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Chinese Text Project
Search details:
Scope: Request type: Paragraph
Condition 1: References "國家昏亂" Matched:10.
Total 10 paragraphs. Page 1 of 1.

先秦兩漢 - Pre-Qin and Han

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墨家 - Mohism

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[Also known as: "Moism"]

墨子 - Mozi

[Spring and Autumn - Warring States] 490 BC-221 BC
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Introduction
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[Also known as: "Mo-tze"]

卷十三 - Book 13

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魯問 - Lu's Question

English translation: W. P. Mei [?] Library Resources
14 魯問:
子墨子游,魏越曰:「既得見四方之君子,則將先語?」子墨子曰:「凡入國,必擇務而從事焉。國家昏亂,則語之尚賢、尚同;國家貧,則語之節用、節葬;國家說音湛湎,則語之非樂、非命;國家遙僻無禮,則語之尊天、事鬼;國家務奪侵凌,即語之兼愛、非攻,故曰擇務而從事焉。」
Lu's Question:
Mozi was visiting Wei Yue. The latter asked: "Now that you have seen the gentlemen of the four quarters, what would you say is the most urgent enterprise?" Mozi replied: Upon entering a country one should locate the need and work on that. If the country is upset in confusion, teach them with the (doctrines of) Exaltation of the Virtuous and Identification with the Superior. If the country is in poverty, teach them with Economy of Expenditures and Simplicity in Funeral. If the country is indulging in music and wine, teach them with Condemnation of Music and Anti-fatalism. If the country is insolent and without propriety, teach them to reverence Heaven and worship the spirits. If the country is engaged in conquest and oppression, teach them with Universal Love and Condemnation of Offensive War. Hence we say, one should locate the need and work on that.

道家 - Daoism

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莊子 - Zhuangzi

[Warring States] 350 BC-250 BC
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[Also known as: 《南華真經》]

雜篇 - Miscellaneous Chapters

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漁父 - The Old Fisherman

English translation: James Legge [?]
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3 漁父:
客曰:「同類相從,同聲相應,固天之理也。吾請釋吾之所有而經子之所以。子之所以者,人事也。天子、諸侯、大夫、庶人,此四者自正,治之美也,四者離位而亂莫大焉。官治其職,人憂其事,乃無所陵。故田荒室露,衣食不足,徵賦不屬,妻妾不和,長少無序,庶人之憂也;能不勝任,官事不治,行不清白,群下荒怠,功美不有,爵祿不持,大夫之憂也;廷無忠臣,國家昏亂,工技不巧,貢職不美,春秋後倫,不順天子,諸侯之憂也;陰陽不和,寒暑不時,以傷庶物,諸侯暴亂,擅相攘伐,以殘民人,禮樂不節,財用窮匱,人倫不飭,百姓淫亂,天子有司之憂也。今子既上無君侯有司之勢,而下無大臣職事之官,而擅飭禮樂,選人倫,以化齊民,不泰多事乎?且人有八疵,事有四患,不可不察也。非其事而事之,謂之摠;莫之顧而進之,謂之佞;希意道言,謂之諂;不擇是非而言,謂之諛;好言人之惡,謂之讒;析交離親,謂之賊;稱譽詐偽以敗惡人,謂之慝;不擇善否,兩容頰適,偷拔其所欲,謂之險。此八疵者,外以亂人,內以傷身,君子不友,明君不臣。所謂四患者,好經大事,變更易常,以挂功名,謂之叨;專知擅事,侵人自用,謂之貪;見過不更,聞諫愈甚,謂之很;人同於己則可,不同於己,雖善不善,謂之矜。此四患也。能去八疵,無行四患,而始可教已。」
The Old Fisherman:
The stranger replied, 'Like seeks to like, and (birds) of the same note respond to one another - this is a rule of Heaven. Allow me to explain what I am in possession of, and to pass over (from its standpoint) to the things which occupy you. What you occupy yourself with are the affairs of men. When the sovereign, the feudal lords, the great officers, and the common people, these four classes, do what is correct (in their several positions), we have the beauty of good order; and when they leave their proper duties, there ensues the greatest disorder. When the officials attend to their duties, and the common people are anxiously concerned about their business, there is no encroachment on one another's rights. Fields running to waste; leaking rooms; insufficiency of food and clothing; taxes unprovided for; want of harmony among wives and concubines; and want of order between old and young - these are the troubles of the common people. Incompetency for their charges; inattention to their official business; want of probity in conduct; carelessness and idleness in subordinates; failure of merit and excellence; and uncertainty of rank and emolument: these are the troubles of great officers. No loyal ministers at their courts; the clans in their states rebellious; want of skill in their mechanics; articles of tribute of bad quality; late appearances at court in spring and autumn; and the dissatisfaction of the sovereign: these are the troubles of the feudal lords. Want of harmony between the Yin and Yang; unseasonableness of cold and heat, affecting all things injuriously; oppression and disorder among the feudal princes, their presuming to plunder and attack one another, to the injury of the people; ceremonies and music ill-regulated; the resources for expenditure exhausted or deficient; the social relationships uncared for; and the people abandoned to licentious disorder: these are the troubles of the Son of Heaven and his ministers. Now, Sir, you have not the high rank of a ruler, a feudal lord, or a minister of the royal court, nor are you in the inferior position of a great minister, with his departments of business, and yet you take it on you to regulate ceremonies and music, and to give special attention to the relationships of society, with a view to transform the various classes of the people: is it not an excessive multiplication of your business? And moreover men are liable to eight defects, and (the conduct of) affairs to four evils; of which we must by all means take account. To take the management of affairs which do not concern him is called monopolising. To bring forward a subject which no one regards is called loquacity. To lead men on by speeches made to please them is called sycophancy. To praise men without regard to right or wrong is called flattery. To be fond of speaking of men's wickedness is called calumny. To part friends and separate relatives is called mischievousness. To praise a man deceitfully, or in the same way fix on him the character of being bad, is called depravity. Without reference to their being good or bad, to agree with men with double face, in order to steal a knowledge of what they wish, is called being dangerous. Those eight defects produce disorder among other men and injury to one's self. A superior man will not make a friend of one who has them, nor will an intelligent ruler make him his minister. To speak of what I called the four evils: To be fond of conducting great affairs, changing and altering what is of long-standing, to obtain for one's self the reputation of meritorious service, is called ambition; to claim all wisdom and intrude into affairs, encroaching on the work of others, and representing it as one's own, is called greediness; to see his errors without changing them, and to go on more resolutely in his own way when remonstrated with, is called obstinacy; when another agrees with himself, to approve of him, and, however good he may be, when he disagrees, to disapprove of him, is called boastful conceit. These are the four evils. When one can put away the eight defects, and allow no course to the four evils, he begins to be capable of being taught.'

道德經 - Dao De Jing

[Warring States (475 BC - 221 BC)] English translation: James Legge [?]
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[Also known as: 《老子》, "Tao Te Ching", "Laozi"]

18 道德經:
大道廢,有仁義;智慧出,有大偽;六親不和,有孝慈;國家昏亂,有忠臣。
Dao De Jing:
(The decay of manners)
When the Great Dao (Way or Method) ceased to be observed, benevolence and righteousness came into vogue. (Then) appeared wisdom and shrewdness, and there ensued great hypocrisy. When harmony no longer prevailed throughout the six kinships, filial sons found their manifestation; when the states and clans fell into disorder, loyal ministers appeared.

老子河上公章句 - Heshanggong Laozi

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道經

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俗薄

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1 俗薄:
大道廢,有仁義。大道之時,家有孝子,戶有忠信,仁義不見也。大道廢不用,惡逆生,乃有仁義可傳道。智慧出,有大偽。智慧之君賤德而貴言,賤質而貴文,下則應之以為大偽姦詐。六親不和,有孝慈。六紀絕,親戚不合,乃有孝慈相牧養也。國家昏亂,有忠臣。政令不明,上下相怨,邪僻爭權,乃有忠臣匡正其君也。此言天下太平不知仁,人盡無欲不知廉,各自潔己不知貞。大道之世,仁義沒,孝慈滅,猶日中盛明,眾星失光。

史書 - Histories

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前漢紀 - Qian Han Ji

[Eastern Han] 198-200
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[Also known as: 《漢紀》]

高祖皇帝紀一

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3 高祖皇帝... :
漢高祖諱邦。字季。初昭靈后嘗息大澤之陂。夢與神遇。是時雷電晦冥。太上皇視之。見蛟龍臨之。遂有娠而生高祖。隆準龍顏。美須髯。左股有七十二黑子。寬仁愛人。有大智度。曾為泗水亭長。嘗從王媼武負貰酒。每飲醉留寢其家。上嘗見光怪。負等異之。輒折契棄券而不責。單父人呂公好相人。有女以為貴。避讎于沛。沛令求其女不與。及見高祖狀貌。公奇之。因以女妻焉。是為呂后。生孝惠魯元公主。嘗有老父過乞漿。相呂后孝惠魯元公主皆大貴也。及見高祖。乃大喜曰。夫人兒子。蒙君之力也。君貴不可言也。遂去不復見。高祖以亭長送徒驪山。夜行經豐西澤中。有蛇當道。拔劍斬之。遂過。後人至者。見一老嫗哭蛇曰。此白帝子也。向赤帝子遇而殺之。嫗因忽然不見。高祖亡避吏於山澤中。呂后常知其處。云高祖所在。上有赤色雲氣。占氣者山東有天子氣。秦始皇帝乃東遊。欲以厭之。秦二世胡亥元年秋七月。發閭左屯漁陽。陽城人陳勝。字涉。陽夏人吳廣。字叔。皆為屯長。行至蘄。會天大雨。度已失期。失期法當斬。遂因天下之怨謀叛。陳勝以繒為書。置魚腹中。曰陳勝王。令人賣之。士卒得魚者。故已怪之矣。又令吳廣夜於叢祠中構火作狐鳴。曰大楚興。陳勝王。眾乃大驚。遂殺其將尉。號令徒屬。稱大楚。勝為大將軍。廣為都尉。攻掠城邑。至陳。眾數萬人。勝自立為楚王。大梁人張耳陳餘諫曰。將軍出萬死之計。為天下除殘賊。今始至陳為王。是示天下私也。不如立六國後。自為樹黨。進師而西。則野無交兵。縣無守城。誅暴秦。安據咸陽。以令諸侯。天下可圖也。勝不聽。以陳人武臣為將軍。耳餘為校尉。北徇趙地。當此之時。楚將徇地者甚眾。楚兵數千。聚黨者不可勝數。以吳廣為假王。監諸將。以周文為將軍。眾十餘萬。西至戲水。蓋百二十萬矣。秦令將軍章邯。赦驪山作徒七十萬人以擊之。是時吳廣別圍滎陽。不能下。將軍田臧等謀曰。假王驕。不可與計謀。乃矯陳王命誅吳廣。進兵而西。是歲太曰再經天。占曰法為大兵。天下易王。九月沛人殺其令。高祖為沛公。蕭何為丞相。曹參周勃以中涓從。夏侯嬰樊噲為舍人。蕭何即沛主獄吏。曹參沛獄掾。嬰沛廄騶。勃以織簿為產。噲以屠狗為事。皆公之舊也。是時沛公在外黃。兵眾數百人。蕭何等欲應陳勝。故召沛公立之。收沛子弟得三千人。而項籍亦起兵會稽。籍字羽。故楚將項燕之孫也。羽初起時。年二十四。身長八尺二寸。目重瞳子。力能扛鼎。與季父項梁避讎於吳。梁好為辯說。陰有大志。吳中賢士大夫皆出梁下。梁乃與籍殺會稽太守殷通。佩其印綬。自號為會稽將。籍為裨將。徇下邳縣。張耳陳餘既至趙。說豪傑曰。秦為亂政虐刑。殘賊天下。北有長城之役。南有五嶺之戍。內外搔動。百姓罷弊。財匱力盡。重以苛法。使天下父子不相聊生。陳王奮臂為天下唱始。莫不響應。於此時不成封侯之業者。非人豪也。因天下之力。誅無道之秦。報父兄之讎。而成大業者。此壯士之一時也。皆然其言。乃收兵數萬人。遂下趙十餘城。武臣自號為武信君。進軍圍范陽。范陽人蒯通為其令徐公說武信君曰。范陽令欲以其城先下君。而君不利之。則諸守皆為金城湯池。不可攻也。君計莫若以黃屋朱輪以迎范陽令。使馳鶩乎燕趙之郊。則邊城皆喜。相率而降。此由以下阪而走丸也。武信君乃以侯迎徐公。燕趙聞之。降者三十餘城。耳餘聞諸將徇地者多畏以讒得罪。又怨陳王。不以己為將軍。陳王欲誅其家。柱國房君賜諫王曰。秦王未亡而誅趙王家。是復生一秦也。不如因賀之。令進兵擊秦。勝從之。耳餘與趙王謀曰。王王趙非楚意也。楚已誅秦。必加兵於趙。不如北徇燕地以自廣。南據大河。北有燕代。楚雖勝秦。不敢制趙。若不勝秦。必重趙。趙承秦楚之弊。可以得志於天下。乃使韓廣北徇燕地。燕人欲立廣。廣曰。母在趙不可也。燕人曰。夫以楚之強不敢害趙。趙獨安敢害將軍之家。廣乃自立為王。而趙亦歸其家。趙王略地燕界。間行為燕軍所得。囚之以求割地。趙使請王。燕輒殺之。有廝養卒請使燕軍。說燕將曰。夫張耳陳餘與武臣俱。杖馬策下趙數十城。豈樂為人臣哉。顧其勢初定。且以長幼相次。先立武臣以持趙心。今趙地已服。此二人名為求王。實欲令燕殺之。而分王其地。夫以一趙尚陵少燕。今以兩賢王立。左提右挈。而齎直義。破燕必矣。燕乃遣趙王。廝養卒為御而歸。魏人周市為陳王定魏。魏人欲立市。市曰。國家昏亂。忠臣乃見。乃請於陳王。立故魏公子咎為魏王。故齊王田氏之族儋。亦殺縣令自立為齊王。章邯敗楚軍。殺周文於邯鄲。殺田臧於敖倉。楚將皆敗。秦遂攻陳破之。

後漢書 - Hou Han Shu

[Northern and Southern] 420-445
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列傳

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王充王符仲長統列傳

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45 王充王符... :
或曰:善為政者,欲除煩去苛,并官省職,為之以無為,事之以無事,何子言之云云也?曰:若是,三代不足摹,聖人未可師也。君子用法制而至於化,小人用法制而至於亂。均是一法制也,或以之化,或以之亂,行之不同也。苟使豺狼牧羊豚,盜跖主征稅,國家昏亂,吏人放肆,則惡復論損益之閒哉!夫人待君子然後化理,國待蓄積乃無憂患。君子非自農桑以求衣食者也,蓄積非橫賦斂以取優饒者也。奉祿誠厚,則割剝貿易之罪乃可絕也;蓄積誠多,則兵寇水旱之災不足苦也。故由其道而得之,民不以為奢;由其道而取之,民不以為勞。天災流行,開倉庫以稟貸,不亦仁乎?衣食有餘,損靡麗以散施,不亦義乎?彼君子居位為士民之長,固宜重肉累帛,朱輪四馬。今反謂薄屋者為高,藿食者為清,既失天地之性,又開虛偽之名,使小智居大位,庶績不咸熙,未必不由此也。得拘絜而失才能,非立功之實也。以廉舉而以貪去,非士君子之志也。夫選用必取善士。善士富者少而貧者多,祿不足以供養,安能不少營私門乎?從而罪之,是設機置阱以待天下之君子也。

虞傅蓋臧列傳

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20 虞傅蓋臧... :
時北胡騎數千隨賊攻郡,皆夙懷燮恩,共於城外叩頭,求送燮歸鄉里。子幹年十三,從在官舍。知燮性剛,有高義,恐不能屈志以免,進諫曰:「國家昏亂,遂令大人不容於朝。今天下已叛,而兵不足自守,鄉里羌胡先被恩德,欲令棄郡而歸,願必許之。徐至鄉里,率厲義徒,見有道而輔之,以濟天下。」言未終,燮慨然而歎,呼幹小字曰:「別成,汝知吾必死邪?蓋『聖達節,次守節』。且殷紂之暴,伯夷不食周粟而死,仲尼稱其賢。今朝廷不甚殷紂,吾德亦豈絕伯夷?世亂不能養浩然之志,食祿又欲避其難乎?吾行何之,必死於此。汝有才智,勉之勉之。主簿楊會,吾之程嬰也。」幹哽咽不能復言,左右皆泣下。王國使故酒泉太守黃衍說燮曰:「成敗之事,已可知矣。先起,上有霸王之業,下成伊呂之勳。天下非復漢有,府君寧有意為吾屬師乎?」燮案劍叱衍曰:「若剖符之臣,反為賊說邪!」遂麾左右進兵,臨陣戰歿。謚曰壯節侯。

出土文獻 - Excavated texts

馬王堆 - Mawangdui

老子甲 - Laozi A

老子甲道經

18 老子甲道... :
故大道廢,案有仁義;知快出,案有大偽;六親不和,案有畜茲;邦家昏亂,案有貞臣。

老子乙 - Laozi B

老子乙道經

18 老子乙道... :
故大道廢,安有仁義;知慧出,安有□□;六親不和,安又孝茲;國家昏亂,安有貞臣。

漢代之後 - Post-Han

隋唐 - Sui-Tang

群書治要

[Tang] 631 Library Resources

卷二十三

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後漢書三

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23 傳:
頃之,趙忠為車騎將軍,詔忠論討黄巾之功。執金吾甄舉等謂忠曰:傅南容前在東軍,有功不侯,故天下失望,今將軍當重任,宜進賢理屈,以副衆心,忠遣弟延致殷勤。延謂燮曰:南容少答我常侍,萬户侯不足得也。燮正色拒之曰:遇與不遇,命也。有功不論,時也。傅燮豈求私賞哉。忠愈懷恨,權貴亦多疾之,是以不得留,出為漢陽太守,賊圍漢陽,城中兵少糧盡,燮猶固守,時北地胡騎數千,隨賊攻郡,皆夙懷燮恩,共於城外叩頭求送燮歸鄕里。子幹進曰:國家昏亂,遂令大人不容於朝,今天下已叛,而兵不足自守,鄕里羌胡,先被恩德,欲令弃郡而歸,願必許之,言未終。燮慨然而嘆曰:蓋聖達節,次守節,且殷紂之暴,伯夷不食周粟而死,今朝廷不甚殷紂,吾德亦豈絕伯夷,世亂不能養浩然之志,食禄人間,欲避其難乎。吾行何之,遂麾左右進兵,臨陳戰殁,謚曰壯節侯。

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