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The Netherlands (Nederland ˈneːdərlɑnt), informally Holland, is a country located in Western Europe with territories in the Caribbean. It is the largest of four constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. In Europe, the Netherlands consists of twelve provinces, bordering Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with those countries and the United Kingdom. In the Caribbean, it consists of three special municipalities: the islands of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba. The country's official language is Dutch, with West Frisian as a secondary official language in the province of Friesland, and English and Papiamento as secondary official languages in the Caribbean Netherlands. Dutch Low Saxon and Limburgish are recognised regional languages (spoken in the east and southeast respectively), while Sinte Romani and Yiddish are recognised non-territorial languages.

The four largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht. Amsterdam is the country's most populous city and nominal capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General, Cabinet and Supreme Court. The Port of Rotterdam is the busiest seaport in Europe, and the busiest in any country outside East Asia and Southeast Asia, behind only China and Singapore. Amsterdam Airport Schiphol is the busiest airport in the Netherlands, and the third busiest in Europe. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union. It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centred in The Hague, which is consequently dubbed 'the world's legal capital'.

Netherlands literally means "lower countries" in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding above sea level, and nearly 26% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 14th century. Colloquially or informally the Netherlands is occasionally referred to by the pars pro toto Holland. With a population of 17.4 million people, all living within a total area of roughly —of which the land area is —the Netherlands is the 16th most densely populated country in the world and the 2nd most densely populated country in the European Union, with a density of . Nevertheless, it is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products by value, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture and inventiveness.

The Netherlands has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848. The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion, prostitution and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a liberal drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in Civil Law in 1870, though it was not completely removed until a new constitution was approved in 1983. The Netherlands allowed women's suffrage in 1919, before becoming the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001. Its mixed-market advanced economy had the eleventh-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development and quality of life, as well as happiness. In 2020, it ranked eighth on the human development index and fifth on the 2021 World Happiness Index.

Read more...: Etymology   The Netherlands and the Low Countries   Holland   Dutch   Terminology in Dutch and other languages   History   Prehistory (before 800 BC)   Celts, Germanic tribes and Romans (800 BC–410 AD)   Early Middle Ages (411–1000)   High Middle Ages (1000–1384)   Burgundian, Habsburg and Spanish Habsburg Netherlands (1384–1581)   Dutch Republic (1581–1795)   Batavian Republic and Kingdom (1795–1890)   World wars and beyond (1890–present)   Geography   Geology   Floods   Delta Works   Climate   Climate change   Nature   Caribbean islands   Government and politics   Political culture   Political parties   Government   Administrative divisions   Foreign relations   Military   Economy   Natural gas   Agriculture and natural resources   Demographics   Functional urban areas   Language   Religion   Education   Healthcare   Transport   Road transport   Public transport   Cycling   Water transport   Air transport   Culture   Art, architecture and philosophy   Southern Netherlands   Dutch value system   Dutch people and ecology   Music   Film and television   Sports   Cuisine   Colonial heritage  

The text above has been excerpted automatically from Wikipedia - please correct any errors in the original article.
荷蘭(Nederland,ˈneːdərˌlɑnt,意為低地之國),又譯尼德蘭,是主要國土位於歐洲西北部的君主立憲制王國,由歐洲區荷蘭的12個省份和荷蘭加勒比區的博奈爾島、聖尤斯特歇斯島和薩巴島組成。荷蘭也是主權國家荷蘭王國(Koninkrijk der Nederlanden)下的主要構成國,與美洲加勒比地區的阿魯巴、庫拉索和荷屬聖馬丁等四個主體,共同組成這個主權國家。

Read more...: 簡介   名稱   歷史   羅馬帝國時期的荷蘭(前55年-410年)   哈布斯堡時期的荷蘭(1519年-1581年)   尼德蘭七省共和國時期(1581年-1795年)   法國佔領時期(1795年-1814年)   荷蘭王國時期(1815年-1940年)   第二次世界大戰(1940年-1945年)   戰後時期(1945年至今)   地理   歐洲區荷蘭   洪水   氣候   荷蘭加勒比區   政治   政黨   行政區劃   省份   市鎮   公共實體(加勒比海部分)   外交   軍事   經濟   綜述   工業   農業   服務業   旅遊業   對外貿易   交通運輸   鐵公路   自行車   水運   航空   通訊   人口和社會   人口   語言   宗教   寬容的社會風氣   城市化進程   醫療   文化   建築   藝術   哲學和文學   體育   飲食   世界遺產   教育   著名大學   國定節日   注釋  

The text above has been excerpted automatically from Wikipedia - please correct any errors in the original article.


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