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-> -> -> -> Enjoyment in Untroubled Ease

《逍遙遊 - Enjoyment in Untroubled Ease》

English translation: James Legge [?]
Books referencing 《逍遙遊》 Library Resources
1 逍遙遊:
北冥有魚,其名為鯤。鯤之大,不知其幾千里也。化而為鳥,其名為鵬。鵬之背,不知其幾千里也;怒而飛,其翼若垂天之雲。是鳥也,海運則將徙於南冥。南冥者,天池也。齊諧者,志怪者也。諧之言曰:「鵬之徙於南冥也,水擊三千里,摶扶搖而上者九萬里,去以六月息者也。」野馬也,塵埃也,生物之以息相吹也。天之蒼蒼,其正色邪?其遠而無所至極邪?其視下也亦若是,則已矣。且夫水之積也不厚,則負大舟也無力。覆杯水於坳堂之上,則芥為之舟,置杯焉則膠,水淺而舟大也。風之積也不厚,則其負大翼也無力。故九萬里則風斯在下矣,而後乃今培風;背負青天而莫之夭閼者,而後乃今將圖南。蜩與學鳩笑之曰:「我決起而飛,槍1榆、枋,時則不至而控於地而已矣,奚以之九萬里而南為?」適莽蒼者三湌而反,腹猶果然;適百里者宿舂糧;適千里者三月聚糧。之二蟲又何知!小知不及大知,小年不及大年。奚以知其然也?朝菌不知晦朔,蟪蛄不知春秋,此小年也。楚之南有冥靈者,以五百歲為春,五百歲為秋;上古有大椿者,以八千歲為春,八千歲為秋。而彭祖乃今以久特聞,眾人匹之,不亦悲乎!
Enjoyment in Untroubled Ease:...:
In the Northern Ocean there is a fish, the name of which is Kun - I do not know how many li in size. It changes into a bird with the name of Peng, the back of which is (also) - I do not know how many li in extent. When this bird rouses itself and flies, its wings are like clouds all round the sky. When the sea is moved (so as to bear it along), it prepares to remove to the Southern Ocean. The Southern Ocean is the Pool of Heaven.
There is the (book called) Qi Xie, a record of marvels. We have in it these words: 'When the peng is removing to the Southern Ocean it flaps (its wings) on the water for 3000 li. Then it ascends on a whirlwind 90,000 li, and it rests only at the end of six months.' (But similar to this is the movement of the breezes which we call) the horses of the fields, of the dust (which quivers in the sunbeams), and of living things as they are blown against one another by the air. Is its azure the proper colour of the sky? Or is it occasioned by its distance and illimitable extent? If one were looking down (from above), the very same appearance would just meet his view.
And moreover, (to speak of) the accumulation of water; if it be not great, it will not have strength to support a large boat. Upset a cup of water in a cavity, and a straw will float on it as if it were a boat. Place a cup in it, and it will stick fast; the water is shallow and the boat is large. (So it is with) the accumulation of wind; if it be not great, it will not have strength to support great wings. Therefore (the peng ascended to) the height of 90,000 li, and there was such a mass of wind beneath it; thenceforth the accumulation of wind was sufficient. As it seemed to bear the blue sky on its back, and there was nothing to obstruct or arrest its course, it could pursue its way to the South.
A cicada and a little dove laughed at it, saying, 'We make an effort and fly towards an elm or sapanwood tree; and sometimes before we reach it, we can do no more but drop to the ground. Of what use is it for this (creature) to rise 90,000 li, and make for the South?' He who goes to the grassy suburbs, returning to the third meal (of the day), will have his belly as full as when he set out; he who goes to a distance of 100 li will have to pound his grain where he stops for the night; he who goes a thousand li, will have to carry with him provisions for three months. What should these two small creatures know about the matter? The knowledge of that which is small does not reach to that which is great; (the experience of) a few years does not reach to that of many. How do we know that it is so? The mushroom of a morning does not know (what takes place between) the beginning and end of a month; the short-lived cicada does not know (what takes place between) the spring and autumn. These are instances of a short term of life. In the south of Chu there is the (tree) called Ming-ling, whose spring is 500 years, and its autumn the same; in high antiquity there was that called Da-chun, whose spring was 8000 years, and its autumn the same. And Peng Zu is the one man renowned to the present day for his length of life: if all men were (to wish) to match him, would they not be miserable?

1. 槍 : Originally read: "搶". 據《四部叢刊》本改。

2 逍遙遊:
湯之問棘也是已。窮髮之北,有冥海者,天池也。有魚焉,其廣數千里,未有知其脩者,其名為鯤。有鳥焉,其名為鵬,背若泰山,翼若垂天之雲,摶扶搖羊角而上者九萬里,絕雲氣,負青天,然後圖南,且適南冥也。斥鴳笑之曰:「彼且奚適也?我騰躍而上,不過數仞而下,翱翔蓬蒿之間,此亦飛之至也。而彼且奚適也?」此小大之辯也。
Enjoyment in Untroubled Ease:...:
In the questions put by Tang to Ji we have similar statements: 'In the bare and barren north there is the dark and vast ocean - the Pool of Heaven. In it there is a fish, several thousand li in breadth, while no one knows its length. Its name is the kun. There is (also) a bird named the peng; its back is like the Tai mountain, while its wings are like clouds all round the sky. On a whirlwind it mounts upwards as on the whorls of a goat's horn for 90,000 li, till, far removed from the cloudy vapours, it bears on its back the blue sky, and then it shapes its course for the South, and proceeds to the ocean there.' A quail by the side of a marsh laughed at it, and said, 'Where is it going to? I spring up with a bound, and come down again when I have reached but a few fathoms, and then fly about among the brushwood and bushes; and this is the perfection of flying. Where is that creature going to?' This shows the difference between the small and the great.

3 逍遙遊:
故夫知效一官,行比一鄉,德合一君而徵一國者,其自視也亦若此矣。而宋榮子猶然笑之。且舉世而譽之而不加勸,舉世而非之而不加沮,定乎內外之分,辯乎榮辱之竟,斯已矣。彼其於世,未數數然也。雖然,猶有未樹也。夫列子御風而行,泠然善也,旬有五日而後反。彼於致福者,未數數然也。此雖免乎行,猶有所待者也。若夫乘天地之正,而御六氣之辯,以遊無窮者,彼且惡乎待哉!故曰:至人無己,神人無功,聖人無名。
Enjoyment in Untroubled Ease:...:
Thus it is that men, whose wisdom is sufficient for the duties of some one office, or whose conduct will secure harmony in some one district, or whose virtue is befitting a ruler so that they could efficiently govern some one state, are sure to look on themselves in this manner (like the quail), and yet Rongzi of Song would have smiled and laughed at them. (This Rongzi), though the whole world should have praised him, would not for that have stimulated himself to greater endeavour, and though the whole world should have condemned him, would not have exercised any more repression of his course; so fixed was he in the difference between the internal (judgment of himself) and the external (judgment of others), so distinctly had he marked out the bounding limit of glory and disgrace. Here, however, he stopped. His place in the world indeed had become indifferent to him, but still he had not planted himself firmly (in the right position). There was Liezi, who rode on the wind and pursued his way, with an admirable indifference (to all external things), returning, however, after fifteen days, (to his place). In regard to the things that (are supposed to) contribute to happiness, he was free from all endeavours to obtain them; but though he had not to walk, there was still something for which he had to wait. But suppose one who mounts on (the ether of) heaven and earth in its normal operation, and drives along the six elemental energies of the changing (seasons), thus enjoying himself in the illimitable - what has he to wait for? Therefore it is said, 'The Perfect man has no (thought of) self; the Spirit-like man, none of merit; the Sagely-minded man, none of fame.'

4 逍遙遊:
堯讓天下於許由,曰:「日月出矣,而爝火不息,其於光也,不亦難乎!時雨降矣,而猶浸灌,其於澤也,不亦勞乎!夫子立而天下治,而我猶尸之,吾自視缺然,請致天下。」許由曰:「子治天下,天下既已治也。而我猶代子,吾將為名乎?名者,實之賓也,吾將為賓乎?鷦鷯巢於深林,不過一枝;偃鼠飲河,不過滿腹。歸休乎君!予無所用天下為。庖人雖不治庖,尸祝不越樽俎而代之矣。」
Enjoyment in Untroubled Ease:...:
Yao, proposing to resign the throne to Xu You, said, 'When the sun and moon have come forth, if the torches have not been put out, would it not be difficult for them to give light? When the seasonal rains are coming down, if we still keep watering the ground, will not our toil be labour lost for all the good it will do? Do you, Master, stand forth (as sovereign), and the kingdom will (at once) be well governed. If I still (continue to) preside over it, I must look on myself as vainly occupying the place - I beg to resign the throne to you.' Xu You said, 'You, Sir, govern the kingdom, and the kingdom is well governed. If I in these circumstances take your place, shall I not be doing so for the sake of the name? But the name is but the guest of the reality; shall I be playing the part of the guest? The tailor-bird makes its nest in the deep forest, but only uses a single branch; the mole drinks from the He, but only takes what fills its belly. Return and rest in being ruler - I will have nothing to do with the throne. Though the cook were not attending to his kitchen, the representative of the dead and the officer of prayer would not leave their cups and stands to take his place.'

5 逍遙遊:
肩吾問於連叔曰:「吾聞言於接輿,大而無當,往而不反。吾驚怖其言,猶河漢而無極也,大有逕庭,不近人情焉。」連叔曰:「其言謂何哉?」曰:「藐姑射之山,有神人居焉,肌膚若冰雪,淖約若處子,不食五穀,吸風飲露。乘雲氣,御飛龍,而遊乎四海之外。其神凝,使物不疵癘而年穀熟。吾以是狂而不信也。」連叔曰:「然,瞽者無以與乎文章之觀,聾者無以與乎鍾鼓之聲。豈唯形骸有聾盲哉?夫知亦有之。是其言也,猶時女也。之人也,之德也,將旁礡萬物,以為一世蘄乎亂,孰弊弊焉以天下為事!之人也,物莫之傷,大浸稽天而不溺,大旱、金石流、土山焦而不熱。是其塵垢粃糠,將猶陶鑄堯、舜者也,孰肯以物為事!宋人資章甫而適諸越,越人斷髮文身,無所用之。堯治天下之民,平海內之政,往見四子藐姑射之山,汾水之陽,窅然喪其天下焉。」
Enjoyment in Untroubled Ease:...:
Jian Wu asked Lian Shu, saying, 'I heard Jie Yu talking words which were great, but had nothing corresponding to them (in reality); once gone, they could not be brought back. I was frightened by them; they were like the Milky Way which cannot be traced to its beginning or end. They had no connexion with one another, and were not akin to the experiences of men.' 'What were his words?' asked Lian Shu, and the other replied, (He said) that 'Far away on the hill of Gu Ye there dwelt a Spirit-like man whose flesh and skin were (smooth) as ice and (white) as snow; that his manner was elegant and delicate as that of a virgin; that he did not eat any of the five grains, but inhaled the wind and drank the dew; that he mounted on the clouds, drove along the flying dragons, rambling and enjoying himself beyond the four seas; that by the concentration of his spirit-like powers he could save men from disease and pestilence, and secure every year a plentiful harvest.' These words appeared to me wild and incoherent and I did not believe them. 'So it is,' said Lian Shu. 'The blind have no perception of the beauty of elegant figures, nor the deaf of the sound of bells and drums. But is it only the bodily senses of which deafness and blindness can be predicated? There is also a similar defect in the intelligence; and of this your words supply an illustration in yourself. That man, with those attributes, though all things were one mass of confusion, and he heard in that condition the whole world crying out to him to be rectified, would not have to address himself laboriously to the task, as if it were his business to rectify the world. Nothing could hurt that man; the greatest floods, reaching to the sky, could not drown him, nor would he feel the fervour of the greatest heats melting metals and stones till they flowed, and scorching all the ground and hills. From the dust and chaff of himself, he could still mould and fashion Yaos and Shuns - how should he be willing to occupy himself with things?' A man of Song, who dealt in the ceremonial caps (of Yin), went with them to Yue, the people of which cut off their hair and tattooed their bodies, so that they had no use for them. Yao ruled the people of the kingdom, and maintained a perfect government within the four seas. Having gone to see the four (Perfect) Ones on the distant hill of Gu Ye, when (he returned to his capital) on the south of the Fen water, his throne appeared no more to his deep-sunk oblivious eyes.

6 逍遙遊:
惠子謂莊子曰:「魏王貽我大瓠之種,我樹之成而實五石,以盛水漿,其堅不能自舉也。剖之以為瓢,則瓠落無所容。非不呺然大也,吾為其無用而掊之。」莊子曰:「夫子固拙於用大矣。宋人有善為不龜手之藥者,世世以洴澼絖為事。客聞之,請買其方百金。聚族而謀曰:『我世世為洴澼絖,不過數金;今一朝而鬻技百金,請與之。』客得之,以說吳王。越有難,吳王使之將。冬,與越人水戰,大敗越人,裂地而封之。能不龜手一也,或以封,或不免於洴澼絖,則所用之異也。今子有五石之瓠,何不慮以為大樽而浮乎江湖,而憂其瓠落無所容?則夫子猶有蓬之心也夫!」
Enjoyment in Untroubled Ease:...:
Huizi told Zhuangzi, saying, 'The king of Wei sent me some seeds of a large calabash, which I sowed. The fruit, when fully grown, could contain five piculs (of anything). I used it to contain water, but it was so heavy that I could not lift it by myself. I cut it in two to make the parts into drinking vessels; but the dried shells were too wide and unstable and would not hold (the liquor); nothing but large useless things! Because of their uselessness I knocked them to pieces.' Zhuangzi replied, 'You were indeed stupid, my master, in the use of what was large. There was a man of Song who was skilful at making a salve which kept the hands from getting chapped; and (his family) for generations had made the bleaching of cocoon-silk their business. A stranger heard of it, and proposed to buy the art of the preparation for a hundred ounces of silver. The kindred all came together, and considered the proposal. "We have," said they, "been bleaching cocoon-silk for generations, and have only gained a little money. Now in one morning we can sell to this man our art for a hundred ounces - let him have it." The stranger accordingly got it and went away with it to give counsel to the king of Wu, who was then engaged in hostilities with Yue. The king gave him the command of his fleet, and in the winter he had an engagement with that of Yue, on which he inflicted a great defeat, and was invested with a portion of territory taken from Yue. The keeping the hands from getting chapped was the same in both cases; but in the one case it led to the investiture (of the possessor of the salve), and in the other it had only enabled its owners to continue their bleaching. The difference of result was owing to the different use made of the art. Now you, Sir, had calabashes large enough to hold five piculs; why did you not think of making large bottle-gourds of them, by means of which you could have floated over rivers and lakes, instead of giving yourself the sorrow of finding that they were useless for holding anything. Your mind, my master, would seem to have been closed against all intelligence!'

7 逍遙遊:
惠子謂莊子曰:「吾有大樹,人謂之樗。其大本擁腫而不中繩墨,其小枝卷曲而不中規矩,立之塗,匠者不顧。今子之言,大而無用,眾所同去也。」莊子曰:「子獨不見狸狌乎?卑身而伏,以候敖者;東西跳梁,不避高下;中於機辟,死於罔罟。今夫斄牛,其大若垂天之雲。此能為大矣,而不能執鼠。今子有大樹,患其無用,何不樹之於無何有之鄉,廣莫之野,彷徨乎無為其側,逍遙乎寢臥其下?不夭斤斧,物無害者,無所可用,安所困苦哉!」
Enjoyment in Untroubled Ease:...:
Huizi said to Zhuangzi, 'I have a large tree, which men call the Ailantus. Its trunk swells out to a large size, but is not fit for a carpenter to apply his line to it; its smaller branches are knotted and crooked, so that the disk and square cannot be used on them. Though planted on the wayside, a builder would not turn his head to look at it. Now your words, Sir, are great, but of no use - all unite in putting them away from them.' Zhuangzi replied, 'Have you never seen a wildcat or a weasel? There it lies, crouching and low, till the wanderer approaches; east and west it leaps about, avoiding neither what is high nor what is low, till it is caught in a trap, or dies in a net. Again there is the Yak, so large that it is like a cloud hanging in the sky. It is large indeed, but it cannot catch mice. You, Sir, have a large tree and are troubled because it is of no use - why do you not plant it in a tract where there is nothing else, or in a wide and barren wild? There you might saunter idly by its side, or in the enjoyment of untroubled ease sleep beneath it. Neither bill nor axe would shorten its existence; there would be nothing to injure it. What is there in its uselessness to cause you distress?'

URN: ctp:zhuangzi/enjoyment-in-untroubled-ease