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Condition 1: References 漢孝文皇帝 : 姓名:劉恆,在位前180-前157。 Emperor Xiao Wen of Han (ruled 180 BC-157 BC) or coextensive terms Matched:720.
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先秦兩漢 - Pre-Qin and Han

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儒家 - Confucianism

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新序 - Xin Xu

[Western Han (206 BC - 9)] Liu Xiang
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善謀下

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17 善謀下:
孝武皇帝時,大行王恢數言擊匈奴之便,可以除邊境之害,欲絕和親之約,御史大夫韓安國以為兵不可動。孝武皇帝召群臣而問曰:「朕飾子女以配單于,幣帛文錦,賂之甚厚,今單于逆命加慢,侵盜無已,邊境數驚,朕甚閔之,今欲舉兵以攻匈奴,如何?」大行臣恢再拜稽首曰:「善。陛下不言,臣固謁之。臣聞全代之時,北未嘗不有彊胡之故,內連中國之兵也,然尚得養老長幼,樹種以時,倉廩常實,守禦之備具,匈奴不敢輕侵也。今以陛下之威,海內為一家,天子同任,遣子弟乘邊守塞,轉粟輓輸,以為之備,而匈奴侵盜不休者,無他,不痛之患也。臣以為擊之便。」御史大夫臣安國稽首再拜曰:「不然。臣聞高皇帝嘗圍於平城,匈奴至而投鞍高於城者數所。平城之危,七日不食,天下歎之。及解圍反位,無忿怨之色,雖得天下,而不報平城之怨者,非以力不能也。夫聖人以天下為度者也,不以己之私怒,傷天下之公義,故遣嬌敬結為私親,至今為五世利。孝文皇帝嘗一屯天下之精兵於常谿廣武,無尺寸之功。天下黔首,約要之民,無不憂者,孝文皇帝悟兵之不可宿也,乃為和親之約,至今為後世利。臣以為兩主之跡,足以為效,臣故曰勿擊便。」

揚子法言 - Yangzi Fayan

[Western Han - Xin] 33 BC-18 Yang Xiong
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[Also known as: 《揚雄法言》, 《楊子法言》, 《楊雄法言》, 《法言》]

重黎卷第十 - Zhong and Li

English translation: Jeffrey S. Bullock [?] Library Resources
22 重黎卷第... :
或問:「馮唐面文帝得廉頗、李牧不能用也,諒乎?」曰:「彼將有激也。親屈帝尊,信亞夫之軍,至頗、牧,曷不用哉?」「德?」曰:「罪不孥,宮不女,館不新,陵不墳。」
Zhong and Li:
Someone asked: Feng Tang met with Emperor Wen and told him that even if he had generals like Lian Po and Li Mu, he would not be able to use them. Was he not sincere?
Yangzi said: He was raising the issue to arouse Emperor Wen's attention. Personally yielding himself with the honor of being Emperor, Emperor Wen supported Yafu's command of the army. Why could he not have used Lian Po and Li Mu?
The other said: What about his de?
Yangzi said: He did not punish the children of criminals, keep women in the palace, build new rooms in the palace or erect a large tomb for himself.

中論 - Zhong Lun

[Eastern Han (25 - 220)] Xu Gan
Books referencing 《中論》 Library Resources

佚文

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1 佚文:
天地之間,含氣而生者,莫知乎人。人情之至痛,莫過乎喪親。夫創巨者其日久,痛甚者其愈遲。故聖王制三年之服,所以稱情而立文,為至痛極也。自天子至于庶人,莫不由之。帝王相傳,未有知其所從來者,及孝文皇帝天姿謙讓,務崇簡易,其將棄萬國,乃顧臣子,令勿行久喪,已葬則除之,將以省煩勞而寬群下也。觀其詔文,唯欲施乎己而已,非為漢室創制喪禮而傳之於來世也。後人遂奉而行焉,莫之分理。至乎顯宗,聖德欽明,深照孝文一時之制,又惟先王之禮不可以久違,是以世祖徂崩,則斬衰三年,孝明既沒,朝之大臣徒以己之私意忖度嗣君之必貪速除也,檢之以太宗遺詔,不惟孝子之心,哀慕未歇,故令聖王之迹,陵遲而莫遵;短喪之制,遂行而不除。斯誠可悼之甚者也。滕文公、小國之君耳,加之生周之末世,禮教不行,猶能改前之失,咨問於孟軻,而服喪三年,豈況大漢配天之主,而廢三年之喪,豈不惜哉!且作法於仁,其弊猶薄;道隆於己,歷世則廢,況以不仁之作,宣之於海內,而望家有慈孝,民德歸厚,不亦難乎?《》曰:「爾之教矣,民胥放矣。」聖主若以遊宴之間,超然遠思,覽周公之舊章,咨顯宗之故事,感蓼莪之篤行,惡素冠之所刺,發復古之德音,改太宗之權令。事行之後,永為典式,傳示萬代,不刊之道也。

潛夫論 - Qian Fu Lun

[Eastern Han] 102-167 Wang Fu
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賢難

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4 賢難:
今世俗之人,自慢其親而憎人敬之,自簡其親而憎人愛之者不少也。豈獨品庶,賢材時有焉。鄧通幸於文帝,盡心而不違,吮癰而無恡色。帝病不樂,從容曰:「天下誰最愛朕者乎?」鄧通欲稱太子之孝,則因對曰:「莫若太子之最愛陛下也。」及太子問疾,帝令吮癰,有難之色,帝不悅而遣太子。既而聞鄧通之常吮癰也,乃慚而怨之。及嗣帝位,遂致通罪而使至於餓死。故鄧通、行所以盡心力而無害人,其言所以譽太子而昭孝慈也。太子自不能盡其稱,則反結怨而歸咎焉。稱人之長,欲彰其孝,且猶為罪,又況明人之短矯世者哉?

浮侈

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6 浮侈:
山林不能給野火,江海不能灌漏巵。孝文皇帝躬衣弋綈,足履革舄,以韋帶劍,集上書囊以為殿帷,盛夏苦暑,欲起一臺,計直百萬,以為奢費而不作也。今京師貴戚,衣服、飲食、車輿、文飾、廬舍,皆過王制,僣上甚矣。從奴僕妾,皆服葛子升越,筩中女布,細緻綺縠,水紈錦繡。犀象珠玉,琥珀瑇瑁,石山隱飾,金銀錯鏤,麞麂履舄,文組綵褋,驕奢僣主,轉相誇詫,箕子所晞,今在僕妾。富貴嫁娶,車軿各十,騎奴侍僮,夾轂節引。富者競欲相過,貧者恥不逮及。是故一饗之所費,破終身之本業。

9 浮侈:
古者墓而不崇。仲尼喪母,冡高四尺,遇雨而墮,弟子請治之。夫子泣曰:「禮不脩墓。」「鯉死,有棺而無槨。」文帝葬於芒碭,明帝葬於洛南,皆不藏珠寶,不造廟,不起山陵。陵墓雖卑而聖高。今京師貴戚,郡縣豪家,生不極養,死乃崇喪。或至刻金鏤玉,檽梓楩柟,良田造塋,黃壤致藏,多埋珍寶偶人車馬,造起大冡,廣種松柏,廬舍祠堂,崇侈上僣。寵臣貴戚,州郡世家,每有喪葬,都官屬縣,各當遣吏齎奉,車馬帷帳,貸假待客之具,競為華觀。此無益於奉終,無增於孝行,但作煩攪擾,傷害吏民。

述赦

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14 述赦:
今不顯行賞罰以明善惡,嚴督牧守以擒姦猾,而反數赦以勸之,其文帝曰:「謀反大逆不道諸犯,不當得赦皆除之,將與士大夫灑心更始。」歲歲灑之,然未嘗見姦人冗吏,有肯變心悔服稱詔者也。有司奏事,又俗以赦前之微過,妨今日之顯舉。然則改往脩來,更始之詔,亦不信也。

三式

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1 三式:
高祖定漢,與群臣約,自非劉氏不得王,非有武功不得侯。孝文皇帝始封外祖,因為典式,行之至今。孝武皇帝封爵丞相,以襃有德,後亦承之,建武乃絕。

斷訟

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5 斷訟:
《春秋》之義,責知誅率。孝文皇帝至寡動,欲任德,然河陽侯陳信坐負六日免國。孝武仁明,周陽侯田彭祖坐當軹侯宅而不與免國,黎陽侯邵延坐不出持馬,身斬國除。二帝豈樂以錢財之故而傷大臣哉?乃欲絕詐欺之端,必國家法,防禍亂之原,以利民也。故一人伏正罪而萬家蒙乎福者,聖主行之不疑。永平時,諸侯負責,輒有削絀之罰。此其後皆不敢負民,而世自節儉,辭訟自消矣。

志氏姓

Books referencing 《志氏姓》 Library Resources
30 志氏姓:
鄭大夫有馮簡子。後韓有馮亭,為上黨守,嫁禍于趙,以致長平之變。秦有將軍馮劫,與李斯俱誅。有馮唐,與文帝論將帥。後有馮奉世,上黨人也,位至將軍,女為元帝昭儀,因家于京師。其孫衍,字敬通,篤學重義,諸儒號之曰「德行雍雍馮敬通」,著書數十篇,孝章皇帝愛重其文。

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