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ctext:879536

RelationTargetTextual basis
typedynasty
namedefault
name大明
authority-wikidataQ9903
link-wikipedia_zh明朝
link-wikipedia_enMing_dynasty
The Ming dynasty, officially the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming dynasty was the last imperial dynasty of China ruled by Han Chinese. Although the primary capital of Beijing fell in 1644 to a rebellion led by Li Zicheng (who established the Shun dynasty, soon replaced by the Manchu-led Qing dynasty), numerous rump regimes ruled by remnants of the Ming imperial family—collectively called the Southern Ming—survived until 1662.

The Hongwu Emperor (r. 1368–1398) attempted to create a society of self-sufficient rural communities ordered in a rigid, immobile system that would guarantee and support a permanent class of soldiers for his dynasty: the empire's standing army exceeded one million troops and the navy's dockyards in Nanjing were the largest in the world. He also took great care breaking the power of the court eunuchs and unrelated magnates, enfeoffing his many sons throughout China and attempting to guide these princes through the Huang-Ming Zuxun, a set of published dynastic instructions. This failed when his teenage successor, the Jianwen Emperor, attempted to curtail his uncles' power, prompting the Jingnan Campaign, an uprising that placed the Prince of Yan upon the throne as the Yongle Emperor in 1402. The Yongle Emperor established Yan as a secondary capital and renamed it Beijing, constructed the Forbidden City, and restored the Grand Canal and the primacy of the imperial examinations in official appointments. He rewarded his eunuch supporters and employed them as a counterweight against the Confucian scholar-bureaucrats. One, Zheng He, led seven enormous voyages of exploration into the Indian Ocean as far as Arabia and the eastern coasts of Africa.

The rise of new emperors and new factions diminished such extravagances; the capture of the Zhengtong Emperor during the 1449 Tumu Crisis ended them completely. The imperial navy was allowed to fall into disrepair while forced labor constructed the Liaodong palisade and connected and fortified the Great Wall of China into its modern form. Wide-ranging censuses of the entire empire were conducted decennially, but the desire to avoid labor and taxes and the difficulty of storing and reviewing the enormous archives at Nanjing hampered accurate figures. Estimates for the late-Ming population vary from 160 to 200 million, but necessary revenues were squeezed out of smaller and smaller numbers of farmers as more disappeared from the official records or "donated" their lands to tax-exempt eunuchs or temples. Haijin laws intended to protect the coasts from "Japanese" pirates instead turned many into smugglers and pirates themselves.

By the 16th century, however, the expansion of European trade – albeit restricted to islands near Guangzhou such as Macau – spread the Columbian Exchange of crops, plants, and animals into China, introducing chili peppers to Sichuan cuisine and highly productive maize and potatoes, which diminished famines and spurred population growth. The growth of Portuguese, Spanish, and Dutch trade created new demand for Chinese products and produced a massive influx of Japanese and American silver. This abundance of specie remonetized the Ming economy, whose paper money had suffered repeated hyperinflation and was no longer trusted. While traditional Confucians opposed such a prominent role for commerce and the newly rich it created, the heterodoxy introduced by Wang Yangming permitted a more accommodating attitude. Zhang Juzheng's initially successful reforms proved devastating when a slowdown in agriculture produced by the Little Ice Age joined changes in Japanese and Spanish policy that quickly cut off the supply of silver now necessary for farmers to be able to pay their taxes. Combined with crop failure, floods, and the Great Plague, the dynasty collapsed before the rebel leader Li Zicheng, who was himself defeated shortly afterward by the Manchu-led Eight Banner armies who founded the Qing dynasty.

Read more...: History   Founding   Revolt and rebel rivalry   Reign of the Hongwu Emperor   South-Western frontier   Campaign in the North-East   Relations with Tibet   Reign of the Yongle Emperor   Rise to power   New capital and foreign engagement   Tumu Crisis and the Ming Mongols   Decline and fall of the Ming dynasty   Later reign of the Wanli Emperor   Role of eunuchs   Economic breakdown and natural disasters   Rise of the Manchu   Rebellion, invasion, collapse   Government   Province, prefecture, subprefecture, county   Institutions and bureaus   Institutional trends   Grand Secretariat and Six Ministries   Bureaus and offices for the imperial household   Personnel   Scholar-officials   Lesser functionaries   Eunuchs, princes, and generals   Society and culture   Literature and arts   Religion   Philosophy   Wang Yangmings Confucianism   Conservative reaction   Urban and rural life   Science and technology   Population  

The text above has been excerpted automatically from Wikipedia - please correct any errors in the original article.

SourceRelationat-dateat-placefrom-dateto-date
唐賽兒rebelled-against1420/3/24永樂十八年二月己酉
張獻忠rebelled-against1628/2/5 - 1629/1/23崇禎元年
徐鴻儒rebelled-against1622/6/19天啟二年五月丙午269255
李自成rebelled-against1628/2/5 - 1629/1/23崇禎元年
王嘉胤rebelled-against1628/2/5 - 1629/1/23崇禎元年
明太祖ruled1368/1/23洪武元年正月乙亥1398/6/24洪武三十一年閏五月乙酉
明成祖ruled1398/6/25洪武三十一年閏五月丙戌1424/8/12永樂二十二年七月辛卯
明惠帝ruled1398/6/25洪武三十一年閏五月丙戌1402/7/13建文四年六月乙丑
明仁宗ruled1424/8/13永樂二十二年七月壬辰1425/5/29洪熙元年五月辛巳
明宣宗ruled1425/5/30洪熙元年五月壬午1435/1/31宣德十年正月乙亥
明英宗ruled1435/2/1宣德十年正月丙子1464/2/23天順八年正月庚午
明代宗ruled1449/9/2正統十四年八月癸亥1457/2/14景泰八年正月乙酉
明憲宗ruled1464/2/24天順八年正月辛未1487/9/9成化二十三年八月己丑
明孝宗ruled1487/9/10成化二十三年八月庚寅1505/6/8弘治十八年五月辛卯
明武宗ruled1505/6/9弘治十八年五月壬辰1521/4/20正德十六年三月丙寅
明世宗ruled1521/4/21正德十六年三月丁卯1567/1/23嘉靖四十五年十二月庚子
明穆宗ruled1567/1/24嘉靖四十五年十二月辛丑1572/7/5隆慶六年五月庚戌
明神宗ruled1572/7/6隆慶六年五月辛亥1620/8/18萬曆四十八年七月丙申
明光宗ruled1620/8/19萬曆四十八年七月丁酉1620/9/26泰昌元年九月乙亥
明熹宗ruled1620/9/27泰昌元年九月丙子1627/9/30天啟七年八月乙卯
明思宗ruled1627/10/1天啟七年八月丙辰1644/4/25崇禎十七年三月丁未

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URI: https://data.ctext.org/entity/879536 [RDF]

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