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-> 佛蘭西國

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France (fʁɑ̃s), officially the French Republic (link=no|République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. France borders Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland, Monaco and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south, as well as the Netherlands, Suriname and Brazil in the Americas. The country's eighteen integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a combined area of and a total population of 67.413 million. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice. France, including its overseas territories, has the most time zones of any country, with a total of twelve.

During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls. The area was annexed by Rome in 51 BC, developing a distinct Gallo-Roman culture that laid the foundation of the French language. The Germanic Franks arrived in 476 and formed the Kingdom of Francia, which became the heartland of the Carolingian Empire. The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned the empire, with West Francia becoming the Kingdom of France in 987.

In the High Middle Ages, France was a highly decentralized feudal kingdom in which the authority of the king was barely felt. King Philip Augustus achieved remarkable success in the strengthening of royal power and the expansion of his realm, doubling its size and defeating his rivals. By the end of his reign, France had emerged as the most powerful state in Europe. In the mid-14th century, French monarchs were embroiled in a series of dynastic conflicts with their English counterparts, collectively known as the Hundred Years' War, from which they ultimately emerged victorious. Disputes with Spain and the Holy Roman Empire soon followed during the Renaissance. Meanwhile, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The second half of the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots), which severely weakened the country. But France once again emerged as Europe's dominant cultural, political, and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV following the Thirty Years' War. Despite the wealth of the nation, an inadequate financial model and inequitable taxation system coupled with endless and costly wars meant that the kingdom was left in a precarious economic situation by the end of the 18th century. Especially costly were the Seven Years' War and American War of Independence. The French Revolution in 1789 saw the fall of the absolute monarchy that characterized the Ancien Régime and from its ashes, rose one of modern history's earliest republics, which drafted the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. The declaration expresses the nation's ideals to this day.

Following the revolution, France reached its political and military zenith in the early 19th century under Napoleon Bonaparte, subjugating much of continental Europe and establishing the First French Empire. The French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of European and world history. After the collapse of the empire and a relative decline, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating in the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870 in the midst of the Franco-Prussian War. France was one of the prominent participants of World War I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allied powers in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all other French colonies became independent in the 1960s, with most retaining close economic and military connections with France.

France retains its centuries-long status as a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world's fifth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving over 89 million foreign visitors in 2018. France is a developed country with the world's seventh-largest economy by nominal GDP, and the ninth-largest by PPP. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, and human development. It remains a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council and an official nuclear-weapon state. France is a founding and leading member of the European Union and the Eurozone, and a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the World Trade Organization (WTO), and La Francophonie.

Read more...: Etymology and pronunciation   History   Prehistory (before the 6th century BC)   Antiquity (6th century BC–5th century AD)   Early Middle Ages (5th–10th century)   High and Late Middle Ages (10th–15th century)   Early modern period (15th century–1789)   Revolutionary France (1789–1799)   Napoleon and 19th century (1799–1914)   Contemporary period (1914–present)   Geography   Location and borders   Geology, topography and hydrography   Climate   Environment   Administrative divisions   Regions   Overseas territories and collectivities   Politics   Government   Law   Foreign relations   Military   Government finance   Economy   Agriculture   Tourism   Paris region   French Riviera   Châteaux   Other protected areas   Energy   Transport   Science and technology   Demographics   Ethnic groups   Major cities   Language   Religion   Health   Education   Culture   Art   Architecture   Literature   Philosophy   Music   Cinema   Fashion   Media   Society   Cuisine   Sports  

The text above has been excerpted automatically from Wikipedia - please correct any errors in the original article.
法蘭西共和國(République française,ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛːz),通稱法國(France,fʁɑ̃s),是本土位於西歐並具有海外大區及領地的主權國家,自法蘭西第五共和國建立以來實行單一制與半總統制,首都為歐洲大陸最大的文化與金融中心巴黎。該國本土由地中海一直延伸至英倫海峽及北海,並由萊茵河一直延伸至大西洋,整體呈六角狀。海外領土包括南美洲的法屬圭亞那及分布于大西洋、太平洋和印度洋的諸島嶼。全國共分為18個大區,其中5個位於海外。法國與西班牙及摩洛哥為同時擁有地中海及大西洋海岸線的三個國家。法國的國土面積全球第四十一位,但卻為歐盟及西歐國土面積最遼闊的國家,歐洲面積第三大國家。



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The text above has been excerpted automatically from Wikipedia - please correct any errors in the original article.



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