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-> 圓明園

圓明園[View] [Edit] [History]

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The Old Summer Palace, known in Chinese as Yuanming Yuan (圓明園 Yuánmíng Yuán, literally Gardens of Perfect Brightness), originally called the Imperial Gardens (御園 Yù Yuán), and sometimes called the Winter Palace, was a complex of palaces and gardens in present-day Haidian District, Beijing, China. It is northwest of the walls of the former Imperial City section of Beijing. Widely perceived as the pinnacle work of Chinese imperial garden and palace design, the Old Summer Palace was known for its extensive collection of gardens, its building architecture and numerous art and historical treasures. Constructed throughout the 18th and early 19th centuries, the Old Summer Palace was the main imperial residence of Qianlong Emperor of the Qing dynasty and his successors, and where they handled state affairs; the Forbidden City was used for formal ceremonies. It was reputed as the "Garden of Gardens" (萬園之園 wàn yuán zhī yuán) in its heyday.

In 1860, during the Second Opium War, as the Anglo-French expedition force steadily approached Beijing, two British envoys, a journalist for The Times and a small escort of British and Indian troopers were sent to meet Prince Yi under a flag of truce to negotiate a Qing surrender. Meanwhile, the French and British troops reached the palace. As news emerged that the negotiation delegation had been imprisoned and tortured, resulting in 20 deaths, the British High Commissioner to China, James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin, retaliated by ordering the complete destruction of the palace, which was then carried out by British troops. The palace was so large – covering more than – that it took 4,000 men 3 days of burning to destroy it. Many exquisite artworks – sculptures, porcelain, jade, silk robes, elaborate textiles, gold objects and more – were looted and are now found in 47 museums around the world, according to UNESCO.

Read more...: Overview   Location   Western mansions   History   Destruction   Aftermath   Recent developments and plans   Gallery  

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Read more...: 歷史   營建   英法聯軍之役的破壞   清末與民國時期的破壞   共和國建國初期的破壞   當代的保護與修葺   園林特色   園林布局   圓明園   總體布局   圓明園四十景   長春園   總體布局   綺春園   總體布局   圓明園附屬園林   現存遺蹟   十二生肖獸首銅像   仿造   流行文化   對聯   影視作品  

The text above has been excerpted automatically from Wikipedia - please correct any errors in the original article.



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