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-> 沈括

沈括[View] [Edit] [History]
ctext:388420

RelationTargetTextual basis
typeperson
name沈括
name-style存中四庫全書總目提要》:括字存中,錢塘人,寄籍吳縣。
born1031
died1095
authority-cbdb1450
authority-viaf13108538
authority-wikidataQ270085
link-wikipedia_zh沈括
link-wikipedia_enShen_Kuo
exam-statusexamstatus:進士
    from-date 嘉祐八年
1063/2/1 - 1064/1/20
四庫全書總目提要》:括字存中,錢塘人,寄籍吳縣。登嘉祐八年進士。
associated-dynastydynasty:宋四庫全書總目提要》:宋沈括撰。
Shen Kuo (沈括; 1031–1095) or Shen Gua, courtesy name Cunzhong (存中) and pseudonym Mengqi (now usually given as Mengxi) Weng (夢溪翁), was a Chinese polymathic scientist and statesman of the Song dynasty (960–1279). Excelling in many fields of study and statecraft, he was a mathematician, astronomer, antiquarian, meteorologist, geologist, entomologist, anatomist, climatologist, zoologist, botanist, pharmacologist, medical scientist, agronomist, archaeologist, ethnographer, cartographer, geographer, geophysicist, metallurgist, mineralogist, encyclopedist, military general, diplomat, hydraulic engineer, inventor, economist, academy chancellor, finance minister, governmental state inspector, philosopher, art critic, poet, and musician. He was the head official for the Bureau of Astronomy in the Song court, as well as an Assistant Minister of Imperial Hospitality. At court his political allegiance was to the Reformist faction known as the New Policies Group, headed by Chancellor Wang Anshi (1021–1085).

In his Dream Pool Essays or Dream Torrent Essays (夢溪筆談; Mengxi Bitan) of 1088, Shen was the first to describe the magnetic needle compass, which would be used for navigation (first described in Europe by Alexander Neckam in 1187). Shen discovered the concept of true north in terms of magnetic declination towards the north pole, with experimentation of suspended magnetic needles and "the improved meridian determined by Shen's astronomical measurement of the distance between the pole star and true north". This was the decisive step in human history to make compasses more useful for navigation, and may have been a concept unknown in Europe for another four hundred years (evidence of German sundials made circa 1450 show markings similar to Chinese geomancer compasses in regard to declination).

Alongside his colleague Wei Pu, Shen planned to map the orbital paths of the Moon and the planets in an intensive five-year project involving daily observations, yet this was thwarted by political opponents at court. To aid his work in astronomy, Shen Kuo made improved designs of the armillary sphere, gnomon, sighting tube, and invented a new type of inflow water clock. Shen Kuo devised a geological hypothesis for land formation (geomorphology), based upon findings of inland marine fossils, knowledge of soil erosion, and the deposition of silt. He also proposed a hypothesis of gradual climate change, after observing ancient petrified bamboos that were preserved underground in a dry northern habitat that would not support bamboo growth in his time. He was the first literary figure in China to mention the use of the drydock to repair boats suspended out of water, and also wrote of the effectiveness of the relatively new invention of the canal pound lock. Chinese philosopher Mozi (470–391 BC) so far is the first person in history to describe camera obscura (a basic camera). Shen noted the relation of the focal point of a concave mirror and that of the pinhole. Shen wrote extensively about movable type printing invented by Bi Sheng (990–1051), and because of his written works the legacy of Bi Sheng and the modern understanding of the earliest movable type has been handed down to later generations. Following an old tradition in China, Shen created a raised-relief map while inspecting borderlands. His description of an ancient crossbow mechanism which he himself unearthed proved to be a Jacob's staff, a surveying tool which wasn't known in Europe until described by Levi ben Gerson in 1321.

Shen Kuo wrote several other books besides the Dream Pool Essays, yet much of the writing in his other books has not survived. Some of Shen's poetry was preserved in posthumous written works. Although much of his focus was on technical and scientific issues, he had an interest in divination and the supernatural, the latter including his vivid description of unidentified flying objects from eyewitness testimony. He also wrote commentary on ancient Daoist and Confucian texts.

Read more...: Life   Birth and youth   Official career   Impeachment and later life   Scholarly achievements   Raised-relief map   Pharmacology   Civil engineering   Anatomy   Mathematics and optics   Magnetic needle compass   Archaeology   Geology   Meteorology   Astronomy and instruments   Movable type printing   Other achievements in science and technology   Beliefs and philosophy   Art criticism   Written works   Dream Pool Essays   Other written works   Legacy   Praise, critique, and criticism   Burial and posthumous honors  

The text above has been excerpted automatically from Wikipedia - please correct any errors in the original article.
沈括(1031年 - 1095年),字存中,號夢溪丈人,杭州錢塘縣(今浙江省杭州市)人,隨母壽昌縣太君許氏入籍蘇州吳縣(今江蘇省蘇州市),北宋科學家。

Read more...: 生平   貢獻   著作  

The text above has been excerpted automatically from Wikipedia - please correct any errors in the original article.

SourceRelation
夢溪筆談creator
蘇沈良方creator
長興集creator

TextCount
清史稿2
四庫全書輯永樂大典本書目1
鐵琴銅劍樓藏書目錄1
東都事略4
宋史紀事本末1
四庫全書總目提要25
文獻通考7
古今紀要2
書史會要1
直齋書錄解題8
京口耆舊傳2
千頃堂書目2
宋史3
陶廬雜錄1
URI: https://data.ctext.org/entity/388420 [RDF]

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