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Chinese Text Project
Show translation:[None] [English]

《重黎卷第十 - Zhong and Li》

English translation: Jeffrey S. Bullock [?] Library Resources
1 重黎卷第... :
Zhong and Li:
Someone asked: Zhong of the Southern Region was the officer of the heavens, Li of the Northern Region was the officer of the earth. What are these offices today?
Yangzi said: The offices of Xi and He are similar.
The other said: Which is similar to Zheng and which is similar to Li?
Yangzi said: Xi is similar to Zhong and He is similar to Li.

2 重黎卷第... :
Zhong and Li:
Someone asked about the Cycle of the Yellow Emperor.
Yangzi said: It falsely borrows his name. In the past, Yu controlled the waters flooding the land, and now shamans dance the many Steps of Yu. Bian Qiao was a man of Lu, and now many healers are called Men of Lu. Those who want to sell what is fake inevitably borrow from the genuine. The Steps of Yu? Men of Lu? The Cycle of Huangdi? Please!

3 重黎卷第... :
Zhong and Li:
Someone asked about the huntian theory.
Yangzi said: Luoxia Hong devised it, Xianyu Wangren calculated it, and Geng Zhongcheng created the armillary sphere. So subtle, so subtle! No one can contradict it!
May I ask about gaitian theory?
Yangzi said: The gaitian theory! The gaitian theory! For answering difficult questions it is not as subtle.

4 重黎卷第... :
Zhong and Li:
Someone asked: Why were the rulers of Qin so preoccupied with spirits?
Yangzi said: Spirits are strange and unintelligible, now seeming to be here, now not. The sage does not speak about them.

5 重黎卷第... :
Zhong and Li:
Someone asked: Among Wu Zixu, Wen Zhong and Fan Li, who was worthy?
Yangzi said: Zi Xu helped the state of Wu make trouble, destroyed the state of Chu, entered the capital at Ying, whipped the corpse of King Ping and expelled the government officials —none of this was virtuous (de). He plotted against the state of Yue and remonstrated against attacking Qi to no good use. Unable to leave, he finally saw the destruction of Wu with his own eyes. Wen Zhong and Fan Li did not strongly remonstrate against King Gou Jian of Yue's plan to attack the state of Wu, and he was held by King Fuchai of Wu for three years on Mount Kuaiji. They caused their ruler to yield the altars of the spirits of earth and become a servant boy to King Fuchai. In the end, they destroyed Wu, but none of them were good enough to be considered worthy. In the end Fan Li sent Wen Zhong a letter warning him to flee and then escaped to go fatten himself!

6 重黎卷第... :
Zhong and Li:
Someone asked about Chen Sheng and Wu Guang.
Yangzi said: They were rebels.
The other said: But if not for them, the Qin would not have been destroyed.
Yangzi said: Did they really destroy the Qin? I'm afraid that Chen Sheng and Wu Guang were destroyed before the Qin.

7 重黎卷第... :
Zhong and Li:
Someone said: The six kingdoms stood together for a long time, one now weak, the other now strong. Qin Shi Huangdi appeared and they were all[unified within three years. Was this because of fortunate timing, the natural defensibility of the land, or man's doing?
Yangzi said: All of them.
May I ask about man's doing?
Yangzi said: From the time of Duke Xiao on down, Qin strengthened its armies and empowered its farmers—they were like silkworms eating away at the six kingdoms. This was man's doing.
The other said: May I ask about the natural defensibility of the land?
Yangzi said: To the east, the Yellow River served as a moat; to the south, it was obstructed by high mountains; to the west they took Yong and Liang, and to the north, it was bordered by the Jing River. When it was advantageous, Qin expanded its territory. When it was not, it just coiled up. This was the natural defensibility of the land.
The other said: How was it due to fortunate timing?
Yangzi said: At that time Qin Shi Huangdi was like an axe and his generals were like knives. The six kingdoms were like wood, and their generals were like meat. This was fortunate timing.

8 重黎卷第... :
Zhong and Li:
The descendants of Bo Yi of the Qin were the protectors of the feudal lords, but suddenly they swallowed up all under Heaven. Why did King Nan of Zhou to restrict their expansion.
Yangzi replied: The Son of Heaven restricts dukes, marquis, earls, viscounts and barons using rules of ceremony. In the rules of ceremony there is no fault greater than usurpation. In usurpation, no fault is greater those than in making sacrificial offerings. In making offerings, there is nothing more important than the place of the ceremony, and in the place of the ceremony, nothing is more important than choosing a place to sacrifice to Tian. This being so, Duke Xiang, Duke Wen, Duke Xuan and Duke Ling built their temples. In the past, Duke Xiang usurped the Western Alter and made offerings to the White Emperor. Dukes Wen, Xuan and Ling built temples at Fu, Mi, Shang and Xia to sacrifice to the Four Deities. The Son of Heaven did not rectify this, and to the contrary, wrongly made offerings to King Wen and King Wu. As a result, all within the four boundaries used their power to encroach upon each other, tearing apart flesh and bone. How could King Nan alone control the Qin?

9 重黎卷第... :
Zhong and Li:
Someone asked: In twenty-six years of rule, Qin Shi Huang had seized all under Heaven. Fifteen years later Chu seized it, and only five years after that Han controlled it. In a fifty-year period, the empire had changed hands three times. Was this due to Tian or man?
Yangzi said: Both. The Zhou installed their sons and brothers, divided up the titles and fiefdoms, ordered the five ranks, and established the twelve kingdoms. Even at that time, there were some like the Han that desired to control the empire, but what could they do about it? Then six kingdoms became foolish and disordered, helping Qin Shi Huang to weaken the Zhou, and finally to brush aside their armies and seize control of their kingdoms. Thus, the empire was seized by the Qin. They ended the Zhou system of feudal appointments and the establishment of prefectures, and the prefects lost their control, leaving the world orphaned and separated. Xiang Yu rebelled and replaced the ministers and princes, and thus empire was taken over by Chu. In the month Chu seized control and divided the empire into eighteen kingdoms, Liu Bang of Han was established in the southern mountains. He set out searching throughout the three kingdoms at the heart of the former Qin, and pursued Xiang Yu to Shandong, and thus the empire was taken by the Han. This was due to Tian.
The other said: What about man?
Yangzi said: Collecting together men of talent and respecting their knowledge, planning and calculating meticulously, and carefully acting at just the right moment—this is due to man. Without man, Tian has nothing to rely on. Without Tian, man cannot succeed.

10 重黎卷第... :
Zhong and Li:
Someone asked: When Xiang Yu was defeated at Gaixia and close to death, he said, "It is the will of Tian." Is this so?
Yangzi said: Han Gaozu fully used the strategies of others, because the strategies of others fully used their strengths. Xiang Yu resented using the strategies of others, and exhausted only his own strength. Those who make full use of others are victorious, while those who use only their own strengths are defeated. What does Tian have to do with it?

11 重黎卷第... :
Zhong and Li:
Someone asked: Qin Shi Huang and Xiang Yu both received Tian's mandate to rule, but Qin Shi Huang was strangled on the Ba River, and Xiangyu was cut into pieces at Hong Xi. Why were they cast aside so quickly?
Yangzi said: Tian honors glorious de and overthrows excessive corruption. In the past the Yellow Emperor, Gao Yang, Gao Xin, Tang, Shun and the Three Dynasties all clearly manifested de. Thus Tian honored them, used them to unite Heaven and Earth, and placed them in the Imperial Hall. This is what the people desired, and long did their kingdoms flourish. Xiang Yu and the Qin Shi Huang, on the other hand, ruled by force, feuded quarrelsomely, terrorized, and attacked each other. They coldly rejected the three proper daos of Heaven, Earth and Man and their reputation for cruelty spread among the masses. Even their own children and followers wanted to kill them, how much more so their people? How much more so ghosts and spirits? They could not have been done away with fast enough!

12 重黎卷第... :
Zhong and Li:
Someone asked: If Confucius was a great sage, the why did Tian not honor him by making him a ruler.
Yangzi said: He had no land.
If this is so, then did Shun and Yu have land?
Yangzi said: Shun had Yao to honor him with land, Yu had Shun to honor him with land.

13 重黎卷第... :
Zhong and Li:
Someone asked about the outer appearance and inner essence of the sage.
Yangzi said: Majestic deportment and refined (wen) words—these are the outer appearance. Virtuous (de) action and faithful integrity—this is the inner essence.

14 重黎卷第... :
Zhong and Li:
Someone asked: When Emperor Yi first established his rule, Liu Bang took Nanyang and Xiang Ji rescued Hebei. The two regions were split apart, some leaving, some joining. If the Qin had capable men, why did this happen?
Yangzi said: People would not fight for the Qin because they lost their spirit long ago.

15 重黎卷第... :
Zhong and Li:
Yangzi said: Han Xin and Qing Bu both established themselves by the sword and became rulers. But in the end, they ran out of time and were killed. Were they not stupid?
Someone said: If they were stupid, then they would not have made names for themselves, would they?
Yangzi said: Making a name for oneself means having an honorable reputation. But showing no loyalty and rebelling in the end—that's far from honorable.

16 重黎卷第... :
Zhong and Li:
Someone asked about Chunyu Yue.
Yangzi said: He stood strong, and yielded.
The other said: May I ask about it?
Yangzi said: At that time the First Emperor snapped bones like a tiger, tore open flesh like an owl, and he bit into scholars like sacrificial meat. Chunyu Yue courageously raised an eyebrow at him, and in the end never said a flattering word. This can be called standing strong. He served the government without worrying about the kingdom's politics, he supported himself without worrying about salary, and took part without worrying about flattering anyone. He cultivated a good reputation in private without disobeying orders. This can be called yielding.

17 重黎卷第... :
Zhong and Li:
Someone asked: Mao Jiao witnessed dead bodies being piled up like the railings around a well, yet he persuaded Qin Shi Huang to leave empty the space to the left of his chariot. Cai Sheng desired to pacify Xiang Yu at Xianyang, but he was unable to influence him, and was then boiled alive. Wasn't this because Mao was persuasive and Cai not?
Yangzi said: Cai Sheng was crazy as a monkey and called Xiang Yu a monkey—isn't it quite appropriate he was boiled alive? Mao Jiao opposed and criticized Qin Shi Huang, and yet got along and protected himself. But even though he was persuasive, was he not brushing the tiger's teeth?

18 重黎卷第... :
Zhong and Li:
Someone asked: Gan Luo assisted Lu Buwei, and Zhang Piqiang awakened the minds of Chen Ping and Zhou Bo. Both were only twelve years old! Wasn't this due to the influence of Gan Mou and Zhang Liang?
Yangzi said: It was their natural ability, not necessarily because Gan Mou and Zhang Liang were their grandfather and father.

19 重黎卷第... :
Zhong and Li:
Li Yiji convinced Liu Bang to seize the city of Chen Liu, and afterwards, the granary at Ao. He convinced King Tian Guang of Qi to surrender his troops at Lixia. What clever arguments! But when Han Xin launched a surprise attack on Qi, King Tian Guang put Li's body in the cauldron and boiled him down to a pool of grease. How dumb he was then!
Yangzi said: Clever arguments are for convincing oneself. If you use them to convince others, they can be dangerous indeed!

20 重黎卷第... :
Zhong and Li:
Someone asked: Kuai Tong attempted drive Han Xin and Liu Bang apart, but was not able to do it, and so feigned madness and left.
Yangzi said: At the time, he met with Han Xin's closed door. Such was his attempt to drive them apart!
The other said: Can a crack not be driven open?
Yangzi said: A worthy man takes charge of li. A small man takes charge of cracks. How much more does he attempt to pick open a locked door.

21 重黎卷第... :
Zhong and Li:
Someone said: Li Si was completely loyal to the Qin, but in the end Emperor Huhai executed him. What's the point of loyalty?
Yangzi said: Li Si stayed in Qin as a guest of Lu Buwei and eventually became Prime Minister. Using the words of an alchemist to flatter the Emperor, he followed Qin Shi Huang on his tours of the four seas. Upon Qin Shi Huang's death, he let Zhao Gao's treacherous plan to replace the chosen successor stand, discarded the Emperor's official edict, assented to the idea and directed the orders. Where in this is loyalty?
The other said: What about Huo Guang.
Yangzi said: At the beginning of the Shiyuan era (86—80 B.C.), he acted as regent for the young Emperor Zhao, and destroyed Prince Yan and Shangguan's coup. After Zhao's untimely death, he stayed and played his part as regent, first deposing his first chosen successor and then installing Emperor Xuan. Appearing so courageous and august in his loyalty—but it's difficult! Because coming to the crimes of his wife Huo Xian, in the end, it wasn't so.

22 重黎卷第... :
Zhong and Li:
Someone asked: Feng Tang met with Emperor Wen and told him that even if he had generals like Lian Po and Li Mu, he would not be able to use them. Was he not sincere?
Yangzi said: He was raising the issue to arouse Emperor Wen's attention. Personally yielding himself with the honor of being Emperor, Emperor Wen supported Yafu's command of the army. Why could he not have used Lian Po and Li Mu?
The other said: What about his de?
Yangzi said: He did not punish the children of criminals, keep women in the palace, build new rooms in the palace or erect a large tomb for himself.

23 重黎卷第... :
Zhong and Li:
Someone asked about friendship.
Yangzi said: It is based on ren.
The other asked: Like Chen Yu and Zhang Er?
Yangzi said: A brilliant beginning.
The other asked: What about Dou Ying and Guan Fu?
Yangzi said: A cruel ending.

24 重黎卷第... :
Zhong and Li:
Someone asked about trustworthiness.
Yangzi said: It is a matter of not having to eat one's words.
The other said: Please name some trustworthy people.
Yangzi said: Xun Xi of Jin, Cheng Ying of Zhao, Gongsun Chujiu, and those who were buried alive at Duke Mu of Qin's side.
The other asked about yi.
Yangzi said: Conducting affairs appropriately is called yi.

25 重黎卷第... :
Zhong and Li:
Someone asked: What about Ji Bu swallowing his pride?
Yangzi said: Those who are able to would endure it. One who was illuminated with wisdom would not.
The other said: Ji Bu was in an urgent situation. What would someone who was wise do?
Yangzi said: The wise did not serve Xiang Yu to the end. If they did, where could they hide?

26 重黎卷第... :
Zhong and Li:
Someone asked about worthiness.
Yangzi said: It is a matter of doing what ordinary people are unable to do.
The other said: Please name some worthy people.
Yangzi said: Yan Yuan, Qian Lou, the Four Greybeards of Mount Shang, and Wei Xuancheng.
The other asked about those who were heroic.
Yangzi said: Lin Ziangru acting as emissary to Qin and yielding to Lian Po; Luan Bu not changing his mind; Zhu Jia not seeking a reward; Zhi Buyi not correcting accusations against him; and Han Anguo being a envoy throughout the empire.

27 重黎卷第... :
Zhong and Li:
Someone asked: How does an official make a name for himself?
Yangzi said: Charioteer Shi's response; General Jin's prudence; Commander of the Guard Zhang's caution; Grandee Bing's modesty.
Someone said: May I inquire about how an official loses his good reputation?
Yangzi said: Li Ershi's seizing the territory of Er; Tian Qilian's reckless command; Adjunct Han's accusing Xiao Wangzhi; and Zhao Jingbei's crimes against Wei Xiang.

28 重黎卷第... :
Zhong and Li:
Someone asked about maintaining fullness.
Yangzi said: Hold on to the tipping-vessel.

29 重黎卷第... :
Zhong and Li:
Yang Wangsun was buried naked in order to reform the customary practice of lavish funerals.
Yangzi said: One reforms the generation by means of li, but does being buried naked accomplish this? If that reforms the generation, then it would be even easier just to throw the dead into a ditch.

30 重黎卷第... :
Zhong and Li:
Someone asked about the Zhou Guan.
Yangzi said: It establishes the proper affairs of the various government offices.
The other asked about the Zuo Zhuan.
Yangzi said: It is a great collection of elegant literature.
The other said: What about the Grand Historian Sima Qian's Shiji?
Yangzi said: It is a factual record.

URN: ctp:yangzi-fayan/juan-shi