Follow us on Facebook to receive important updates - thanks for your support! Follow us on Twitter to receive important updates - thanks for your support! Follow us on sina.com's microblogging site to receive important updates - thanks for your support! Follow us on Douban to receive important updates - thanks for your support!
Chinese Text Project
Show translation:[None] [English]

《田子方 - Tian Zi-fang》

English translation: James Legge [?]
Books referencing 《田子方》 Library Resources
1 田子方:
田子方侍坐於魏文侯,數稱谿工。文侯曰:「谿工,子之師邪?」子方曰:「非也。無擇之里人也,稱道數當,故無擇稱之。」文侯曰:「然則子無師邪?」子方曰:「有。」曰:「子之師誰邪?」子方曰:「東郭順子。」文侯曰:「然則夫子何故未嘗稱之?」子方曰:「其為人也真,人貌而天虛,緣而葆真,清而容物。物無道,正容以悟之,使人之意也消。無擇何足以稱之!」
Tian Zi-fang:
Tian Zi-fang, sitting in attendance on the marquis Wen of Wei, often quoted (with approbation) the words of Qi Gong. The marquis said, 'Is Qi Gong your preceptor?' Zi-fang replied, 'No. He only belongs to the same neighbourhood. In speaking about the Dao, his views are often correct, and therefore I quote them as I do.' The marquis went on, 'Then have you no preceptor?' 'I have.' 'And who is he?' He is Dong-guo Shun-zi.' 'And why, my Master, have I never heard you quote his words?' Zi-fang replied, 'He is a man who satisfies the true (ideal of humanity); a man in appearance, but (having the mind of) Heaven. Void of any thought of himself, he accommodates himself to others, and nourishes the true ideal that belongs to him. With all his purity, he is forbearing to others. Where they are without the Dao, he rectifies his demeanour, so that they understand it, and in consequence their own ideas melt away and disappear. How should one like me be fit to quote his words?'
子方出,文侯儻然終日不言,召前立臣,而語之曰:「遠矣全德之君子!始吾以聖知之言、仁義之行為至矣,吾聞子方之師,吾形解而不欲動,口鉗而不欲言。吾所學者直土梗耳,夫魏真為我累耳!」
When Zi-fang went out, the marquis Wen continued in a state of dumb amazement all the day. He then called Long Li-chen, and said to him, 'How far removed from us is the superior man of complete virtue! Formerly I thought the words of the sages and wise men, and the practice of benevolence and righteousness, to be the utmost we could reach to. Since I have heard about the preceptor of Zi-fang, my body is all unstrung, and I do not wish to move, and my mouth is closed up, and I do not wish to speak - what I have learned has been only a counterfeit of the truth. Yes, (the possession of Wei) has been an entanglement to me.'

2 田子方:
溫伯雪子適齊,舍於魯。魯人有請見之者,溫伯雪子曰:「不可。吾聞中國之君子,明乎禮義而陋於知人心,吾不欲見也。」至於齊,反舍於魯,是人也又請見。溫伯雪子曰:「往也蘄見我,今也又蘄見我,是必有以振我也。」出而見客,入而歎。明日見客,又入而歎。其僕曰:「每見之客也,必入而歎,何邪?」曰:「吾固告子矣:『中國之民,明乎禮義而陋乎知人心。』昔之見我者,進退一成規,一成矩;從容一若龍,一若虎;其諫我也似子,其道我也似父。是以歎也。」
Tian Zi-fang:
Wen-bo Xue-zi, on his way to Qi, stayed some time in Lu, where some persons of the state begged to have an interview with him. He refused them, saying, 'I have heard that the superior men of these Middle States understand the (subjects of) ceremony and righteousness, but are deplorably ignorant of the minds of men. I do not wish to see them.' He went on to Qi; and on his way back (to the south), he again stayed in Lu, when the same persons begged as before for an interview. He then said, 'Formerly they asked to see me, and now again they seek an interview. They will afford me some opportunity of bringing out my sentiments.' He went out accordingly and saw the visitors, and came in again with a sigh. The next day again he saw the visitors, and again came in again with a sigh. His servant said to him, 'Whenever you see those visitors, you are sure to come in again sighing - Why is this?' 'I told you before,' was the reply, 'that the people of these Middle States understand (the subjects of) ceremony and righteousness, but are deplorably ignorant of the minds of men. Those men who have just seen me, as they came in and went out would describe, one a circle and another a square, and in their easy carriage would be like, one a dragon and another a tiger. They remonstrated with me as sons (with their fathers), and laid down the way for me as fathers (for their sons). It was this which made me sigh.'
仲尼見之而不言。子路曰:「吾子欲見溫伯雪子久矣,見之而不言,何邪?」仲尼曰:「若夫人者,目擊而道存矣,亦不可以容聲矣。」
Zhongni saw the man, but did not speak a word to him. Zi-lu said, 'You have wished, Sir, to see this Wen-bo Xue-zi for a long time; what is the reason that when you have seen him, you have not spoken a word?' Zhongni replied, 'As soon as my eyes lighted on that man, the Dao in him was apparent. The situation did not admit of a word being spoken.'

3 田子方:
顏淵問於仲尼曰:「夫子步亦步,夫子趨亦趨,夫子馳亦馳,夫子奔逸絕塵,而回瞠若乎後矣。」夫子曰:「回,何謂邪?」曰:「夫子步亦步也,夫子言亦言也,夫子趨亦趨也,夫子辯亦辯也,夫子馳亦馳也,夫子言道,回亦言道也。及奔逸絕塵,而回瞠若乎後者,夫子不言而信,不比而周,無器而民滔乎前,而不知所以然而已矣。」
Tian Zi-fang:
Yan Yuan asked Zhongni, saying, 'Master, when you pace quietly along, I also pace along; when you go more quickly, I also do the same; when you gallop, I also gallop; but when you race along and spurn the dust, then I can only stand and look, and keep behind you.' The Master said, 'Hui, what do you mean?' The reply was, 'In saying that "when you, Master, pace quietly along, I also pace along," I mean that when you speak, I also speak. By saying, "When you go more quickly, I also do the same," I mean that when you reason, I also reason. By saying, "When you gallop, I also gallop," I mean that when you speak of the Way, I also speak of the Way; but by saying, "When you race along and spurn the dust, then I can only stare, and keep behind you," I am thinking how though you do not speak, yet all men believe you; though you are no partisan, yet all parties approve your catholicity; and though you sound no instrument, yet people all move on harmoniously before you, while (all the while) I do not know how all this comes about; and this is all which my words are intended to express.'
仲尼曰:「惡!可不察與!夫哀莫大於心死,而人死亦次之。日出東方而入於西極,萬物莫不比方。有目有趾者,待是而後成功,待晝而作。是出則存,是入則亡。萬物亦然,有待也而死,有待也而生。吾一受其成形,而不化以待盡,效物而動,日夜無隙,而不知其所終,薰然其成形,知命不能規乎其前,丘以是日徂。吾終身與汝交一臂而失之,可不哀與!女殆著乎吾所以著也。彼已盡矣,而女求之以為有,是求馬於唐肆也。吾服女也甚忘,女服吾也亦甚忘。雖然,女奚患焉!雖忘乎故吾,吾有不忘者存。」
Zhongni said, 'But you must try and search the matter out. Of all causes for sorrow there is none so great as the death of the mind - the death of man's (body) is only next to it. The sun comes forth in the east, and sets in the extreme west - all things have their position determined by these two points. All that have eyes and feet wait for this (sun), and then proceed to do what they have to do. When this comes forth, they appear in their places; when it sets, they disappear. It is so with all things. They have that for which they wait, and (on its arrival) they die; they have that for which they wait, and then (again) they live. When once I receive my frame thus completed, I remain unchanged, awaiting the consummation of my course. I move as acted on by things, day and night without cessation, and I do not know when I will come to an end. Clearly I am here a completed frame, and even one who (fancies that he) knows what is appointed cannot determine it beforehand. I am in this way daily passing on, but all day long I am communicating my views to you; and now, as we are shoulder to shoulder you fail (to understand me) - is it not matter for lamentation? You are able in a measure to set forth what I more clearly set forth; but that is passed away, and you look for it, as if it were still existing, just as if you were looking for a horse in the now empty place where it was formerly exhibited for sale. You have very much forgotten my service to you, and I have very much forgotten wherein I served you. But nevertheless why should you account this such an evil? What you forget is but my old self; that which cannot be forgotten remains with me.'

4 田子方:
孔子見老聃,老聃新沐,方將被髮而乾,慹然似非人。孔子便而待之,少焉見曰:「丘也眩與?其信然與?向者先生形體掘若槁木,似遺物離人而立於獨也。」老聃曰:「吾遊心於物之初。」
Tian Zi-fang:
Confucius went to see Lao Dan, and arrived just as he had completed the bathing of his head, and was letting his dishevelled hair get dry. There he was, motionless, and as if there were not another man in the world. Confucius waited quietly; and, when in a little time he was introduced, he said, 'Were my eyes dazed? Is it really you? Just now, your body, Sir, was like the stump of a rotten tree. You looked as if you had no thought of anything, as if you had left the society of men, and were standing in the solitude (of yourself).' Lao Dan replied, 'I was enjoying myself in thinking about the commencement of things.'
孔子曰:「何謂邪?」曰:「心困焉而不能知,口辟焉而不能言,嘗為汝議乎其將。至陰肅肅,至陽赫赫;肅肅出乎天,赫赫發乎地;兩者交通成和而物生焉,或為之紀而莫見其形。消息滿虛,一晦一明,日改月化,日有所為,而莫見其功。生有所乎萌,死有所乎歸,始終相反乎無端,而莫知其所窮。非是也,且孰為之宗!」
Confucius said, 'What do you mean?' Lao Dan replied, 'My mind is so cramped, that I hardly know it; my tongue is so tied that I cannot tell it; but I will try to describe it to you as nearly as I can. When the state of Yin was perfect, all was cold and severe; when the state of Yang was perfect, all was turbulent and agitated. The coldness and severity came forth from Heaven; the turbulence and agitation issued from Earth. The two states communicating together, a harmony ensued and things were produced. Some one regulated and controlled this, but no one has seen his form. Decay and growth; fulness and emptiness; darkness and light; the changes of the sun and the transformations of the moon: these are brought about from day to day; but no one sees the process of production. Life has its origin from which it springs, and death has its place from which it returns. Beginning and ending go on in mutual contrariety without any determinable commencement, and no one knows how either comes to an end. If we disallow all this, who originates and presides over all these phenomena?'
孔子曰:「請問遊是。」老聃曰:「夫得是,至美至樂也。得至美而遊乎至樂,謂之至人。」孔子曰:「願聞其方。」曰:「草食之獸不疾易藪,水生之蟲不疾易水,行小變而不失其大常也,喜怒哀樂不入於胸次。夫天下也者,萬物之所一也。得其所一而同焉,則四支百體將為塵垢,而死生終始將為晝夜而莫之能滑,而況得喪禍福之所介乎!棄隸者若棄泥塗,知身貴於隸也,貴在於我而不失於變。且萬化而未始有極也,夫孰足以患心!已為道者解乎此。」
Confucius said, 'I beg to ask about your enjoyment in these thoughts.' Lao Dan replied, 'The comprehension of this is the most admirable and the most enjoyable (of all acquisitions). The getting of the most admirable and the exercise of the thoughts in what is the most enjoyable, constitutes what we call the Perfect man.' Confucius said, 'I should like to hear the method of attaining to it.' The reply was, 'Grass-eating animals do not dislike to change their pastures; creatures born in the water do not dislike to change their waters. They make a small change, but do not lose what is the great and regular requirement (of their nature); joy, anger, sadness, and delight do not enter into their breasts (in connexion with such events). Now the space under the sky is occupied by all things in their unity. When they possess that unity and equally share it, then the four limbs and hundred members of their body are but so much dust and dirt, while death and life, their ending and beginning, are but as the succession of day and night, which cannot disturb their enjoyment; and how much less will they be troubled by gains and losses, by calamity and happiness! Those who renounce the paraphernalia of rank do it as if they were casting away so much mud - they know that they are themselves more honourable than those paraphernalia. The honour belonging to one's self is not lost by any change (of condition). Moreover, a myriad transformations may take place before the end of them is reached. What is there in all this sufficient to trouble the mind? Those who have attained to the Dao understand the subject.'
孔子曰:「夫子德配天地,而猶假至言以修心,古之君子,孰能脫焉?」老聃曰:「不然。夫水之於汋也,無為而才自然矣。至人之於德也,不修而物不能離焉,若天之自高,地之自厚,日月之自明,夫何修焉!」
Confucius said, '0 Master, your virtue is equal to that of Heaven and Earth, and still I must borrow (some of your) perfect words (to aid me) in the cultivation of my mind. Who among the superior men of antiquity could give such expression to them?' Lao Dan replied, 'Not so. Look at the spring, the water of which rises and overflows - it does nothing, but it naturally acts so. So with the perfect man and his virtue - he does not cultivate it, and nothing evades its influence. He is like heaven which is high of itself, like earth which is solid of itself, like the sun and moon which shine of themselves - what need is there to cultivate it?'
孔子出,以告顏回曰:「丘之於道也,其猶醯雞與!微夫子之發吾覆也,吾不知天地之大全也。」
Confucius went out and reported the conversation to Yan Hui, saying, 'In the (knowledge of the) Dao am I any better than an animalcule in vinegar? But for the Master's lifting the veil from me, I should not have known the grand perfection of Heaven and Earth.'

5 田子方:
莊子見魯哀公。哀公曰:「魯多儒士,少為先生方者。」莊子曰:「魯少儒。」哀公曰:「舉魯國而儒服,何謂少乎?」莊子曰:「周聞之:儒者冠圜冠者,知天時;履句屨者,知地形;緩佩玦者,事至而斷。君子有其道者,未必為其服也;為其服者,未必知其道也。公固以為不然,何不號於國中曰『無此道而為此服者,其罪死』?」於是哀公號之五日,而魯國無敢儒服者。獨有一丈夫儒服而立乎公門,公即召而問以國事,千轉萬變而不窮。莊子曰:「以魯國而儒者一人耳,可謂多乎?」
Tian Zi-fang:
At an interview of Zhuangzi with duke Ai of Lu, the duke said, 'There are many of the Learned class in Lu; but few of them can be compared with you, Sir.' Zhuangzi replied, 'There are few Learned men in Lu.' 'Everywhere in Lu,' rejoined the duke, 'you see men wearing the dress of the Learned - how can you say that they are few?' 'I have heard,' said Zhuangzi, 'that those of them who wear round caps know the times of heaven; that those who wear square shoes know the contour of the ground; and that those who saunter about with semicircular stones at their girdle-pendents settle matters in dispute as they come before them. But superior men who are possessed of such knowledge will not be found wearing the dress, and it does not follow that those who wear the dress possess the knowledge. If your Grace think otherwise, why not issue a notification through the state, that it shall be a capital offence to wear the dress without possessing the knowledge.' On this the duke issued such a notification, and in five days, throughout all Lu, there was no one who dared to wear the dress of the Learned. There was only one old man who came and stood in it at the duke's gate. The duke instantly called him in, and questioned him about the affairs of the state, when he talked about a thousand points and ten thousand divergences from them. Zhuangzi said, 'When the state of Lu can thus produce but one man of the Learned class, can he be said to be many?'

6 田子方:
百里奚爵祿不入於心,故飯牛而牛肥,使秦穆公忘其賤,與之政也。有虞氏死生不入於心,故足以動人。
Tian Zi-fang:
The ideas of rank and emolument did not enter the mind of Bai-li Xi, and so he became a cattle-feeder, and his cattle were all in fine condition. This made duke Mu of Qin forget the meanness of his position, and put the government (of his state) into his hands. Neither life nor death entered into the mind of (Shun), the Lord of Yu, and therefore he was able to influence others.

7 田子方:
宋元君將畫圖。眾史皆至,受揖而立;舐筆和墨,在外者半。有一史後至者,儃儃然不趨,受揖不立,因之舍。公使人視之,則解衣般礡,臝。君曰:「可矣,是真畫者也。」
Tian Zi-fang:
The ruler Yuan of Song wishing to have a map drawn, the masters of the pencil all came (to undertake the task). Having received his instructions and made their bows, they stood, licking their pencils and preparing their ink. Half their number, however, remained outside. There was one who came late, with an air of indifference, and did not hurry forward. When he had received his instructions and made his bow, he did not keep standing, but proceeded to his shed. The duke sent a man to see him, and there he was, with his upper garment off, sitting cross-legged, and nearly naked. The ruler said, 'He is the man; he is a true draughtsman.'

8 田子方:
文王觀於臧,見一丈夫釣,而其釣莫釣,非持其釣,有釣者也,常釣也。
Tian Zi-fang:
King Wen was (once) looking about him at Zang, when he saw an old man fishing. But his fishing was no fishing. It was not the fishing of one whose business is fishing. He was always fishing (as if he had no object in the occupation).
文王欲舉而授之政,而恐大臣父兄之弗安也;欲終而釋之,而不忍百姓之無天也。於是旦而屬之夫夫曰:「昔者寡人夢,見良人黑色而髯,乘駁馬而偏朱蹄,號曰:『寓而政於臧丈人,庶幾乎民有瘳乎!』」諸大夫蹴然曰:「先君王也。」文王曰:「然則卜之。」諸大夫曰:「先君之命王,其無它,又何卜焉!」
The king wished to raise him to office, and put the government into his hands, but was afraid that such a step would give dissatisfaction to his great ministers, his uncles, and cousins. He then wished to dismiss the man altogether from his mind, but he could not bear the thought that his people should be without (such a) Heaven (as their Protector). On this, (next) morning, he called together his great officers, and said to them, 'Last night, I dreamt that I saw a good man, with a dark complexion and a beard, riding on a piebald horse, one half of whose hoofs were red, who commanded me, saying, "Lodge your government in the hands of the old man of Zang; and perhaps the evils of your people will be cured."' The great officers said eagerly, 'It was the king, your father.' King Wen said, 'Let us then submit the proposal to the tortoise-shell.' They replied, 'It is the order of your father. Let not your majesty think of any other. Why divine about it?'
遂迎臧丈人而授之政。典洗無更,偏令無出。三年,文王觀於國,則列士壞植散群,長官者不成德,斔斛不敢入於四竟。列士壞植散群,則尚同也;長官者不成德,則同務也;斔斛不敢入於四竟,則諸侯無二心也。文王於是焉以為大師,北面而問曰:「政可以及天下乎?」臧丈人昧然而不應,泛然而辭,朝令而夜遁,終身無聞。
(The king) then met the old man of Zang, and committed the government to him. The statutes and laws were not changed by him; not a one-sided order (of his own) was issued; but when the king made a survey of the kingdom after three years, he found that the officers had destroyed the plantations (which harboured banditti), and dispersed their occupiers, that the superintendents of the official departments did not plume themselves on their successes, and that no unusual grain measures were allowed within the different states. When the officers had destroyed the dangerous plantations and dispersed their occupants, the highest value was set on the common interests; when the chiefs of departments did not plume themselves on their successes, the highest value was set on the common business; when unusual grain measures did not enter the different states, the different princes had no jealousies. On this King Wen made the old man his Grand Preceptor, and asked him, with his own face to the north, whether his government might be extended to all the kingdom. The old man looked perplexed and gave no reply, but with aimless look took his leave. In the morning he had issued his orders, and at night he had gone his way; nor was he heard of again all his life.
顏淵問於仲尼曰:「文王其猶未邪?又何以夢為乎?」仲尼曰:「默!汝無言!夫文王盡之也,而又何論刺焉!彼直以循斯須也。」
Yan Yuan questioned Confucius, saying, 'Was even King Wen unequal to determine his course? What had he to do with resorting to a dream?' Zhongni replied, 'Be silent and do not say a word! King Wen was complete in everything. What have you to do with criticising him? He only had recourse (to the dream) to meet a moment's difficulty.'

9 田子方:
列御寇為伯昏無人射,引之盈貫,措杯水其肘上,發之,適矢復沓,方矢復寓。當是時,猶象人也。伯昏無人曰:「是射之射,非不射之射也。嘗與汝登高山,履危石,臨百仞之淵,若能射乎?」於是無人遂登高山,履危石,臨百仞之淵,背逡巡,足二分垂在外,揖御寇而進之。御寇伏地,汗流至踵。伯昏無人曰:「夫至人者,上闚青天,下潛黃泉,揮斥八極,神氣不變。今汝怵然有恂目之志,爾於中也殆矣夫!」
Tian Zi-fang:
Lie Yu-Kou was exhibiting his archery to Bo-hun Wu-ren. Having drawn the bow to its full extent, with a cup of water placed on his elbow, he let fly. As the arrow was discharged, another was put in its place; and as that was sent off, a third was ready on the string. All the while he stood like a statue. Bo-hun Wu-ren said, 'That is the shooting of an archer, but not of one who shoots without thinking about his shooting. Let me go up with you to the top of a high mountain, treading with you among the tottering rocks, till we arrive at the brink of a precipice, 800 cubits deep, and (I will then see) if you can shoot.' On this they went up a high mountain, making their way among the tottering rocks, till they came to the brink of a precipice 800 cubits deep. Then Wu-ren turned round and walked backwards, till his feet were two-thirds of their length outside the edge, and beckoned Yu-kou to come forward. He, however, had fallen prostrate on the ground, with the sweat pouring down to his heels. Then the other said, 'The Perfect man looks up to the azure sky above, or dives down to the yellow springs beneath, or soars away to the eight ends of the universe, without any change coming over his spirit or his breath. But now the trepidation of your mind appears in your dazed eyes; your inward feeling of peril is extreme!'

10 田子方:
肩吾問於孫叔敖曰:「子三為令尹而不榮華,三去之而無憂色。吾始也疑子,今視子之鼻間栩栩然,子之用心獨奈何?」孫叔敖曰:「吾何以過人哉!吾以其來不可卻也,其去不可止也,吾以為得失之非我也,而無憂色而已矣。我何以過人哉!且不知其在彼乎,其在我乎?其在彼邪,亡乎我;在我邪,亡乎彼。方將躊躇,方將四顧,何暇至乎人貴人賤哉!」
Tian Zi-fang:
Jian Wu asked Sun-shu Ao, saying, 'You, Sir, were thrice chief minister, and did not feel elated; you were thrice dismissed from that position, without manifesting any sorrow. At first I was in doubt about you, (but I am not now, since) I see how regularly and quietly the breath comes through your nostrils. How is it that you exercise your mind?' Sun-shu Ao replied, 'In what do I surpass other men? When the position came to me, I thought it should not be rejected; when it was taken away, I thought it could not be retained. I considered that the getting or losing it did not make me what I was, and was no occasion for any manifestation of sorrow - that was all. In what did I surpass other men? And moreover, I did not know whether the honour of it belonged to the dignity, or to myself. If it belonged to the dignity, it was nothing to me; if it belonged to me, it had nothing to do with the dignity. While occupied with these uncertainties, and looking round in all directions, what leisure had I to take knowledge of whether men honoured me or thought me mean?'
仲尼聞之曰:「古之真人,知者不得說,美人不得濫,盜人不得劫,伏戲、黃帝不得友。死生亦大矣,而無變乎己,況爵祿乎!若然者,其神經乎大山而無介,入乎淵泉而不濡,處卑細而不憊,充滿天地,既以與人,己愈有。」
Zhongni heard of all this, and said, 'The True men of old could not be fully described by the wisest, nor be led into excess by the most beautiful, nor be forced by the most violent robber. Neither Fu-xi nor Huang-Di could compel them to be their friends. Death and life are indeed great considerations, but they could make no change in their (true) self; and how much less could rank and emolument do so? Being such, their spirits might pass over the Tai mountain and find it no obstacle to them they might enter the greatest gulphs, and not be wet by them; they might occupy the lowest and smallest positions without being distressed by them. Theirs was the fulness of heaven and earth; the more that they gave to others, the more they had.'

11 田子方:
楚王與凡君坐,少焉,楚王左右曰「凡亡」者三。凡君曰:「凡之亡也,不足以喪吾存。夫『凡之亡也,不足以喪吾存』,則楚之存不足以存存。由是觀之,則凡未始亡而楚未始存也。」
Tian Zi-fang:
The king of Chu and the ruler of Fan were sitting together. After a little while, the attendants of the king said, 'Fan has been destroyed three times.' The ruler of Fan rejoined, 'The destruction of Fan has not been sufficient to destroy what we had that was most deserving to be preserved.' Now, if the destruction of Fan had not been sufficient to destroy that which it had most deserving to be preserved, the preservation of Chu had not been sufficient to preserve that in it most deserving to be preserved. Looking at the matter from this point of view, Fan had not begun to be destroyed, and Chu had not begun to be preserved.

URN: ctp:zhuangzi/tian-zi-fang