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Condition 1: References 魏文侯 : 姓名:魏斯,在位前445-前396。 Marquess Wen of Wei (ruled 445 BC-396 BC) or coextensive terms Matched:147.
Total 122 paragraphs. Page 1 of 13. Jump to page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ... 13

先秦兩漢 - Pre-Qin and Han

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儒家 - Confucianism

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禮記 - Liji

[Warring States (475 BC - 221 BC)]
Books referencing 《禮記》 Library Resources
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[Also known as: 《小戴禮記》, "The Classic of Rites"]

樂記 - Yue Ji

English translation: James Legge [?]
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[Also known as: "Record of music"]

42 樂記:
Yue Ji:
The marquis Wen of Wei asked Zi-xia, saying, 'When in my square-cut dark robes and cap I listen to the ancient music, I am only afraid that I shall go to sleep. When I listen to the music of Kang and Wei, I do not feel tired; let me ask why I should feel so differently under the old and the new music.'
Zi-xia replied, 'In the old music, (the performers) advance and retire all together; the music is harmonious, correct, and in large volume; the stringed instruments (above) and those made from gourd shells with the organs and their metal tongues (below), are all kept waiting for the striking of the drum. The music first strikes up at the sound of the drum; and when it ends, it is at the sound of the cymbals. The close of each part of the performance is regulated by the Xiang, and the rapidity of the motions by the Ya. In (all) this the superior man speaks of, and follows, the way of antiquity. The character is cultivated; the family is regulated; and peace and order are secured throughout the kingdom. This is the manner of the ancient music.
'But now, in the new music, (the performers) advance and retire without any regular order; the music is corrupt to excess; there is no end to its vileness. Among the players there are dwarfs like monkeys, while boys and girls are mixed together, and there is no distinction between father and son. Such music can never be talked about, and cannot be said to be after the manner of antiquity. This is the fashion of the new music. What you ask about is music; and what you like is sound. Now music and sound are akin, but they are not the same.'
The marquis asked him to explain, and Zi-xia replied, 'In antiquity, Heaven and Earth acted according to their several natures, and the four seasons were what they ought to be. The people were virtuous, and all the cereals produced abundantly. There were no fevers or other diseases, and no apparitions or other prodigies. This was what we call "the period of great order." After this arose the sages, and set forth the duties between father and son, and between ruler and subject, for the guidance of society. When these guiding rules were thus correctly adjusted, all under heaven, there was a great tranquillity; after which they framed with exactness the six accords (upper and lower), and gave harmony to the five notes (of the scale), and the singing to the lutes of the odes and praise-songs; constituting what we call "the virtuous airs." Such virtuous airs constituted what we call "Music," as is declared in the Book of Poetry (III, i, ode 7, 4), 'Silently grew the fame of his virtue, His virtue was highly intelligent; Highly intelligent, and of rare discrimination; Able to lead, able to rule, To rule over this great country, Rendering a cordial submission, effecting a cordial union. When (the sway) came to king Wen, His virtue left nothing to be dissatisfied with. He received the blessing of God, And it was extended to his descendants." May I not say that what you love are the vile airs?'
The marquis said, "Let me ask where the vile airs come from?' Zi-xia replied, 'The airs of Zheng go to a wild excess, and debauch the mind; those of Song tell of slothful indulgence and women, and drown the mind; those of Wei are vehement and rapid, and perplex the mind; and those of Qi are violent and depraved, and make the mind arrogant. The airs of those four states all stimulate libidinous desire, and are injurious to virtue;--they should therefore not be used at sacrifices. It is said in the Book of Poetry (IV, i [Part ii], ode 5), "In solemn unison (the instruments) give forth their notes; Our ancestors will hearken to them." That solemn unison denotes the grave reverence and harmony of their notes - with reverence, blended with harmony, what is there that cannot be done?
'A ruler has only to be careful of what he likes and dislikes. What the ruler likes, his ministers will practise; and what superiors do, their inferiors follow. This is the sentiment in the Book of Poetry (III, ii, ode 10, 6), "To lead the people is very easy." Seeing this, and after (the repose of the people was secured), the sages made hand-drums and drums, the stopper and the starter, the earthen whistle and the bamboo flute - the six instruments which produced the sounds of their virtuous airs. After these came the bell, the sounding-stone, the organ with thirty-six pipes, and the large lute, to be played in harmony with them; the shields, axes, ox-tails, and plumes, brandished by the pantomimes in time and tune. These they employed at the sacrifices in the temple of the former kings, at festivals in offering and receiving the pledge cup; in arranging the services of officers (in the temple) according to the rank due to each, as noble or mean, and in showing to future ages how they observed the order due to rank and to age.
'The bells give out a clanging sound as a signal. The signal is recognised by all, and that recognition produces a martial enthusiasm. When the ruler hears the sound of the bell, he thinks of his officers of war. The sounding-stones give out a tinkling sound, as a summons to the exercise of discrimination. That discrimination may lead to the encountering of death. When the ruler hears the sounding-stone, he thinks of his officers who die in defence of his frontiers. The stringed instruments give out a melancholy sound, which produces the thought of purity and fidelity, and awakens the determination of the mind. When the ruler hears the sound of the lute and cithern, he thinks of his officers who are bent on righteousness. The instruments of bamboo give out a sound like that of overflowing waters, which suggests the idea of an assembly, the object of which is to collect the multitudes together. When the ruler hears the sound of his organs, pipes, and flutes, he thinks of his officers who gather the people together. The drums and tambours give out their loud volume of sound, which excites the idea of movement, and tends to the advancing of the host. When the ruler hears the sounds of his drums and tambours, he thinks of his leaders and commanders. When a superior man thus hears his musical instruments, he does not hear only the sounds which they emit. There are associated ideas which accompany these.'

說苑 - Shuo Yuan

[Western Han (206 BC - 9)] Liu Xiang
Books referencing 《說苑》 Library Resources


Books referencing 《君道》 Library Resources
35 君道:


Books referencing 《臣術》 Library Resources
4 臣術:


Books referencing 《貴德》 Library Resources
26 貴德:


Books referencing 《復恩》 Library Resources
6 復恩:

22 復恩:


Books referencing 《政理》 Library Resources
22 政理:

32 政理:


Books referencing 《尊賢》 Library Resources
20 尊賢:

23 尊賢:

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