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Chinese Text Project
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《寓言 - Metaphorical Language》

English translation: James Legge [?]
Books referencing 《寓言》 Library Resources
1 寓言:
寓言十九,重言十七,卮言日出,和以天倪。寓言十九,藉外論之。親父不為其子媒。親父譽之,不若非其父者也;非吾罪也,人之罪也。與己同則應,不與己同則反,同於己為是之,異於己為非之。重言十七,所以已言也,是為耆艾。年先矣,而無經緯本末以期年耆者,是非先也。人而無以先人,無人道也;人而無人道,是之謂陳人。
Metaphorical Language:...:
Of my sentences nine in ten are metaphorical; of my illustrations seven in ten are from valued writers. The rest of my words are like the water that daily fills the cup, tempered and harmonised by the Heavenly element in our nature.
The nine sentences in ten which are metaphorical are borrowed from extraneous things to assist (the comprehension of) my argument. (When it is said, for instance), 'A father does not act the part of matchmaker for his own son,' (the meaning is that) 'it is better for another man to praise the son than for his father to do so.' The use of such metaphorical language is not my fault, but the fault of men (who would not otherwise readily understand me).
Men assent to views which agree with their own, and oppose those which do not so agree. Those which agree with their own they hold to be right, and those which do not so agree they hold to be wrong. The seven out of ten illustrations taken from valued writers are designed to put an end to disputations. Those writers are the men of hoary eld, my predecessors in time. But such as are unversed in the warp and woof, the beginning and end of the subject, cannot be set down as of venerable eld, and regarded as the predecessors of others. If men have not that in them which fits them to precede others, they are without the way proper to man, and they who are without the way proper to man can only be pronounced defunct monuments of antiquity.
卮言日出,和以天倪,因以曼衍,所以窮年。不言則齊,齊與言不齊,言與齊不齊也,故曰無言。言無言,終身言,未嘗言;終身不言,未嘗不言。有自也而可,有自也而不可;有自也而然,有自也而不然。惡乎然?然於然。惡乎不然?不然於不然。惡乎可?可於可。惡乎不可?不可於不可。物固有所然,物固有所可,無物不然,無物不可。非卮言日出,和以天倪,孰得其久!萬物皆種也,以不同形相禪,始卒若環,莫得其倫,是謂天均。天均者,天倪也。
Words like the water that daily issues from the cup, and are harmonised by the Heavenly Element (of our nature), may be carried on into the region of the unlimited, and employed to the end of our years. But without words there is an agreement (in principle). That agreement is not effected by words, and an agreement in words is not effected by it. Hence it is said, 'Let there be no words.' Speech does not need words. One may speak all his life, and not have spoken a (right) word; and one may not have spoken all his life, and yet all his life been giving utterance to the (right) words. There is that which makes a thing allowable, and that which makes a thing not allowable. There is that which makes a thing right, and that which makes a thing not right. How is a thing right? It is right because it is right. How is a thing wrong? It is wrong because it is wrong. How is a thing allowable? It is allowable because it is so. How is a thing not allowable? It is not allowable because it is not so. Things indeed have what makes them right, and what makes them allowable. There is nothing which has not its condition of right; nothing which has not its condition of allowability. But without the words of the (water-) cup in daily use, and harmonised by the Heavenly Element (in our nature), what one can continue long in the possession of these characteristics?
All things are divided into their several classes, and succeed to one another in the same way, though of different bodily forms. They begin and end as in an unbroken ring, though how it is they do so be not apprehended. This is what is called the Lathe of Heaven; and the Lathe of Heaven is the Heavenly Element in our nature.

2 寓言:
莊子謂惠子曰:「孔子行年六十而六十化,始時所是,卒而非之,未知今之所謂是之非五十九年非也。」惠子曰:「孔子勤志服知也。」莊子曰:「孔子謝之矣,而其未之嘗言。孔子云:『夫受才乎大本,復靈以生。』鳴而當律,言而當法,利義陳乎前,而好惡是非直服人之口而已矣。使人乃以心服而不敢蘁立,定天下之定。已乎已乎!吾且不得及彼乎!」
Metaphorical Language:...:
Zhuangzi said to Huizi, 'When Confucius was in his sixtieth year, in that year his views changed. What he had before held to be right, he now ended by holding to be wrong; and he did not know whether the things which he now pronounced to be right were not those which he had for fifty-nine years held to be wrong.' Huizi replied, 'Confucius with an earnest will pursued the acquisition of knowledge, and acted accordingly.' Zhuangzi rejoined, 'Confucius disowned such a course, and never said that it was his. He said, "Man receives his powers from the Great Source (of his being), and he should restore them to their (original) intelligence in his life. His singing should be in accordance with the musical tubes, and his speech a model for imitation. When profit and righteousness are set before him, and his liking (for the latter) and dislike (of the former), his approval and disapproval, are manifested, that only serves to direct the speech of men (about him). To make men in heart submit, and not dare to stand up in opposition to him; to establish the fixed law for all under heaven: ah! ah! I have not attained to that."'

3 寓言:
曾子再仕而心再化,曰:「吾及親仕,三釜而心樂;後仕,三千鍾而不洎,吾心悲。」弟子問於仲尼曰:「若參者,可謂無所縣其罪乎?」曰:「既已縣矣。夫無所縣者,可以有哀乎?彼視三釜、三千鍾,如觀雀蚊虻相過乎前也。」
Metaphorical Language:...:
Zeng-zi twice took office, and on the two occasions his state of mind was different. He said, 'While my parents were alive I took office, and though my emolument was only three fu (of grain), my mind was happy. Afterwards when I took office, my emolument was three thousand zhong; but I could not share it with my parents, and my mind was sad.' The other disciples asked Zhongni, saying, 'Such an one as Shan may be pronounced free from all entanglement: is he to be blamed for feeling as he did?' The reply was, 'But he was subject to entanglement. If he had been free from it, could he have had that sadness? He would have looked on his three fu and three thousand zhong no more than on a heron or a mosquito passing before him.'

4 寓言:
顏成子游謂東郭子綦曰:自吾聞子之言,一年而野,二年而從,三年而通,四年而物,五年而來,六年而鬼入,七年而天成,八年而不知死、不知生,九年而大妙。
Metaphorical Language:...:
Yan Cheng Zi-you said to Dong-guo Zi-qi, 'When I (had begun to) hear your instructions, the first year, I continued a simple rustic; the second year, I became docile; the third year, I comprehended (your teaching); the fourth year, I was (plastic) as a thing; the fifth year, I made advances; the sixth year, the spirit entered (and dwelt in me); the seventh year, (my nature as designed by) Heaven was perfected; the eighth year, I knew no difference between death and life; the ninth year, I attained to the Great Mystery.
生有為,死也。勸公:以其死也,有自也;而生陽也,無自也。而果然乎?惡乎其所適?惡乎其所不適?天有曆數,地有人據,吾惡乎求之?莫知其所終,若之何其無命也?莫知其所始,若之何其有命也?有以相應也,若之何其無鬼邪?無以相應也,若之何其有鬼邪?」
'Life has its work to do, and death ensues, (as if) the common character of each were a thing prescribed. Men consider that their death has its cause; but that life from (the operation of) the Yang has no cause. But is it really so? How does (the Yang) operate in this direction? Why does it not operate there? Heaven has its places and spaces which can be calculated; (the divisions of) the earth can be assigned bv men. But how shall we search for and find out (the conditions of the Great Mystery)? We do not know when and how (life) will end, but how shall we conclude that it is not determined (from without)? and as we do not know when and how it begins, how should we conclude that it is not (so) determined? In regard to the issues of conduct which we deem appropriate, how should we conclude that there are no spirits presiding over them; and where those issues seem inappropriate, how should we conclude that there are spirits presiding over them?'

5 寓言:
眾罔兩問於景曰:「若向也俯而今也仰,向也括而今被髮,向也坐而今也起,向也行而今也止,何也?」景曰:「搜搜也,奚稍問也?予有而不知其所以。予,蜩甲也,蛇蛻也,似之而非也。火與日,吾屯也;陰與夜,吾代也。彼,吾所以有待邪?而況乎以有待者乎!彼來則我與之來,彼往則我與之往,彼強陽則我與之強陽。強陽者,又何以有問乎!」
Metaphorical Language:...:
The penumbrae (once) asked the shadow, saying, 'Formerly you were looking down, and now you are looking up; formerly you had your hair tied up, and now it is dishevelled; formerly you were sitting, and now you have risen up; formerly you were walking, and now you have stopped: how is all this?' The shadow said, 'Venerable Sirs, how do you ask me about such small matters? These things all belong to me, but I do not know how they do so. I am (like) the shell of a cicada or the cast-off skin of a snake - like them, and yet not like them. With light and the sun I make my appearance; with darkness and the night I fade away. Am not I dependent on the substance from which I am thrown? And that substance is itself dependent on something else! When it comes, I come with it; when it goes, I go with it. When it comes under the influence of the strong Yang, I come under the same. Since we are both produced by that strong Yang, what occasion is there for you to question me?'

6 寓言:
陽子居南之沛,老聃西遊於秦,邀於郊,至於梁而遇老子。老子中道仰天而歎曰:「始以汝為可教,今不可也。」陽子居不答。至舍,進盥漱巾櫛,脫屨戶外,膝行而前曰:「向者弟子欲請夫子,夫子行不閒,是以不敢。今閒矣,請問其過。」老子曰:「而睢睢盱盱,而誰與居?大白若辱,盛德若不足。」陽子居蹴然變容曰:「敬聞命矣。」其往也,舍者迎將其家,公執席,妻執巾櫛,舍者避席,煬者避灶。其反也,舍者與之爭席矣。
Metaphorical Language:...:
Yang Zi-ju had gone South to Pei, while Lao Dan was travelling in the west in Qin. (He thereupon) asked (Laozi) to come to the border (of Pei), and went himself to Liang, where he met him. Laozi stood in the middle of the way, and, looking up to heaven, said with a sigh, 'At first I thought that you might be taught, but now I see that you cannot be.' Yang Zi-ju made no reply; and when they came to their lodging-house, he brought in water for the master to wash his hands and rinse his mouth, along with a towel and comb. He then took off his shoes outside the door, went forward on his knees, and said, 'Formerly, your disciple wished to ask you, Master, (the reason of what you said); but you were walking, and there was no opportunity, and therefore I did not presume to speak. Now there is an opportunity, and I beg to ask why you spoke as you did.' Laozi replied, 'Your eyes are lofty, and you stare - who would live with you? The purest carries himself as if he were soiled; the most virtuous seems to feel himself defective.' Yang Zi-ju looked abashed and changed countenance, saying, 'I receive your commands with reverence,'
When he first went to the lodging-house, the people of it met him and went before him. The master of it carried his mat for him, and the mistress brought the towel and comb. The lodgers left their mats, and the cook his fire-place (as he passed them). When he went away, the others in the house would have striven with him about (the places for) their mats.

URN: ctp:zhuangzi/metaphorical-language