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Condition 1: References 能 (2.2): 有才能的人。 Man of ability, man of talent. Matched:20.
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先秦兩漢 - Pre-Qin and Han

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儒家 - Confucianism

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孟子 - Mengzi

[Warring States] 340 BC-250 BC
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[Also known as: "The Works of Mencius"]

公孫丑上 - Gong Sun Chou I

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5 公孫丑上:
孟子曰:「尊賢使,俊傑在位,則天下之士皆悅而願立於其朝矣。市廛而不征,法而不廛,則天下之商皆悅而願藏於其市矣。關譏而不征,則天下之旅皆悅而願出於其路矣。耕者助而不稅,則天下之農皆悅而願耕於其野矣。廛無夫里之布,則天下之民皆悅而願為之氓矣。信能行此五者,則鄰國之民仰之若父母矣。率其子弟,攻其父母,自生民以來,未有能濟者也。如此,則無敵於天下。無敵於天下者,天吏也。然而不王者,未之有也。」
Gong Sun Chou I:
Mencius said, 'If a ruler give honour to men of talents and virtue and employ the able, so that offices shall all be filled by individuals of distinction and mark - then all the scholars of the kingdom will be pleased, and wish to stand in his court. If, in the market-place of his capital, he levy a ground-rent on the shops but do not tax the goods, or enforce the proper regulations without levying a ground-rent - then all the traders of the kingdom will be pleased, and wish to store their goods in his market-place. If, at his frontier-passes, there be an inspection of persons, but no taxes charged on goods or other articles, then all the travellers of the kingdom will be pleased, and wish to make their tours on his roads. If he require that the husbandmen give their mutual aid to cultivate the public feld, and exact no other taxes from them - then all the husbandmen of the kingdom will be pleased, and wish to plough in his fields. If from the occupiers of the shops in his market-place he do not exact the fine of the individual idler, or of the hamlet's quota of cloth, then all the people of the kingdom will be pleased, and wish to come and be his people. If a ruler can truly practise these five things, then the people in the neighbouring kingdoms will look up to him as a parent. From the first birth of mankind till now, never has any one led children to attack their parent, and succeeded in his design. Thus, such a ruler will not have an enemy in all the kingdom, and he who has no enemy in the kingdom is the minister of Heaven. Never has there been a ruler in such a case who did not attain to the royal dignity.'

荀子 - Xunzi

[Warring States (475 BC - 221 BC)]
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王制

Books referencing 《王制》 Library Resources
5 王制:
馬駭輿,則君子不安輿;庶人駭政,則君子不安位。馬駭輿,則莫若靜之;庶人駭政,則莫若惠之。選賢良,舉篤敬,興孝弟,收孤寡,補貧窮。如是,則庶人安政矣。庶人安政,然後君子安位。傳曰:「君者、舟也,庶人者、水也;水則載舟,水則覆舟。」此之謂也。故君人者,欲安、則莫若平政愛民矣;欲榮、則莫若隆禮敬士矣;欲立功名、則莫若尚賢使矣。-是人君之大節也。三節者當,則其餘莫不當矣。三節者不當,則其餘雖曲當,猶將無益也。孔子曰:「大節是也,小節是也,上君也;大節是也,小節一出焉,一入焉,中君也;大節非也,小節雖是也,吾無觀其餘矣。」

15 王制:
王者之論:無德不貴,無能不官,無功不賞,無罪不罰。朝無幸位,民無幸生。尚賢使,而等位不遺;析愿禁悍,而刑罰不過。百姓曉然皆知夫為善於家,而取賞於朝也;為不善於幽,而蒙刑於顯也。夫是之謂定論。是王者之論也。

富國

Books referencing 《富國》 Library Resources
14 富國:
故不教而誅,則刑繁而邪不勝;教而不誅,則姦民不懲;誅而不賞,則勤厲之民不勸;誅賞而不類,則下疑俗險而百姓不一。故先王明禮義以壹之,致忠信以愛之,尚賢使以次之,爵服慶賞以申重之,時其事,輕其任,以調齊之,潢然兼覆之,養長之,如保赤子。若是,故姦邪不作,盜賊不起,而化善者勸勉矣。是何邪?則其道易,其塞固,其政令一,其防表明。故曰:上一則下一矣,上二則下二矣。辟之若屮木枝葉必類本。此之謂也。

君道

Books referencing 《君道》 Library Resources
2 君道:
合符節,別契券者,所以為信也;上好權謀,則臣下百吏誕詐之人乘是而後欺。探籌、投鉤者,所以為公也;上好曲私,則臣下百吏乘是而後偏。衡石稱縣者,所以為平也;上好覆傾,則臣下百吏乘是而後險。斗斛敦概者,所以為嘖也;上好貪利,則臣下百吏乘是而後豐取刻與,以無度取於民。故械數者,治之流也,非治之原也;君子者,治之原也。官人守數,君子養原;原清則流清,原濁則流濁。故上好禮義,尚賢使,無貪利之心,則下亦將綦辭讓,致忠信,而謹於臣子矣。如是則雖在小民,不待合符節,別契券而信,不待探籌投鉤而公,不待衝石稱縣而平,不待斗斛敦概而嘖。故賞不用而民勸,罰不用而民服,有司不勞而事治,政令不煩而俗美。百姓莫敢不順上之法,象上之志,而勸上之事,而安樂之矣。故藉歛忘費,事業忘勞,寇難忘死,城郭不待飾而固,兵刃不待陵而勁,敵國不待服而詘,四海之民不待令而一,夫是之謂至平。《》曰:「王猶允塞,徐方既來。」此之謂也。

7 君道:
至道大形:隆禮至法則國有常,尚賢使則民知方,纂論公察則民不疑,賞克罰偷則民不怠,兼聽齊明則天下歸之;然後明分職,序事業,材技官能,莫不治理,則公道達而私門塞矣,公義明而私事息矣:如是,則德厚者進而佞說者止,貪利者退而廉節者起。《》曰:「先時者殺無赦,不逮時者殺無赦。」人習其事而固,人之百事,如耳目鼻口之不可以相借官也。故職分而民不慢1,次定而序不亂,兼聽齊明而百姓不留:如是,則臣下百吏至於庶人,莫不修己而後敢安止,誠能而後敢受職;百姓易俗,小人變心,姦怪之屬莫不反愨:夫是之謂政教之極。故天子不視而見,不聽而聰,不慮而知,不動而功,塊然獨坐而天下從之如一體,如四胑之從心:夫是之謂大形。《》曰:「溫溫恭人,維德之基。」此之謂也。

1. 慢 : Originally read: "探". 據《群書治要》本補,說見王念孫《讀書雜志》、王先謙《荀子集解》。

12 君道:
材人:愿愨拘錄,計數纖嗇,而無敢遺喪,是官人使吏之材也。脩飭端正,尊法敬分,而無傾側之心,守職脩業,不敢損益,可傳世也,而不可使侵奪,是士大夫官師之材也。知隆禮義之為尊君也,知好士之為美名也,知愛民之為安國也,知有常法之為一俗也,知尚賢使之為長功也,知務本禁末之為多材也,知無與下爭小利之為便於事也,知明制度,權物稱用之為不泥也,是卿相輔佐之材也,未及君道也。能論官此三材者而無失其次,是謂人主之道也。若是則身佚而國治,功大而名美,上可以王,下可以霸,是人主之要守也。人主不能論此三材者,不知道此道,安值將卑埶出勞,併耳目之樂,而親自貫日而治詳,一日而曲辨之,慮與臣下爭小察而綦偏能,自古及今,未有如此而不亂者也。是所謂視乎不可見,聽乎不可聞,為乎不可成,此之謂也。

臣道

Books referencing 《臣道》 Library Resources
2 臣道:
從命而利君謂之順,從命而不利君謂之諂;逆命而利君謂之忠,逆命而不利君謂之篡;不卹君之榮辱,不卹國之臧否,偷合苟容以持祿養交而已耳,謂之國賊。君有過謀過事,將危國家隕社稷之懼也;大臣父兄,有能進言於君,用則可,不用則去,謂之諫;有能進言於君,用則可,不用則死,謂之爭;有能比知同力,率群臣百吏而相與彊君撟君,君雖不安,不能不聽,遂以解國之大患,除國之大害,成於尊君安國,謂之輔;有能抗君之命,竊君之重,反君之事,以安國之危,除君之辱,功伐足以成國之大利,謂之拂。故諫爭輔拂之人,社稷之臣也,國君之寶也,明君之所尊厚也,而闇主惑君以為己賊也。故明君之所賞,闇君之所罰也;闇君之所賞,明君之所殺也。伊尹箕子可謂諫矣,比干子胥可謂爭矣,平原君之於趙可謂輔矣,信陵君之於魏可謂拂矣。傳曰:「從道不從君。」此之謂也。故正義之臣設,則朝廷不頗;諫爭輔拂之人信,則君過不遠;爪牙之士施,則仇讎不作;邊境之臣處,則疆垂不喪,故明主好同而闇主好獨,明主尚賢使而饗其盛,闇主妒賢畏能而滅其功,罰其忠,賞其賊,夫是之謂至闇,桀紂所以滅也。

議兵

Books referencing 《議兵》 Library Resources
25 議兵:
凡人之動也,為賞慶為之,則見害傷焉止矣。故賞慶、刑罰、埶詐,不足以盡人之力,致人之死。為人主上者也,其所以接下之百姓者,無禮義忠信,焉慮率用賞慶、刑罰、埶詐,除阨其下,獲其功用而已矣。大寇則至,使之持危城則必畔,遇敵處戰則必北,勞苦煩辱則必奔,霍焉離耳,下反制其上。故賞慶、刑罰、埶詐之為道者,傭徒鬻賣之道也,不足以合大眾,美國家,故古之人羞而不道也。故厚德音以先之,明禮義以道之,致忠信以愛之,尚賢使以次之,爵服慶賞以申之,時其事,輕其任,以調齊之,長養之,如保赤子。政令以定,風俗以一,有離俗不順其上,則百姓莫不敦惡,莫不毒孽,若祓不祥;然後刑於是起矣。是大刑之所加也,辱孰大焉!將以為利邪?則大刑加焉,身苟不狂惑戇陋,誰睹是而不改也哉!然後百姓曉然皆知循上之法,像上之志,而安樂之。於是有能化善、脩身、正行、積禮義、尊道德,百姓莫不貴敬,莫不親譽;然後賞於是起矣。是高爵豐祿之所加也,榮孰大焉!將以為害邪?則高爵豐祿以持養之;生民之屬,孰不願也!雕雕焉縣貴爵重賞於其前,縣明刑大辱於其後,雖欲無化,能乎哉!故民歸之如流水,所存者神,所為者化,而順,暴悍勇力之屬為之化而愿,旁辟曲私之屬為之化而公,矜糾收繚之屬為之化而調,夫是之謂大化至一。《》曰:「王猶允塞,徐方既來。」此之謂也。

彊國

Books referencing 《彊國》 Library Resources
4 彊國:
譏之曰:子發之致命也恭,其辭賞也固。夫尚賢使,賞有功,罰有罪,非獨一人為之也,彼先王之道也,一人之本也,善善惡惡之應也,治必由之,古今一也。古者明主之舉大事,立大功也,大事已博,大功已立,則君享其成,群臣享其功,士大夫益爵,官人益秩,庶人益祿。是以為善者勸,為不善者沮,上下一心,三軍同力,是以百事成,而功名大也。今子發獨不然:反先王之道,亂楚國之法,墮興功之臣,恥受賞之屬,無僇乎族黨,而抑卑其後世,案獨以為私廉,豈不過甚矣哉!故曰:子發之致命也恭,其辭賞也固。

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