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-> -> -> -> The Seal of Virtue Complete

《德充符 - The Seal of Virtue Complete》

English translation: James Legge [?]
Books referencing 《德充符》 Library Resources
1 德充符:
魯有兀者王駘,從之遊者,與仲尼相若。常季問於仲尼曰:「王駘,兀者也,從之遊者,與夫子中分魯。立不教,坐不議,虛而往,實而歸。固有不言之教,無形而心成者邪?是何人也?」仲尼曰:「夫子,聖人也。丘也,直後而未往耳。丘將以為師,而況不如丘者乎!奚假魯國!丘將引天下而與從之。」常季曰:「彼兀者也,而王先生,其與庸亦遠矣。若然者,其用心也,獨若之何?」仲尼曰:「死生亦大矣,而不得與之變,雖天地覆墜,亦將不與之遺。審乎無假,而不與物遷,命物之化,而守其宗也。」常季曰:「何謂也?」仲尼曰:「自其異者視之,肝膽楚越也;自其同者視之,萬物皆一也。夫若然者,且不知耳目之所宜,而游心於德之和,物視其所一,而不見其所喪,視喪其足,猶遺土也。」常季曰:「彼為己,以其知得其心,以其心得其常心,物何為最之哉?」仲尼曰:「人莫鑑於流水,而鑑於止水,唯止能止眾止。受命於地,唯松柏獨也在,冬夏青青;受命於天,唯舜獨也正,幸能正生,以正眾生。夫保始之徵,不懼之實。勇士一人,雄入於九軍。將求名而能自要者,而猶若此,而況官天地,府萬物,直寓六骸,象耳目,一知之所知,而心未嘗死者乎!彼且擇日而登假,人則從是也。彼且何肯以物為事乎!」
The Seal of Virtue...:
In Lu there was a Wang Tai who had lost both his feet; while his disciples who followed and went about with him were as numerous as those of Zhongni. Chang Ji asked Zhongni about him, saying, 'Though Wang Tai is a cripple, the disciples who follow him about divide Lu equally with you, Master. When he stands, he does not teach them; when he sits, he does not discourse to them. But they go to him empty, and come back full. Is there indeed such a thing as instruction without words? and while the body is imperfect, may the mind be complete? What sort of man is he?' Zhongni replied, 'This master is a sage. I have only been too late in going to him. I will make him my teacher; and how much more should those do so who are not equal to me! Why should only the state of Lu follow him? I will lead on all under heaven with me to do so.'
Chang Ji rejoined, 'He is a man who has lost his feet, and yet he is known as the venerable Wang - he must be very different from ordinary men. What is the peculiar way in which he employs his mind?' The reply was, 'Death and life are great considerations, but they could work no change in him. Though heaven and earth were to be overturned and fall, they would occasion him no loss. His judgment is fixed regarding that in which there is no element of falsehood; and, while other things change, he changes not. The transformations of things are to him the developments prescribed for them, and he keeps fast hold of the author of them.'
Chang Ji said, 'What do you mean?' 'When we look at things,' said Zhongni, 'as they differ, we see them to be different, (as for instance) the liver and the gall, or Chu and Yue; when we look at them, as they agree, we see them all to be a unity. So it is with this (Wang Tai). He takes no knowledge of the things for which his ears and eyes are the appropriate organs, but his mind delights itself in the harmony of (all excellent) qualities. He looks at the unity which belongs to things, and does not perceive where they have suffered loss. He looks on the loss of his feet as only the loss of so much earth.'
Chang Ji said, 'He is entirely occupied with his (proper) self. By his knowledge he has discovered (the nature of) his mind, and to that he holds as what is unchangeable; but how is it that men make so much of him?' The reply was, 'Men do not look into running water as a mirror, but into still water - it is only the still water that can arrest them all, and keep them (in the contemplation of their real selves). Of things which are what they are by the influence of the earth, it is only the pine and cypress which are the best instances - in winter as in summer brightly green. Of those which were what they were by the influence of Heaven, the most correct examples were Yao and Shun; fortunate in (thus) maintaining their own life correct, and so as to correct the lives of others. As a verification of the (power of) the original endowment, when it has been preserved, take the result of fearlessness - how the heroic spirit of a single brave soldier has been thrown into an army of nine hosts. If a man only seeking for fame and able in this way to secure it can produce such an effect, how much more (may we look for a greater result) from one whose rule is over heaven and earth, and holds all things in his treasury, who simply has his lodging in the six members of his body, whom his ears and eyes serve but as conveying emblematic images of things, who comprehends all his knowledge in a unity, and whose mind never dies! If such a man were to choose a day on which he would ascend far on high, men would (seek to) follow him there. But how should he be willing to occupy himself with other men?'

2 德充符:
申徒嘉,兀者也,而與鄭子產同師於伯昏無人。子產謂申徒嘉曰:「我先出,則子止;子先出,則我止。」其明日,又與合堂同席而坐。子產謂申徒嘉曰:「我先出,則子止;子先出,則我止。今我將出,子可以止乎,其未邪?且子見執政而不違,子齊執政乎?」申徒嘉曰:「先生之門,固有執政焉如此哉?子而說子之執政而後人者也!聞之曰:『鑑明則塵垢不止,止則不明也。久與賢人處,則無過。』今子之所取大者,先生也,而猶出言若是,不亦過乎!」子產曰:「子既若是矣,猶與堯爭善,計子之德不足以自反邪?」申徒嘉曰:「自狀其過以不當亡者眾,不狀其過以不當存者寡。知不可奈何而安之若命,惟有德者能之。遊於羿之彀中,中央者,中地也,然而不中者,命也。人以其全足笑吾不全足者多矣。我怫然而怒,而適先生之所,則廢然而反。不知先生之洗我以善邪!吾與夫子遊十九年矣,而未嘗知吾兀者也。今子與我遊於形骸之內,而子索我於形骸之外,不亦過乎!」子產蹴然改容更貌曰:「子無乃稱!」
The Seal of Virtue...:
Shen-tu Jia was (another) man who had lost his feet. Along with Zi-chan of Zheng he studied under the master Bo-hun Wu-ren. Zi-chan said to him (one day), 'If I go out first, do you remain behind; and if you go out first, I will remain behind.' Next day they were again sitting together on the same mat in the hall, when Zi-chan spoke the same words to him, adding, 'Now I am about to go out; will you stay behind or not? Moreover, when you see one of official rank (like myself), you do not try to get out of his way - do you consider yourself equal to one of official rank?' Shen-tu Jia replied, 'In our Master's school is there indeed such recognition required of official rank? You are one, Sir, whose pleasure is in your official rank, and would therefore take precedence of other men. I have heard that when a mirror is bright, the dust does not rest on it; when dust rests on it the mirror is not bright. When one dwells long with a man of ability and virtue, he comes to be without error. There now is our teacher whom you have chosen to make you greater than you are; and when you still talk in this way, are you not in error?' Zi-chan rejoined, 'A (shattered) object as you are, you would still strive to make yourself out as good as Yao! If I may form an estimate of your virtue, might it not be sufficient to lead you to the examination of yourself?' The other said, 'Most criminals, in describing their offences, would make it out that they ought not to have lost (their feet) for them; few would describe them so as to make it appear that they should not have preserved their feet. They are only the virtuous who know that such a calamity was unavoidable, and therefore rest in it as what was appointed for them. When men stand before (an archer like) Yi with his bent bow, if they are in the middle of his field, that is the place where they should be hit; and if they be not hit, that also was appointed. There are many with their feet entire who laugh at me because I have lost my feet, which makes me feel vexed and angry. But when I go to our teacher, I throw off that feeling, and return (to a better mood) - he has washed, without my knowing it, the other from me by (his instructions in) what is good. I have attended him now for nineteen years, and have not known that I am without my feet. Now, you, Sir, and I have for the object of our study the (virtue) which is internal, and not an adjunct of the body, and yet you are continually directing your attention to my external body - are you not wrong in this?' Zi-chan felt uneasy, altered his manner and looks, and said, 'You need not, Sir, say anything more about it.'

3 德充符:
魯有兀者叔山無趾,踵見仲尼。仲尼曰:「子不謹,前既犯患若是矣。雖今來,何及矣?」無趾曰:「吾唯不知務而輕用吾身,吾是以亡足。今吾來也,猶有尊足者存,吾是以務全之也。夫天無不覆,地無不載,吾以夫子為天地,安知夫子之猶若是也!」孔子曰:「丘則陋矣。夫子胡不入乎?請講以所聞!」無趾出。孔子曰:「弟子勉之!夫無趾,兀者也,猶務學以復補前行之惡,而況全德之人乎!」無趾語老聃曰:「孔丘之於至人,其未邪!彼何賓賓以學子為?彼且蘄以諔詭幻怪之名聞,不知至人之以是為己桎梏邪?」老聃曰:「胡不直使彼以死生為一條,以可不可為一貫者,解其桎梏,其可乎?」無趾曰:「天刑之,安可解?」
The Seal of Virtue...:
In Lu there was a cripple, called Shu-shan the Toeless, who came on his heels to see Zhongni. Zhongni said to him, 'By your want of circumspection in the past, Sir, you have incurred such a calamity; of what use is your coming to me now?' Toeless said, 'Through my ignorance of my proper business and taking too little care of my body, I came to lose my feet. But now I am come to you, still possessing what is more honourable than my feet, and which therefore I am anxious to preserve entire. There is nothing which Heaven does not cover, and nothing which Earth does not sustain; you, Master, were regarded by me as doing the part of Heaven and Earth - how could I know that you would receive me in such a way?' Confucius rejoined, 'I am but a poor creature. But why, my master, do you not come inside, where I will try to tell you what I have learned?' When Toeless had gone out, Confucius said, 'Be stimulated to effort, my disciples. This toeless cripple is still anxious to learn to make up for the evil of his former conduct;-- how much more should those be so whose conduct has been unchallenged!' Mr. Toeless, however, told Lao Dan (of the interview), saying, 'Kong Qiu, I apprehend, has not yet attained to be a Perfect man. What has he to do with keeping a crowd of disciples around him? He is seeking to have the reputation of being an extraordinary and marvellous man, and does not know that the Perfect man considers this to be as handcuffs and fetters to him.' Lao Dan said, 'Why did you not simply lead him to see the unity of life and death, and that the admissible and inadmissible belong to one category, so freeing him from his fetters? Would this be possible?' Toeless said, 'It is the punishment inflicted on him by Heaven. How can he be freed from it?'

4 德充符:
魯哀公問於仲尼曰:「衛有惡人焉,曰哀駘它。丈夫與之處者,思而不能去也。婦人見之,請於父母曰『與為人妻,寧為夫子妾』者,十數而未止也。未嘗有聞其唱者也,常和而已矣。無君人之位以濟乎人之死,無聚祿以望人之腹。又以惡駭天下,和而不唱,知不出乎四域,且而雌雄合乎前。是必有異乎人者也。寡人召而觀之,果以惡駭天下。與寡人處,不至以月數,而寡人有意乎其為人也;不至乎期年,而寡人信之。國無宰,寡人傳國焉。悶然而後應,氾而若辭。寡人醜乎,卒授之國。無幾何也,去寡人而行,寡人卹焉若有亡也,若無與樂是國也。是何人者也?」仲尼曰:「丘也,嘗使於楚矣,適見㹠子食於其死母者,少焉眴若,皆棄之而走。不見己焉爾,不得類焉爾。所愛其母者,非愛其形也,愛使其形者也。戰而死者,其人之葬也,不以翣資,刖者之屨,無為愛之,皆無其本矣。為天子之諸御,不爪翦,不穿耳;娶妻者止於外,不得復使。形全猶足以為爾,而況全德之人乎!今哀駘它未言而信,無功而親,使人授己國,唯恐其不受也,是必才全而德不形者也。」哀公曰:「何謂才全?」仲尼曰:「死生存亡,窮達貧富,賢與不肖,毀譽、饑渴、寒暑,是事之變,命之行也;日夜相代乎前,而知不能規乎其始者也。故不足以滑和,不可入於靈府。使之和豫通而不失於兌,使日夜無郤而與物為春,是接而生時於心者也。是之謂才全。」「何謂德不形?」曰:「平者,水停之盛也。其可以為法也,內保之而外不蕩也。德者,成和之修也。德不形者,物不能離也。」哀公異日以告閔子曰:「始也,吾以南面而君天下,執民之紀,而憂其死,吾自以為至通矣。今吾聞至人之言,恐吾無其實,輕用吾身而亡其國。吾與孔丘,非君臣也,德友而已矣。」
The Seal of Virtue...:
Duke Ai of Lu asked Zhongni, saying, 'There was an ugly man in Wei, called Ai-tai Tuo. His father-in-law, who lived with him, thought so much of him that he could not be away from him. His wife, when she saw him (ugly as he was), represented to her parents, saying, "I had more than ten times rather be his concubine than the wife of any other man." He was never heard to take the lead in discussion, but always seemed to be of the same opinion with others. He had not the position of a ruler, so as to be able to save men from death. He had no revenues, so as to be able to satisfy men's craving for food. He was ugly enough, moreover, to scare the whole world. He agreed with men instead of trying to lead them to adopt his views; his knowledge did not go beyond his immediate neighbourhood. And yet his father-in-law and his wife were of one mind about him in his presence (as I have said) - he must have been different from other men. I called him, and saw him. Certainly he was ugly enough to scare the whole world. He had not lived with me, however, for many months, when I was drawn to the man; and before he had been with me a full year, I had confidence in him. The state being without a chief minister, I (was minded) to commit the government to him. He responded to my proposal sorrowfully, and looked undecided as if he would fain have declined it. I was ashamed of myself (as inferior to him), but finally gave the government into his hands. In a little time, however, he left me and went away. I was sorry and felt that I had sustained a loss, and as if there were no other to share the pleasures of the kingdom with me. What sort of man was he?'
Zhongni said, 'Once when I was sent on a mission to Qi, I saw some pigs sucking at their dead mother. After a little they looked with rapid glances, when they all left her, and ran away. They felt that she did not see them, and that she was no longer like themselves. What they had loved in their mother was not her bodily figure, but what had given animation to her figure. When a man dies in battle, they do not at his interment employ the usual appendages of plumes: as to supplying shoes to one who has lost his feet, there is no reason why he should care for them - in neither case is there the proper reason for their use. The members of the royal harem do not pare their nails nor pierce their ears; when a man is newly married, he remains (for a time) absent from his official duties, and unoccupied with them. That their bodies might be perfect was sufficient to make them thus dealt with; how much greater results should be expected from men whose mental gifts are perfect! This Ai-tai Tuo was believed by men, though he did not speak a word; and was loved by them, though he did no special service for them. He made men appoint him to the government of their states, afraid only that he would not accept the appointment. He must have been a man whose powers were perfect, though his realisation of them was not manifested in his person.
Duke Ai said, 'What is meant by saying that his powers were complete?' Zhongni replied, 'Death and life, preservation and ruin, failure and success, poverty and wealth, superiority and inferiority, blame and praise, hunger and thirst, cold and heat; these are the changes of circumstances, the operation of our appointed lot. Day and night they succeed to one another before us, but there is no wisdom able to discover to what they owe their origination. They are not sufficient therefore to disturb the harmony (of the nature), and are not allowed to enter into the treasury of intelligence. To cause this harmony and satisfaction ever to be diffused, while the feeling of pleasure is not lost from the mind; to allow no break to arise in this state day or night, so that it is always spring-time in his relations with external things; in all his experiences to realise in his mind what is appropriate to each season (of the year): these are the characteristics of him whose powers are perfect.'
'And what do you mean by the realisation of these powers not being manifested in the person?' (pursued further the duke). The reply was, 'There is nothing so level as the surface of a pool of still water. It may serve as an example of what I mean. All within its circuit is preserved (in peace), and there comes to it no agitation from without. The virtuous efficacy is the perfect cultivation of the harmony (of the nature). Though the realisation of this be not manifested in the person, things cannot separate themselves (from its influence).'
Some days afterwards duke Ai told this conversation to Min-zi, saying, 'Formerly it seemed to me the work of the sovereign to stand in court with his face to the south, to rule the kingdom, and to pay good heed to the accounts of the people concerned, lest any should come to a (miserable) death - this I considered to be the sum (of his duty). Now that I have heard that description of the Perfect man, I fear that my idea is not the real one, and that, by employing myself too lightly, I may cause the ruin of my state. I and Kong Qiu are not on the footing of ruler and subject, but on that of a virtuous friendship.'

5 德充符:
闉跂支離無脤說衛靈公,靈公說之,而視全人,其脰肩肩。甕盎大癭說齊桓公,桓公說之,而視全人,其脰肩肩。故德有所長,而形有所忘,人不忘其所忘,而忘其所不忘,此謂誠忘。故聖人有所遊,而知為孽,約為膠,德為接,工為商。聖人不謀,惡用知?不斲,惡用膠?無喪,惡用德?不貨,惡用商?四者,天鬻也。天鬻者,天食也。既受食於天,又惡用人?有人之形,無人之情。有人之形,故群於人;無人之情,故是非不得於身。眇乎小哉!所以屬於人也。謷乎大哉!獨成其天。
The Seal of Virtue...:
A person who had no lips, whose legs were bent so that he could only walk on his toes, and who was (otherwise) deformed, addressed his counsels to duke Ling of Wei, who was so pleased with him, that he looked on a perfectly formed man as having a lean and small neck in comparison with him. Another who had a large goitre like an earthenware jar addressed his counsels to duke Huan of Qi, who was so pleased with him that he looked on a perfectly formed man as having a neck lean and small in comparison with him. So it is that when one's virtue is extraordinary, (any deficiency in) his bodily form may be forgotten. When men do not forget what is (easily) forgotten, and forget what is not (easily) forgotten, we have a case of real oblivion. Therefore the sagely man has that in which his mind finds its enjoyment, and (looks on) wisdom as (but) the shoots from an old stump; agreements with others are to him but so much glue ; kindnesses are (but the arts of) intercourse; and great skill is (but as) merchants' wares. The sagely man lays no plans; of what use would wisdom be to him? He has no cutting and hacking to do; of what use would glue be to him? He has lost nothing; of what use would arts of intercourse be to him? He has no goods to dispose of; what need has he to play the merchant? (The want of) these four things are the nourishment of (his) Heavenly (nature); that nourishment is its Heavenly food. Since he receives this food from Heaven, what need has he for anything of man's (devising)? He has the bodily form of man, but not the passions and desires of (other) men. He has the form of man, and therefore he is a man. Being without the passions and desires of men, their approvings and disapprovings are not to be found in him. How insignificant and small is (the body) by which he belongs to humanity! How grand and great is he in the unique perfection of his Heavenly (nature)!

6 德充符:
惠子謂莊子曰:「人故無情乎?」莊子曰:「然。」惠子曰:「人而無情,何以謂之人?」莊子曰:「道與之貌,天與之形,惡得不謂之人?」惠子曰:「既謂之人,惡得無情?」莊子曰:「是非吾所謂情也。吾所謂無情者,言人之不以好惡內傷其身,常因自然而不益生也。」惠子曰:「不益生,何以有其身?」莊子曰:「道與之貌,天與之形,無以好惡內傷其身。今子外乎子之神,勞乎子之精,倚樹而吟,據槁梧而瞑。天選子之形,子以堅白鳴!」
The Seal of Virtue...:
Huizi said to Zhuangzi, 'Can a man indeed be without desires and passions?' The reply was, 'He can.' 'But on what grounds do you call him a man, who is thus without passions and desires?' Zhuangzi said, 'The Dao gives him his personal appearance (and powers); Heaven gives him his bodily form; how should we not call him a man?' Huizi rejoined, 'Since you call him a man, how can he be without passions and desires?' The reply was, 'You are misunderstanding what I mean by passions and desires. What I mean when I say that he is without these is, that this man does not by his likings and dislikings do any inward harm to his body - he always pursues his course without effort, and does not (try to) increase his (store of) life.' Huizi rejoined, 'If there were not that increasing of (the amount) of life, how would he get his body?' Zhuangzi said, 'The Dao gives him his personal appearance (and powers); Heaven gives him his bodily form; and he does not by his likings and dislikings do any internal harm to his body. But now you, Sir, deal with your spirit as if it were something external to you, and subject your vital powers to toil. You sing (your ditties), leaning against a tree; you go to sleep, grasping the stump of a rotten dryandra tree. Heaven selected for you the bodily form (of a man), and you babble about what is strong and what is white.'

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