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-> 慈禧太后

慈禧太后[View] [Edit] [History]

RelationTargetTextual basis
    from-date 咸豐六年
1856/2/6 - 1857/1/25
    from-date 光緒十一年
1885/2/15 - 1886/2/3
清史稿·列傳二百二十六 景廉 額勒和布 許庚身 錢應溥 廖壽恆 榮慶 那桐 戴鴻慈》:那桐,字琴軒,葉赫那拉氏,內務府滿洲鑲黃旗人。光緒十一年舉人,由戶部主事歷保四品京堂,授鴻臚寺卿,遷內閣學士。
Empress Dowager Cixi (慈禧太后 Cíxī Tàihòu ; Tsysi taiheo;(also romanised as Empress Dowager T'zu-hsi; 29 November 1835 – 15 November 1908), of the Manchu Yehe Nara clan, was a Chinese empress dowager and regent who effectively controlled the Chinese government in the late Qing dynasty for 47 years, from 1861 until her death in 1908. Selected as a concubine of the Xianfeng Emperor in her adolescence, she gave birth to a son, Zaichun, in 1856. After the Xianfeng Emperor's death in 1861, the young boy became the Tongzhi Emperor, and she became the Empress Dowager. Cixi ousted a group of regents appointed by the late emperor and assumed regency, which she shared with Empress Dowager Ci'an. Cixi then consolidated control over the dynasty when she installed her nephew as the Guangxu Emperor at the death of the Tongzhi Emperor in 1875, contrary to the traditional rules of succession of the Qing dynasty that had ruled China since 1644.

Cixi supervised the Tongzhi Restoration, a series of moderate reforms that helped the regime survive until 1911. Although Cixi refused to adopt Western models of government, she supported technological and military reforms and the Self-Strengthening Movement. She supported the principles of the Hundred Days' Reforms of 1898, but feared that sudden implementation, without bureaucratic support, would be disruptive and that the Japanese and other foreign powers would take advantage of any weakness. She placed the Guangxu Emperor, whom she thought had tried to assassinate her, under virtual house arrest for supporting radical reformers, publicly executing the main reformers. After the Boxer Rebellion led to invasion by Allied armies, Cixi initially backed the Boxer groups and declared war on the invaders. The ensuing defeat was a stunning humiliation. When Cixi returned to Beijing from Xi'an, where she had taken the emperor, she became friendly to foreigners in the capital and began to implement fiscal and institutional reforms aimed to turn China into a constitutional monarchy. The death of both Cixi and the Guangxu Emperor in November 1908 left the court in hands of Manchu conservatives, a child, Puyi, on the throne, and a restless, deeply divided society.

Historians both in China and abroad have debated her legacy. Conventionally denounced as a ruthless despot whose reactionary policies – although successfully self-serving in prolonging the ailing Qing dynasty – led to its humiliation and utter downfall in the Wuchang Uprising, revisionists suggested that Nationalist and Communist revolutionaries scapegoated her for deep-rooted problems beyond salvage, and lauded her maintenance of political order as well as numerous effective, if belated reforms – including the abolition of slavery, ancient torturous punishments and the ancient examination system in her ailing years, the latter supplanted by institutions including the new Peking University.

Read more...: Life   Birth   Xianfeng era   Tongzhi era   Xinyou Coup: Ousting Sushun   Ruling behind the curtain   New era   Cleaning up the bureaucracy   Taiping victory and Prince Gong   Foreign influence   The Tongzhi Emperors marriage   The Tongzhi Emperors deficiencies in ruling   Guangxu era   New challenges and illness   The Guangxu Emperors accession   "Retirement"   Hundred Days Reform   Boxer Rebellion   Return to Beijing and reforms   Xuantong era   Appraisal   Titles and honours   Titles   Honours   Family   Issue   In fiction and popular culture  

The text above has been excerpted automatically from Wikipedia - please correct any errors in the original article.
孝欽顯皇后ᡥᡳᠶᠣᠣᡧᡠᠩᡤᠠᡤᡳᠩᡤᡠᠵᡳᡳᠯᡝᡨᡠᡥᡡᠸᠠᠩᡥᡝᠣ|v=hiyoošungga gingguji iletu hūwangheo;1835年11月29日 - 1908年),亦稱那拉太后西宮太后西太后,滿洲鑲藍旗人,葉赫那拉氏,是清朝的一位著名皇太后,本為咸豐帝嬪妃,後成為同治、光緒年間實際上主政者。其子同治帝登基後,給徽號「慈禧」,稱慈禧皇太后慈禧太后光緒帝登極後,尊稱其為皇爸爸親爸爸,人人以老祖宗老佛爺慈禧老佛爺太后老佛爺尊稱之。慈禧太后與東宮慈安太后在養心殿裡一起兩宮聽政長達二十年,直到光緒七年(1881年)慈安太后過世,慈禧太后才正式獨攬大權。獨攬大權後,其仿效慈安太后獨尊佛教,並將當時的中國佛教循偏門左道並在義和團的渲染之下造成了道教與佛教的融合,造成了道教中的佛菩薩林立,因而遭到正統佛教的攻擊並稱之為攀佛外道。慈禧太后晚年沉迷於書寫道教中的佛經,並命令昭顯寺的僧人傳承,僧人們因畏懼她的權勢並為了討好她而拱稱他為老佛爺。



Read more...: 生平   咸豐時期   祺祥之變   同治時期   垂簾聽政   光緒時期   光緒初年政局與清法戰爭   清日甲午戰爭   戊戌變法與慈禧訓政   義和拳事件與八國聯軍   庚子新政   晚年   身後之事   傳說軼事   家族   兄弟姊妹   字畫   影視形象   評價  

The text above has been excerpted automatically from Wikipedia - please correct any errors in the original article.


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