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-> 馬超

馬超[View] [Edit] [History]

RelationTargetTextual basis
    at-date 建安十七年八月
212/9/14 - 212/10/12
Ma Chao (176–222), courtesy name Mengqi, was a Chinese military general and warlord who lived in the late Eastern Han dynasty and early Three Kingdoms period of China. A descendant of the general Ma Yuan, Ma Chao was the eldest son of Ma Teng, a prominent warlord in Liang Province (covering parts of northwestern China). In 211, he formed a coalition with Han Sui and other northwestern warlords and revolted against the Han central government, which was led by the warlord Cao Cao. The coalition broke up after losing the Battle of Tong Pass against Cao Cao's forces. Ma Chao initially retreated, but later returned to attack and seize control of Liang Province by killing the provincial inspector Wei Kang and forcing Wei Kang's subordinates to submit to him. About a year after Ma Chao started his uprising, Emperor Xian issued an imperial decree ordering the execution of Ma Chao's family members, who were in Ye city at the time. In the meantime, Wei Kang's subordinates, led by Zhao Ang, Yang Fu and others, rebelled against Ma Chao and forced him out of Liang Province. Ma Chao retreated to Hanzhong Commandery, where he borrowed troops from the warlord Zhang Lu, and returned to attack Liang Province but was ultimately defeated and driven back. Ma Chao took shelter under Zhang Lu for a while until around 214, when he heard that the warlord Liu Bei was fighting for control over Yi Province (covering present-day Sichuan and Chongqing) with Yi Province's governor, Liu Zhang. He defected to Liu Bei's side and assisted Liu Bei in capturing Yi Province from Liu Zhang. Ma Chao had served as a general under Liu Bei since then and participated in the Hanzhong Campaign in 219. He died in 222.

Historians and Ma Chao's contemporaries have a generally negative view of him. Apart from committing treason against the Han government under Cao Cao's control, Ma Chao was also notorious for committing a number of acts of cruelty: he betrayed his father when he persuaded Han Sui to join him in his rebellion; he abandoned his wife and son when he defected from Zhang Lu to Liu Bei; he killed Jiang Xu's mother in cold blood after she scolded him; he murdered Zhao Ang and Wang Yi's son after they rebelled against him and forced him out of Liang Province.

In the 14th-century historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Ma Chao is romanticised as a heroic warrior and one of the Five Tiger Generals under Liu Bei. In the novel, the descriptions of his character and personality, as well as the order of some events involving him, have been significantly modified for dramatic effect. For example, in the novel he started the Battle of Tong Pass to take revenge against Cao Cao for murdering his family, but historically he waged war against Cao Cao first, and then his family members were implicated and executed about one year later. In the novel, he also engaged Xu Chu and Zhang Fei in one-on-one duels at the Battle of Tong Pass and Battle of Jiameng Pass respectively, but historically the duels never took place and the Battle of Jiameng Pass is actually a fictional battle.

Read more...: Family background   Early career   Uprising against the Han dynasty   Battle of Tong Pass   Battles in Guanzhong   Service under Zhang Lu   Service under Liu Bei   Peng Yangs case   Conflict with Guan Yu and Zhang Fei   Death   Family and relatives   Appraisal   In Romance of the Three Kingdoms   In popular culture  

The text above has been excerpted automatically from Wikipedia - please correct any errors in the original article.
馬超(176年 - 222年),字孟起,扶風茂陵(今陝西省興平東北)人,漢末三國時期蜀漢著名將領。劉備稱帝後任驃騎將軍,領涼州牧,進封斄鄉侯。故後謚威侯,是為斄鄉威侯陳壽在撰寫《三國志》的時候,將馬超關羽張飛黃忠趙雲合為一傳(《三國志·蜀書·關張馬黃趙傳》),羅貫中的長篇小說《三國演義》中又將該五人並稱「五虎上將」,廣為世人所知。

Read more...: 生平   將門虎子   起兵反曹   逃奔張魯   歸降劉備   人物   墓園   家庭   祖父     兄弟     子女   評價   民間藝術   《三國演義》中的馬超   戲劇/電影   電玩遊戲   動漫作品   注釋列表  

The text above has been excerpted automatically from Wikipedia - please correct any errors in the original article.


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