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Chinese Text Project
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《刻意 - Ingrained Ideas》

English translation: James Legge [?]
Books referencing 《刻意》 Library Resources
1 刻意:
刻意尚行,離世異俗,高論怨誹,為亢而已矣,此山谷之士,非世之人,枯槁赴淵者之所好也。語仁義忠信,恭儉推讓,為修而已矣,此平世之士,教誨之人,遊居學者之所好也。語大功,立大名,禮君臣,正上下,為治而已矣,此朝廷之士,尊主強國之人,致功并兼者之所好也。就藪澤,處閒曠,釣魚閒處,無為而已矣,此江海之士,避世之人,閒暇者之所好也。吹呴呼吸,吐故納新,熊經鳥申,為壽而已矣,此道引之士,養形之人,彭祖壽考者之所好也。
Ingrained Ideas:
Ingrained ideas and a high estimate of their own conduct; leaving the world, and pursuing uncommon ways; talking loftily and in resentful disparagement of others - all this is simply symptomatic of arrogance. This is what scholars who betake themselves to the hills and valleys, who are always blaming the world, and who stand aloof like withered trees, or throw themselves into deep pools, are fond of. Discoursing of benevolence, righteousness, loyalty, and good faith; being humble and frugal, self-forgetful and courteous - all this is simply symptomatic of (self-)cultivation. This is what scholars who wish to tranquillise the world, teachers and instructors, men who pursue their studies at home and abroad, are fond of. Discoursing of their great merit and making a great name for themselves; insisting on the ceremonies between ruler and minister; and rectifying the relations between high and low - all this shows their one object to be the promotion of government. This is what officers of the court, men who honour their lord and would strengthen the state and who would do their utmost to incorporate other states with their own, are fond of. Resorting to marshes and lakes; dwelling in solitary places; occupying themselves with angling and living at ease - all this shows their one object to be to do nothing. This is what gentlemen of the rivers and seas, men who avoid the society of the world and desire to live at leisure, are fond of. Blowing and breathing with open mouth; inhaling and exhaling the breath; expelling the old breath and taking in new; passing their time like the (dormant) bear, and stretching and twisting (the neck) like a bird - all this simply shows the desire for longevity. This is what the scholars who manipulate their breath, and the men who nourish the body and wish to live as long as Peng Zu are fond of.
若夫不刻意而高,無仁義而修,無功名而治,無江海而閒,不道引而壽,無不忘也,無不有也,澹然無極而眾美從之,此天地之道,聖人之德也。
As to those who have a lofty character without any ingrained ideas; who pursue the path of self-cultivation without benevolence and righteousness; who succeed in government without great services or fame; who enjoy their ease without resorting to the rivers and seas; who attain to longevity without the management (of the breath); who forget all things and yet possess all things; whose placidity is unlimited, while all things to be valued attend them: such men pursue the way of heaven and earth, and display the characteristics of the sages.

2 刻意:
故曰:夫恬惔寂寞,虛無無為,此天地之平而道德之質也。
Ingrained Ideas:
Hence it is said, 'Placidity, indifference, silence, quietude, absolute vacancy, and non-action: these are the qualities which maintain the level of heaven and earth and are the substance of the Dao and its characteristics.'
故曰:聖人休,休焉則平易矣,平易則恬惔矣。平易恬惔,則憂患不能入,邪氣不能襲,故其德全而神不虧。
In accordance with this it is said, 'The sage is entirely restful, and so (his mind) is evenly balanced and at ease. This even balance and ease appears in his placidity and indifference. In this state of even balance and ease, of placidity and indifference, anxieties and evils do not find access to him, no depraving influence can take him by surprise; his virtue is complete, and his spirit continues unimpaired.'
故曰:聖人之生也天行,其死也物化;靜而與陰同德,動而與陽同波;不為福先,不為禍始;感而後應,迫而後動,不得已而後起。去知與故,循天之理,故無天災,無物累,無人非,無鬼責。其生若浮,其死若休;不思慮,不豫謀;光矣而不耀,信矣而不期;其寢不夢,其覺無憂;其神純粹,其魂不罷。虛無恬惔,乃合天德。
Therefore it is (also) said, 'The life of the sage is (like) the action of Heaven; and his death is the transformation common to (all) things. In his stillness his virtue is the same as that of the Yin, and in movement his diffusiveness is like that of the Yang. He does not take the initiative in producing either happiness or calamity. He responds to the influence acting on him, and moves as he feels the pressure. He rises to act only when he is obliged to do so. He discards wisdom and the memories of the past; he follows the lines of his Heaven (-given nature); and therefore he suffers no calamity from Heaven, no involvement from things, no blame from men, and no reproof from the spirits of the dead. His life seems to float along; his death seems to be a resting. He does not indulge any anxious doubts; he does not lay plans beforehand. His light is without display; his good faith is without previous arrangement. His sleep is untroubled by dreams; his waking is followed by no sorrows. His spirit is guileless and pure; his soul is not subject to weariness. Vacant and without self-assertion, placid and indifferent, he agrees with the virtue of Heaven.'
故曰:悲樂者,德之邪;喜怒者,道之過;好惡者,德之失。故心不憂樂,德之至也;一而不變,靜之至也;無所於忤,虛之至也;不與物交,惔之至也;無所於逆,粹之至也。
Therefore it is said (further), 'Sadness and pleasure show a depraving element in the virtue (of those who feel them); joy and anger show some error in their course; love and hatred show a failure of their virtue. Hence for the mind to be free from sorrow and pleasure is the perfection of virtue; to be of one mind that does not change is the perfection of quietude; to be conscious of no opposition is the perfection of vacancy; to have no intercourse with (external) things is the perfection of indifference; and to have no rebellious dissatisfactions is the perfection of purity.'
故曰:形勞而不休則弊,精用而不已則勞,勞則竭。水之性,不雜則清,莫動則平,鬱閉而不流,亦不能清,天德之象也。
Therefore it is said (still further), 'If the body be toiled, and does not rest, it becomes worn out; if the spirit be used without cessation, it becomes toiled; and when toiled, it becomes exhausted. It is the nature of water, when free from admixture, to be clear, and, when not agitated, to be level; while if obstructed and not allowed to flow, it cannot preserve its clearness - being an image of the virtue of Heaven.'
故曰:純粹而不雜,靜一而不變,惔而無為,動而以天行,此養神之道也。
Hence it is said (once again), 'To be guileless and pure, and free from all admixture; to be still and uniform, without undergoing any change; to be indifferent and do nothing; to move and yet to act like Heaven: this is the way to nourish the spirit.

3 刻意:
夫有干、越之劍者,柙而藏之,不敢用也,寶之至也。精神四達並流,無所不極,上際於天,下蟠於地,化育萬物,不可為象,其名為同帝。純素之道,惟神是守,守而勿失,與神為一,一之精通,合於天倫。野語有之曰:「眾人重利,廉士重名,賢人尚志,聖人貴精。」故素也者,謂其無所與雜也;純也者,謂其不虧其神也。能體純素,謂之真人。
Ingrained Ideas:
Now he who possesses a sword made at Gan-Yue preserves it carefully in a box, and does not dare to use it - it is considered the perfection of valuable swords. But the human spirit goes forth in all directions, flowing on without limit, reaching to heaven above, and wreathing round the earth beneath. It transforms and nourishes all things, and cannot be represented by any form. Its name is "the Divinity (in man)." It is only the path of pure simplicity which guards and preserves the Spirit. When this path is preserved and not lost, it becomes one with the Spirit; and in this ethereal amalgamation, it acts in harmony with the orderly operation of Heaven.' There is the vulgar saying, 'The multitude of men consider gain to be the most important thing; pure scholars, fame; those who are wise and able value their ambition; the sage prizes essential purity.' Therefore simplicity is the denomination of that in which there is no admixture; purity of that in which the spirit is not impaired. It is he who can embody simplicity and purity whom we call the True Man.

URN: ctp:zhuangzi/ingrained-ideas