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Condition 1: References 桓公 : Same as 「齊桓公」: 姓名:姜小白,在位前685-前643。 Duke Huan of Qi (ruled 685 BC-643 BC) Matched:1149.
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先秦兩漢 - Pre-Qin and Han

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儒家 - Confucianism

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論語 - The Analects

[Spring and Autumn - Warring States] 480 BC-350 BC
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[Also known as: "The Analects of Confucius", "The Confucian Analects"]

憲問 - Xian Wen

English translation: James Legge [?]
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16 憲問:
子路曰:「桓公殺公子糾,召忽死之,管仲不死。」曰:「未仁乎?」子曰:「桓公九合諸侯,不以兵車,管仲之力也。如其仁!如其仁!」
Xian Wen:
Zi Lu said, "The duke Huan caused his brother Jiu to be killed, when Shao Hu died with his master, but Guan Zhong did not die. May not I say that he was wanting in virtue?" The Master said, "The Duke Huan assembled all the princes together, and that not with weapons of war and chariots - it was all through the influence of Guan Zhong. Whose beneficence was like his? Whose beneficence was like his?"

17 憲問:
子貢曰:「管仲非仁者與?桓公殺公子糾,不能死,又相之。」子曰:「管仲相桓公,霸諸侯,一匡天下,民到于今受其賜。微管仲,吾其被髮左衽矣。豈若匹夫匹婦之為諒也,自經於溝瀆,而莫之知也。」
Xian Wen:
Zi Gong said, "Guan Zhong, I apprehend, was wanting in virtue. When the Duke Huan caused his brother Jiu to be killed, Guan Zhong was not able to die with him. Moreover, he became prime minister to Huan." The Master said, "Guan Zhong acted as prime minister to the duke Huan, made him leader of all the princes, and united and rectified the whole kingdom. Down to the present day, the people enjoy the gifts which he conferred. But for Guan Zhong, we should now be wearing our hair unbound, and the lappets of our coats buttoning on the left side. Will you require from him the small fidelity of common men and common women, who would commit suicide in a stream or ditch, no one knowing anything about them?"

孟子 - Mengzi

[Warring States] 340 BC-250 BC English translation: James Legge [?]
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[Also known as: "The Works of Mencius"]

公孫丑下 - Gong Sun Chou II

Books referencing 《公孫丑下》 Library Resources
11 公孫丑下:
孟子將朝王,王使人來曰:「寡人如就見者也,有寒疾,不可以風。朝將視朝,不識可使寡人得見乎?」對曰:「不幸而有疾,不能造朝。」
Gong Sun Chou II:
As Mencius was about to go to court to see the king, the king sent a person to him with this message: 'I was wishing to come and see you. But I have got a cold, and may not expose myself to the wind. In the morning I will hold my court. I do not know whether you will give me the opportunity of seeing you then.' Mencius replied, 'Unfortunately, I am unwell, and not able to go to the court.'
明日,出吊於東郭氏,公孫丑曰:「昔者辭以病,今日吊,或者不可乎!」曰:「昔者疾,今日愈,如之何不吊?」
Next day, he went out to pay a visit of condolence to some one of the Dong Guo family, when Gong Sun Chou said to him, 'Yesterday, you declined going to the court on the ground of being unwell, and to-day you are going to pay a visit of condolence. May this not be regarded as improper?' 'Yesterday,' said Mencius, 'I was unwell; to-day, I am better - why should I not pay this visit?'
王使人問疾,醫來。孟仲子對曰:「昔者有王命,有采薪之憂,不能造朝。今病小愈,趨造於朝,我不識能至否乎?」使數人要於路,曰:「請必無歸,而造於朝!」
In the mean time, the king sent a messenger to inquire about his sickness, and also a physician. Meng Zhong replied to them, 'Yesterday, when the king's order came, he was feeling a little unwell, and could not go to the court. To-day he was a little better, and hastened to go to court. I do not know whether he can have reached it by this time or not.' Having said this, he sent several men to look for Mencius on the way, and say to him, 'I beg that, before you return home, you will go to the court.'
不得已而之景丑氏宿焉。景子曰:「內則父子,外則君臣,人之大倫也。父子主恩,君臣主敬。丑見王之敬子也,未見所以敬王也。」
On this, Mencius felt himself compelled to go to Jing Chou's, and there stop the night. Mr. Jing said to him, 'In the family, there is the relation of father and son; abroad, there is the relation of prince and minister. These are the two great relations among men. Between father and son the ruling principle is kindness. Between prince and minister the ruling principle is respect. I have seen the respect of the king to you, Sir, but I have not seen in what way you show respect to him.'
曰:「惡!是何言也!齊人無以仁義與王言者,豈以仁義為不美也?其心曰『是何足與言仁義也』云爾,則不敬莫大乎是。我非堯舜之道,不敢以陳於王前,故齊人莫如我敬王也。」
Mencius replied, 'Oh! what words are these? Among the people of Qi there is no one who speaks to the king about benevolence and righteousness. Are they thus silent because they do not think that benevolence and righteousness are admirable? No, but in their hearts they say, "This man is not fit to be spoken with about benevolence and righteousness." Thus they manifest a disrespect than which there can be none greater. I do not dare to set forth before the king any but the ways of Yao and Shun. There is therefore no man of Qi who respects the king so much as I do.'
景子曰:「否,非此之謂也。禮曰:『父召,無諾;君命召,不俟駕。』固將朝也,聞王命而遂不果,宜與夫禮若不相似然。」
Mr. Jing said, 'Not so. That was not what I meant. In the Book of Rites it is said, "When a father calls, the answer must be without a moment's hesitation. When the prince's order calls, the carriage must not be waited for." You were certainly going to the court, but when you heard the king's order, then you did not carry your purpose out. This does seem as if it were not in accordance with that rule of propriety.'
曰:「豈謂是與?曾子曰:『晉楚之富,不可及也。彼以其富,我以吾仁;彼以其爵,我以吾義,吾何慊乎哉?』夫豈不義而曾子言之?是或一道也。天下有達尊三:爵一,齒一,德一。朝廷莫如爵,鄉黨莫如齒,輔世長民莫如德。惡得有其一,以慢其二哉?故將大有為之君,必有所不召之臣。欲有謀焉,則就之。其尊德樂道,不如是不足與有為也。故湯之於伊尹,學焉而後臣之,故不勞而王;桓公之於管仲,學焉而後臣之,故不勞而霸。今天下地醜德齊,莫能相尚。無他,好臣其所教,而不好臣其所受教。湯之於伊尹,桓公之於管仲,則不敢召。管仲且猶不可召,而況不為管仲者乎?」
Mencius answered him, 'How can you give that meaning to my conduct? The philosopher Zeng said, "The wealth of Jin and Chu cannot be equalled. Let their rulers have their wealth - I have my benevolence. Let them have their nobility - I have my righteousness. Wherein should I be dissatisfied as inferior to them?" Now shall we say that these sentiments are not right? Seeing that the philosopher Zeng spoke them, there is in them, I apprehend, a real principle. In the kingdom there are three things universally acknowledged to be honourable. Nobility is one of them; age is one of them; virtue is one of them. In courts, nobility holds the first place of the three; in villages, age holds the first place; and for helping one's generation and presiding over the people, the other two are not equal to virtue. How can the possession of only one of these be presumed on to despise one who possesses the other two? Therefore a prince who is to accomplish great deeds will certainly have ministers whom he does not call to go to him. When he wishes to consult with them, he goes to them. The prince who does not honour the virtuous, and delight in their ways of doing, to this extent, is not worth having to do with. Accordingly, there was the behaviour of Tang to Yi Yin: he first learned of him, and then employed him as his minister; and so without difficulty he became sovereign. There was the behaviour of the duke Huan to Guan Zhong: he first learned of him, and then employed him as his minister; and so without difficulty he became chief of all the princes. Now throughout the kingdom, the territories of the princes are of equal extent, and in their achievements they are on a level. Not one of them is able to exceed the others. This is from no other reason, but that they love to make ministers of those whom they teach, and do not love to make ministers of those by whom they might be taught. So did Tang behave to Yi Yin, and the duke Huan to Guan Zhong, that they would not venture to call them to go to them. If Guan Zhong might not be called to him by his prince, how much less may he be called, who would not play the part of Guan Zhong!'

告子下 - Gaozi II

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27 告子下:
孟子曰:「五霸者,三王之罪人也;今之諸侯,五霸之罪人也;今之大夫,今之諸侯之罪人也。天子適諸侯曰巡狩,諸侯朝於天子曰述職。春省耕而補不足,秋省斂而助不給。入其疆,土地辟,田野治,養老尊賢,俊傑在位,則有慶,慶以地。入其疆,土地荒蕪,遺老失賢,掊克在位,則有讓。一不朝,則貶其爵;再不朝,則削其地;三不朝,則六師移之。是故天子討而不伐,諸侯伐而不討。五霸者,摟諸侯以伐諸侯者也,故曰:五霸者,三王之罪人也。
Gaozi II:
Mencius said, 'The five chiefs of the princes were sinners against the three kings. The princes of the present day are sinners against the five chiefs. The Great officers of the present day are sinners against the princes. The sovereign visited the princes, which was called "A tour of Inspection." The princes attended at the court of the sovereign, which was called "Giving a report of office." It was a custom in the spring to examine the ploughing, and supply any deficiency of seed; and in autumn to examine the reaping, and assist where there was a deficiency of the crop. When the sovereign entered the boundaries of a State, if the new ground was being reclaimed, and the old fields well cultivated; if the old were nourished and the worthy honoured; and if men of distinguished talents were placed in office: then the prince was rewarded - rewarded with an addition to his territory. On the other hand, if, on entering a State, the ground was found left wild or overrun with weeds; if the old were neglected and the worthy unhonoured; and if the offices were filled with hard taxgatherers: then the prince was reprimanded. If a prince once omitted his attendance at court, he was punished by degradation of rank; if he did so a second time, he was deprived of a portion of his territory; if he did so a third time, the royal forces were set in motion, and he was removed from his government. Thus the sovereign commanded the punishment, but did not himself inflict it, while the princes inflicted the punishment, but did not command it. The five chiefs, however, dragged the princes to punish other princes, and hence I say that they were sinners against the three kings.
「五霸,桓公為盛。葵丘之會諸侯,束牲、載書而不歃血。初命曰:『誅不孝,無易樹子,無以妾為妻。』再命曰:『尊賢育才,以彰有德。』三命曰:『敬老慈幼,無忘賓旅。』四命曰:『士無世官,官事無攝,取士必得,無專殺大夫。』五命曰:『無曲防,無遏糴,無有封而不告。』曰:『凡我同盟之人,既盟之後,言歸于好。』今之諸侯,皆犯此五禁,故曰:今之諸侯,五霸之罪人也。
'Of the five chiefs the most powerful was the duke Huan. At the assembly of the princes in Kui Qiu, he bound the victim and placed the writing upon it, but did not slay it to smear their mouths with the blood. The first injunction in their agreement was, "Slay the unfilial; change not the son who has been appointed heir; exalt not a concubine to be the wife." The second was, "Honour the worthy, and maintain the talented, to give distinction to the virtuous." The third was, "Respect the old, and be kind to the young. Be not forgetful of strangers and travellers." The fourth was, "Let not offices be hereditary, nor let officers be pluralists. In the selection of officers let the object be to get the proper men. Let not a ruler take it on himself to put to death a Great officer." The fifth was, "Follow no crooked policy in making embankments. Impose no restrictions on the sale of grain. Let there be no promotions without first announcing them to the sovereign." It was then said, "All we who have united in this agreement shall hereafter maintain amicable relations." The princes of the present day all violate these five prohibitions, and therefore I say that the princes of the present day are sinners against the five chiefs.
「長君之惡其罪小,逢君之惡其罪大。今之大夫,皆逢君之惡,故曰:今之大夫,今之諸侯之罪人也。」
'The crime of him who connives at, and aids, the wickedness of his prince is small, but the crime of him who anticipates and excites that wickedness is great. The officers of the present day all go to meet their sovereigns' wickedness, and therefore I say that the Great officers of the present day are sinners against the princes.'

禮記 - Liji

[Warring States (475 BC - 221 BC)] English translation: James Legge [?]
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[Also known as: 《小戴禮記》, "The Classic of Rites"]

曾子問 - Zengzi Wen

English translation: James Legge [?]
Books referencing 《曾子問》 Library Resources
[Also known as: "The questions of Zeng-zi"]

18 曾子問:
曾子問曰:「喪有二孤,廟有二主,禮與?」
Zengzi Wen:
Zeng-zi asked, 'Is it according to rule "that at the mourning rites there should be two (performing the part of) the orphan son (and heir, receiving visitors), or that at a temple-shrine there should be two spirit-tablets?'
孔子曰:「天無二日,土無二王,嘗禘郊社,尊無二上。未知其為禮也。昔者齊桓公亟舉兵,作偽主以行。及反,藏諸祖廟。廟有二主,自桓公始也。喪之二孤,則昔者衛靈公適魯,遭季桓子之喪,衛君請吊,哀公辭不得命,公為主,客人吊。康子立於門右,北面;公揖讓升自東階,西鄉;客升自西階吊。公拜,興,哭;康子拜稽顙於位,有司弗辯也。今之二孤,自季康子之過也。」
Confucius said, 'In heaven there are not two suns; in a country there are not two kings; in the seasonal sacrifices, and those to Heaven and Earth, there are not two who occupy the highest place of honour. I do not know that what you ask about is according to rule. Formerly duke Huan of Qi, going frequently to war, made fictitious tablets and took them with him on his expeditions, depositing them on his return in the ancestral temple. The practice of having two tablets in a temple-shrine originated from duke Huan. As to two (playing the part of the) orphan son, it may be thus explained: Formerly, on occasion of a visit to Lu by duke Ling of Wei, the mourning rites of Ji Huan-zi were in progress. The ruler of Wei requested leave to offer his condolences. Duke Ai (of Lu), declined (the ceremony), but could not enforce his refusal. He therefore acted as the principal (mourner), and the visitor came in to condole with him. Kang-zi stood on the right of the gate with his face to the north. The duke, after the usual bows and courtesies, ascended by the steps on the east with his face towards the west. The visitor ascended by those on the west, and paid his condolences. The duke bowed ceremoniously to him, and then rose up and wailed, while Kang-zi bowed with his forehead to the ground, in the position where he was. The superintending officers made no attempt to put the thing to rights. The having two now acting as the orphan son arose from the error of Ji Kang-zi.'

雜記下 - Za Ji II

English translation: James Legge [?] Library Resources
[Also known as: "Miscellaneous records II"]

130 雜記下:
孔子曰:「管仲遇盜,取二人焉,上以為公臣,曰:『其所與游辟也,可人也!』管仲死,桓公使為之服。宦於大夫者之為之服也,自管仲始也,有君命焉爾也。」
Za Ji II:
Confucius said, 'Guan Zhong selected two men from among (certain) thieves with whom he was dealing, and appointed them to offices in the state, saying, "They were led astray by bad men with whom they had associated, but they are proper men themselves." When he died, duke Huan made these two wear mourning for him. The practice of old servants of a Great officer wearing mourning for him, thus arose from Guan Zhong. But these two men only mourned for him by the duke's orders.'

荀子 - Xunzi

[Warring States (475 BC - 221 BC)]
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仲尼

Books referencing 《仲尼》 Library Resources
2 仲尼:
若是而不亡,乃霸,何也?曰:於乎!夫齊桓公有天下之大節焉,夫孰能亡之?倓然見管仲之能足以託國也,是天下之大知也。安忘其怒,出忘其讎,遂立為仲父,是天下之大決也。立以為仲父,而貴戚莫之敢妒也;與之高國之位,而本朝之臣莫之敢惡也;與之書社三百,而富人莫之敢距也;貴賤長少,秩秩焉,莫不從桓公而貴敬之,是天下之大節也。諸侯有一節如是,則莫之能亡也;桓公兼此數節者而盡有之,夫又何可亡也!其霸也,宜哉!非幸也,數也。

王制

Books referencing 《王制》 Library Resources
11 王制:
閔王毀於五國,桓公劫於魯莊,無它故焉,非其道而慮之以王也。

臣道

Books referencing 《臣道》 Library Resources
6 臣道:
有大忠者,有次忠者,有下忠者,有國賊者:以德覆君而化之,大忠也;以德調君而輔之,次忠也;以是諫非而怒之,下忠也;不卹君之榮辱,不卹國之臧否,偷合苟容以持祿養交而已耳,國賊也。若周公之於成王也,可謂大忠矣;若管仲之於桓公,可謂次忠矣;若子胥之於夫差,可謂下忠矣;若曹觸龍之於紂者,可謂國賊矣。

性惡

Books referencing 《性惡》 Library Resources
24 性惡:
繁弱、鉅黍古之良弓也;然而不得排檠則不能自正。桓公之蔥,太公之闕,文王之錄,莊君之曶,闔閭之干將、莫邪、鉅闕、辟閭,此皆古之良劍也;然而不加砥厲則不能利,不得人力則不能斷。驊騮、騹驥、纖離、綠耳,此皆古之良馬也;然而必前有銜轡之制,後有鞭策之威,加之以造父之駛,然後一日而致千里也。夫人雖有性質美而心辯知,必將求賢師而事之,擇良友而友之。得賢師而事之,則所聞者堯舜禹湯之道也;得良友而友之,則所見者忠信敬讓之行也。身日進於仁義而不自知也者,靡使然也。今與不善人處,則所聞者欺誣詐偽也,所見者汙漫淫邪貪利之行也,身且加於刑戮而不自知者,靡使然也。傳曰:「不知其子視其友,不知其君視其左右。」靡而已矣!靡而已矣!

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