Bear, and Grizzly Bear. Shun said, 'Go and act harmoniously.' Fir, Tiger, Black Bear, and Grizzly Bear were accordingly his assistants. Shun said, 'Ah! president of the four mountains, is there anyone who can superintend the three ceremonies?' They all said, 'Baron Yi is the man.' Shun said, 'Ah! Baron Yi, I will make you arranger of the ancestral temple. Day and night be careful, be upright, be pure.' Baron Yi declined in favour of Kui or Long, but Shun said, 'Let it be so,' and made Kui director of music and teacher of youth. 'Be straightforward' (he added) 'and yet mild; lenient and yet stern; firm, yet not tyrannical; impetuous, yet not arrogant. Poetry gives expression to the thought, and singing is the prolonged utterance of that expression. Notes accompany that utterance, and are harmonized themselves by the pitch-pipes. The eight kinds of instruments can be adjusted, so that one shall not take from or interfere with another, and spirits and men are thereby brought into harmony.' Kui said, 'Oh! I smite the stone; I tap the stone, and the various animals lead on one another to dance.' Shun said, 'Long, I dread slanderous speakers and injurious deceivers, who agitate and alarm my people. I appoint you minister of communication. Day and night you will issue and receive my orders, but be truthful.' Shun said, 'Ah! you twenty and two men, be reverent, and you will aid in their proper seasons the undertakings of heaven.' Every three years there was an examination of merits, and after three examinations there were degradations and promotions both far and near. The people's labours generally prospered, while the people of the three Miao tribes were divided and defeated.

25 五帝本紀:
此二十二人咸成厥功:皋陶為大理,平,民各伏得其實;伯夷主禮,上下咸讓;垂主工師,百工致功;益主虞,山澤辟;棄主稷,百穀時茂;契主司徒,百姓親和;龍主賓客,遠人至;十二牧行而九州莫敢辟違;唯禹之功為大,披九山,通九澤,決九河,定九州,各以其職來貢,不失厥宜。方五千里,至于荒服。南撫交阯、北發,西戎、析枝、渠廋、氐、羌,北山戎、發、息慎,東長、鳥夷,四海之內咸戴帝舜之功。於是禹乃興九招之樂,致異物,鳳皇來翔。天下明德皆自虞帝始。
Annals of the Five...:
These twenty-two all completed their labours. Gaoyao was chief minister of crime, and the people were all subservient and obtained his genuine services. Boyi was director of ceremonies, and both upper and lower classes were retiring. Chui was head workman, and the various kinds of work were successfully accomplished. Yi was head forester, and hills and swamps were brought under cultivation. Qi was director of agriculture, and the various crops ripened in their seasons. Xie was minister of instruction, and the people were friendly together. Long superintended the foreign department, and men from afar arrived. The twelve governors did their duty, and the people of the nine provinces did not dare to rebel. But Yu's labours consisted in making great cuttings through the nine hills, making thoroughfares through the nine swamps, deepening the nine rivers, and regulating the nine provinces, each of which by their officials sent tribute, and did not lose their rightful dues. In a square of 5000 li he reached the wild domain. To the south he governed Annam; on the north he reduced the western Rong tribes, Xizhi, Chusou, and the Qiang of Di; on the north the hill Rong tribes and the Xishen; and on the east the tall island barbarians. All within the four seas were grateful for Emperor Shun's labours; and Yu then performed the nine tunes, and the result was that strange creatures and phœnixes flew to and fro. Men of illustrious virtue in the empire began from the days of Emperor Shun of Yu.

26 五帝本紀:
舜年二十以孝聞,年三十堯舉之,年五十攝行天子事,年五十八堯崩,年六十一代堯踐帝位。踐帝位三十九年,南巡狩,崩於蒼梧之野。葬於江南九疑,是為零陵。舜之踐帝位,載天子旗,往朝父瞽叟,夔夔唯謹,如子道。封弟象為諸侯。舜子商均亦不肖,舜乃豫薦禹於天。十七年而崩。三年喪畢,禹亦乃讓舜子,如舜讓堯子。諸侯歸之,然後禹踐天子位。堯子丹朱,舜子商均,皆有疆土,以奉先祀。服其服,禮樂如之。以客見天子,天子弗臣,示不敢專也。
Annals of the Five...:
When Shun was twenty years of age he was noted for his filial piety, at thirty Yao raised him to office, at fifty he assisted in the administration of Imperial affairs, when he was fifty-eight Yao died, and when he was sixty-one he sat on the Imperial throne in Yao's stead. After he had occupied the Imperial throne thirty-nine years, he went on a hunting expedition to the south, died in the desert of Cangwu, and was buried at a place called Lingling (broken hillocks) in the Jiuyi range in Jiangnan province. After Shun had come to the throne, and was flying the Imperial flag, he went to pay a visit to his father, Gusou, and addressed him in a grave and respectful manner, as a son should do. He raised his brother Xiang to the rank of prince. Shun's son Shang-jun was also degenerate, so that Shun, being prepared, recommended Yu to the notice of Heaven, and seventeen years later he died. When the three years' mourning was over, Yu also yielded to Shun's son just as Shun had yielded to Yao's son, but the princes gave their allegiance to Yu, and he thereupon came to the Imperial throne. Yao's son Danzhu, and Shun's son Shangjun, both held territory so that they might be enabled to perform sacrifices to their ancestors; they paid the due observances, such as religious ceremonies and music, and they went to the audiences as the Emperor's guests. The Emperor did not dare, without due notification from his ministers, to act on his own responsibility.

27 五帝本紀:
自黃帝至舜、禹,皆同姓而異其國號,以章明德。故黃帝為有熊,帝顓頊為高陽,帝嚳為高辛,帝堯為陶唐,帝舜為有虞。帝禹為夏后而別氏,姓姒氏。契為商,姓子氏。棄為周,姓姬氏。
Annals of the Five...:
From Huangdi to Shun and Yu all the sovereigns had the same surname, but different dynastic appellations, and so displayed their illustrious virtue. So Huangdi was called Youxiong (possessor of bears); Emperor Zhuanxu was Gaoyang; Emperor Ku was Gaoxin; Emperor Yao, Taotang; Emperor Shun was Youyu (possessor of foresters); and Emperor Yu was Xiahou (prince of Xia); and he had also the name Si (sister-in-law); Xie had the family name of Shang with the personal name Zi (son); and Qi had the family name Zhou with the personal name Ji (queen).

28 五帝本紀:
太史公曰:學者多稱五帝,尚矣。然尚書獨載堯以來;而百家言黃帝,其文不雅馴,薦紳先生難言之。孔子所傳宰予問五帝德及帝系姓,儒者或不傳。余嘗西至空桐,北過涿鹿,東漸於海,南浮江淮矣,至長老皆各往往稱黃帝、堯、舜之處,風教固殊焉,總之不離古文者近是。予觀春秋、國語,其發明五帝德、帝系姓章矣,顧弟弗深考,其所表見皆不虛。書缺有閒矣,其軼乃時時見於他說。非好學深思,心知其意,固難為淺見寡聞道也。余并論次,擇其言尤雅者,故著為本紀書首。
Annals of the Five...:
The historian remarks on this as follows: Most scholars say that the five emperors are deserving of honour, but the Book of History only refers to Yao, and those who come after him, while the book of the 'hundred families' speaks of the Yellow emperor. The style of the latter work is not, however, very refined, and the officials and gentry hardly ever refer to it. Confucius handed down these works, viz. 'Zai Yu's questions,' the 'virtues of the five emperors,' and 'the genealogies and names of the emperors,' but the literati doubt that they have been so handed down. I have travelled westward as far as 'hollow cave' hill, northward beyond Zhuolu, eastward I have crossed the sea, while southward I have floated on rafts along the Yangtze and Huai rivers, and all the elders whom I met again and again talked of the places where the Yellow emperor, Yao, and Shun dwelt, and how very different their customs and teachings were. In short, those who are attached to the ancient literature must be familiar with their sayings. I have looked at the 'Spring and Autumn' classic, and the 'Narratives of the States,' which make the 'virtues of the five emperors' and the 'genealogies and names of the emperors' very clear. I have inspected these works, but not thoroughly examined them, and the portions I have quoted are none of them unimportant. There are defects in the book, and occasionally the views of others may be noted. Scholars should not think too deeply over the book, but take the general drift of it, when it can hardly be called superficial. There are a few investigations into doctrine, which I have discussed in the concrete, and then selected some of the more elegant sentences for quotation. Thus I have compiled the first chapter of the 'Original Records.'

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