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-> -> -> -> The Normal Course for Rulers and Kings

《應帝王 - The Normal Course for Rulers and Kings》

English translation: James Legge [?]
Books referencing 《應帝王》 Library Resources
1 應帝王:
齧缺問於王倪,四問而四不知。齧缺因躍而大喜,行以告蒲衣子。蒲衣子曰:「而乃今知之乎?有虞氏不及泰氏。有虞氏,其猶藏仁以要人,亦得人矣,而未始出於非人。泰氏,其臥徐徐,其覺于于,一以己為馬,一以己為牛,其知情信,其德甚真,而未始入於非人。」
The Normal Course for...:
Nie Que put four questions to Wang Ni, not one of which did he know (how to answer). On this Nie Que leaped up, and in great delight walked away and informed Yu-yi Zi of it, who said to him, 'Do you (only) now know it?' He of the line of Yu was not equal to him of the line of Tai. He of Yu still kept in himself (the idea of) benevolence by which to constrain (the submission of) men; and he did win men, but he had not begun to proceed by what did not belong to him as a man. He of the line of Tai would sleep tranquilly, and awake in contented simplicity. He would consider himself now (merely) as a horse, and now (merely) as an ox. His knowledge was real and untroubled by doubts; and his virtue was very true: he had not begun to proceed by what belonged to him as a man.

2 應帝王:
肩吾見狂接輿。狂接輿曰:「日中始何以語女?」肩吾曰:「告我:君人者,以己出經式義度,人孰敢不聽而化諸!」狂接輿曰:「是欺德也。其於治天下也,猶涉海鑿河,而使蚉負山也。夫聖人之治也,治外乎?正而後行,確乎能其事者而已矣。且鳥高飛以避矰弋之害,鼷鼠深穴乎神丘之下,以避熏鑿之患,而曾二蟲之無知!」
The Normal Course for...:
Jian Wu went to see the mad (recluse), Jie-yu, who said to him, 'What did Ri-Zhong Shi tell you?' The reply was, 'He told me that when rulers gave forth their regulations according to their own views and enacted righteous measures, no one would venture not to obey them, and all would be transformed.' Jie-yu said, 'That is but the hypocrisy of virtue. For the right ordering of the world it would be like trying to wade through the sea and dig through the He, or employing a mosquito to carry a mountain on its back. And when a sage is governing, does he govern men's outward actions? He is (himself) correct, and so (his government) goes on; this is the simple and certain way by which he secures the success of his affairs. Think of the bird which flies high, to avoid being hurt by the dart on the string of the archer, and the little mouse which makes its hole deep under Shen-qiu to avoid the danger of being smoked or dug out; are (rulers) less knowing than these two little creatures?'

3 應帝王:
天根遊於殷陽,至蓼水之上,適遭無名人而問焉,曰:「請問為天下。」無名人曰:「去!汝鄙人也,何問之不豫也!予方將與造物者為人,厭則又乘夫莽眇之鳥,以出六極之外,而遊無何有之鄉,以處壙埌之野。汝又何帠以治天下感予之心為?」又復問。無名人曰:「汝遊心於淡,合氣於漠,順物自然,而無容私焉,而天下治矣。」
The Normal Course for...:
Tian Gen, rambling on the south of (mount) Yin, came to the neighbourhood of the Liao-water. Happening there to meet with the man whose name is not known, he put a question to him, saying, 'I beg to ask what should be done in order to (carry on) the government of the world.' The nameless man said, 'Go away; you are a rude borderer. Why do you put to me a question for which you are unprepared? I would simply play the part of the Maker of (all) things. When wearied, I would mount on the bird of the light and empty air, proceed beyond the six cardinal points, and wander in the region of nonentity, to dwell in the wilderness of desert space. What method have you, moreover, for the government of the world that you (thus) agitate my mind?' (Tian Gen), however, again asked the question, and the nameless man said, 'Let your mind find its enjoyment in pure simplicity; blend yourself with (the primary) ether in idle indifference; allow all things to take their natural course; and admit no personal or selfish consideration - do this and the world will be governed.'

4 應帝王:
陽子居見老聃曰:「有人於此,嚮疾強梁,物徹疏明,學道不倦。如是者,可比明王乎?」老聃曰:「是於聖人也,胥易技係,勞形怵心者也。且也虎豹之文來田,猿狙之便、執嫠之狗來藉。如是者,可比明王乎?」陽子居蹴然曰:「敢問明王之治。」老聃曰:「明王之治,功蓋天下而似不自己,化貸萬物而民弗恃,有莫舉名,使物自喜,立乎不測,而遊於無有者也。」
The Normal Course for...:
Yang Zi-ju, having an interview with Lao Dan, said to him, 'Here is a man, alert and vigorous in responding to all matters, clearsighted and widely intelligent, and an unwearied student of the Dao - can he be compared to one of the intelligent kings?' The reply was, 'Such a man is to one of the intelligent kings but as the bustling underling of a court who toils his body and distresses his mind with his various contrivances. And moreover, it is the beauty of the skins of the tiger and leopard which makes men hunt them; the agility of the monkey, or (the sagacity of) the dog that catches the yak, which make men lead them in strings; but can one similarly endowed be compared to the intelligent kings?' Yang Zi-ju looked discomposed and said, 'I venture to ask you what the government of the intelligent kings is.' Lao Dan replied, 'In the governing of the intelligent kings, their services overspread all under the sky, but they did not seem to consider it as proceeding from themselves; their transforming influence reached to all things, but the people did not refer it to them with hope. No one could tell the name of their agency, but they made men and things be joyful in themselves. Where they took their stand could not be fathomed, and they found their enjoyment in (the realm of) nonentity.'

5 應帝王:
鄭有神巫曰季咸,知人之生死存亡,禍福壽夭,期以歲月旬日,若神。鄭人見之,皆棄而走。列子見之而心醉,歸以告壺子,曰:「始吾以夫子之道為至矣,則又有至焉者矣。」壺子曰:「吾與汝既其文,未既其實,而固得道與?」眾雌而無雄,而又奚卵焉!而以道與世亢必信,夫故使人得而相女。嘗試與來,以予示之。」明日,列子與之見壺子。出而謂列子曰:「嘻!子之先生死矣,弗活矣,不以旬數矣!吾見怪焉,見溼灰焉。」列子入,泣涕沾襟,以告壺子。壺子曰:「鄉吾示之以地文,萌乎不震不正。是殆見吾杜德機也。嘗又與來。」明日,又與之見壺子。出而謂列子曰:「幸矣!子之先生遇我也。有瘳矣,全然有生矣。吾見其杜權矣。」列子入,以告壺子。壺子曰:「鄉吾示之以天壤,名實不入,而機發於踵。是殆見吾善者機也。嘗又與來。」明日,又與之見壺子。出而謂列子曰:「子之先生不齊,吾無得而相焉。試齊,且復相之。」列子入,以告壺子。壺子曰:「吾鄉示之以太沖莫勝。是殆見吾衡氣機也。鯢桓之審為淵,止水之審為淵,流水之審為淵。淵有九名,此處三焉。嘗又與來。」明日,又與之見壺子。立未定,自失而走。壺子曰:「追之!」列子追之不及,反以報壺子,曰:「已滅矣,已失矣,吾弗及也。」壺子曰:「鄉吾示之以未始出吾宗。吾與之虛而委蛇,不知其誰何,因以為弟靡,因以為波流,故逃也。」然後列子自以為未始學而歸,三年不出。為其妻爨,食豕如食人。於事無與親,彫琢復朴,塊然獨以其形立。紛而封哉,一以是終。
The Normal Course for...:
In Zheng there was a mysterious wizard called Ji-xian. He knew all about the deaths and births of men, their preservation and ruin, their misery and happiness, and whether their lives would be long or short, foretelling the year, the month, the decade and the day like a spirit. When the people of Kang saw him, they all ran out of his way. Liezi went to see him, and was fascinated by him. Returning, he told Hu-zi of his interview, and said, 'I considered your doctrine, my master, to be perfect, but I have found another which is superior to it.' Hu-zi replied, 'I have communicated to you but the outward letter of my doctrine, and have not communicated its reality and spirit; and do you think that you are in possession of it? However many hens there be, if there be not the cock among them, how should they lay (real) eggs? When you confront the world with your doctrine, you are sure to show in your countenance (all that is in your mind), and so enable (this) man to succeed in interpreting your physiognomy. Try and come to me with him, that I may show myself to him.'
On the morrow, accordingly, Liezi came with the man and saw Hu-zi. When they went out, the wizard said, 'Alas! your master is a dead man. He will not live;-- not for ten days more! I saw something strange about him - I saw the ashes (of his life) all slaked with water!' When Liezi reentered, he wept till the front of his jacket was wet with his tears, and told Hu-zi what the man had said. Hu-zi said, 'I showed myself to him with the forms of (vegetation beneath) the earth. There were the sprouts indeed, but without (any appearance of) growth or regularity:-- he seemed to see me with the springs of my (vital) power closed up. Try and come to me with him again.'
Next day, accordingly, Liezi brought the man again and saw Hu-zi. When they went out, the man said, 'It is a fortunate thing for your master that he met with me. He will get better; he has all the signs of living! I saw the balance (of the springs of life) that had been stopped (inclining in his favour).' Liezi went in, and reported these words to his master, who said, 'I showed myself to him after the pattern of the earth (beneath the) sky. Neither semblance nor reality entered (into my exhibition), but the springs (of life) were issuing from beneath my feet;-- he seemed to see me with the springs of vigorous action in full play. Try and come with him again.'
Next day Liezi came with the man again, and again saw Hu-zi with him. When they went out, the wizard said, 'Your master is never the same. I cannot understand his physiognomy. Let him try to steady himself, and I will again view him.' Liezi went in and reported this to Hu-zi, who said, 'This time I showed myself to him after the pattern of the grand harmony (of the two elemental forces), with the superiority inclining to neither. He seemed to see me with the springs of (vital) power in equal balance. Where the water wheels about from (the movements of) a dugong, there is an abyss; where it does so from the arresting (of its course), there is an abyss; where it does so, and the water keeps flowing on, there is an abyss. There are nine abysses with their several names, and I have only exhibited three of them. Try and come with him again.'
Next day they came, and they again saw Hu-zi. But before he had settled himself in his position, the wizard lost himself and ran away. 'Pursue him,' said Hu-zi, and Liezi did so, but could not come up with him. He returned, and told Hu-zi, saying, 'There is an end of him; he is lost; I could not find him.' Hu-zi rejoined, 'I was showing him myself after the pattern of what was before I began to come from my author. I confronted him with pure vacancy, and an easy indifference. He did not know what I meant to represent. Now he thought it was the idea of exhausted strength, and now that of an onward flow, and therefore he ran away.'
After this, Liezi considered that he had not yet begun to learn (his master's doctrine). He returned to his house, and for three years did not go out. He did the cooking for his wife. He fed the pigs as if he were feeding men. He took no part or interest in occurring affairs. He put away the carving and sculpture about him, and returned to pure simplicity. Like a clod of earth he stood there in his bodily presence. Amid all distractions he was (silent) and shut up in himself. And in this way he continued to the end of his life.

6 應帝王:
無為名尸,無為謀府,無為事任,無為知主。體盡無窮,而遊無朕,盡其所受於天,而無見得,亦虛而已。至人之用心若鏡,不將不迎,應而不藏,故能勝物而不傷。
The Normal Course for...:
Non-action (makes its exemplifier) the lord of all fame; non-action (serves him as) the treasury of all plans; non-action (fits him for) the burden of all offices; non-action (makes him) the lord of all wisdom. The range of his action is inexhaustible, but there is nowhere any trace of his presence. He fulfils all that he has received from Heaven, but he does not see that he was the recipient of anything. A pure vacancy (of all purpose) is what characterises him. When the perfect man employs his mind, it is a mirror. It conducts nothing and anticipates nothing; it responds to (what is before it), but does not retain it. Thus he is able to deal successfully with all things, and injures none.

7 應帝王:
南海之帝為儵,北海之帝為忽,中央之帝為渾沌。儵與忽時相與遇於渾沌之地,渾沌待之甚善。儵與忽謀報渾沌之德,曰:「人皆有七竅,以視聽食息,此獨無有,嘗試鑿之。」日鑿一竅,七日而渾沌死。
The Normal Course for...:
The Ruler of the Southern Ocean was Shu, the Ruler of the Northern Ocean was Hu, and the Ruler of the Centre was Chaos. Shu and Hu were continually meeting in the land of Chaos, who treated them very well. They consulted together how they might repay his kindness, and said, 'Men all have seven orifices for the purpose of seeing, hearing, eating, and breathing, while this (poor) Ruler alone has not one. Let us try and make them for him.' Accordingly they dug one orifice in him every day; and at the end of seven days Chaos died.

URN: ctp:zhuangzi/normal-course-for-rulers-and-kings