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Chinese Text Project

U+4E4E

Seal script

Jinwen

Jiaguwen

Semantic variant

Radical:丿+ 4 strokes = 5 strokes total.
References:Guangyun: p.81#23 Kangxi: p.82#07 Cihai: p.47r3c03 GSR: 55.a Hanyu: v1,p0036#08
Composition:Component of: 𬼡 𫍞 𠇼 𠓧 𫼞 𡛚 𤝘 𢨽 𣧯 𤇠 𬏃 𤵡 [More]
Mandarin: ㄏㄨ ㄏㄨˊ
Cantonese:fu1 fu4 wu4
Tang reconstruction:ho
Shuowen:兮部》乎:語之餘也。从兮,象聲上越揚之形也。
Guangyun:廣韻·上平聲··》乎:極也,辝也。
Kangxi:康熙字典·丿部·》乎:〔古文〕虖《廣韻》戸吳切《集韻》《韻會》《正韻》洪孤切,𠀤音湖。《說文》兮語之餘也。从兮,象聲上越揚之形。《徐曰》凡名兮皆上句之餘聲。《廣韻》極也。又疑辭。《·邶風》胡爲乎中露。《戰國策》彈鋏歸來乎。又呼聲。如魯論,參乎,使乎之類。又荒烏切。與呼同。《·大雅》於乎小子。《陸德明·音義》於音烏,乎音呼。《吳越春秋》越王夫人歌曰:徊復翔兮,游飇去復反兮。於乎,今經史於戲,於虖,嗚虖,嗚嘑,於乎相通,皆歎辭。
Fanqie:戸吳 (《廣韻·上平聲··》)
Equivalent readings: (《四書章句集注·中庸章句·中庸章句》)
Unihan definition:interrogative or exclamatory final particle

CTP Dictionary


ㄏㄨ (1.1): 語氣詞:表示疑問或反問,相當於「嗎」或「呢」。 Modal particle expressing questioning or a rhetorical question.
墨子·小取》:此與彼同類,世有彼而不自非也,墨者有此而非之,無他故5焉,所謂內膠外閉與心毋空
This and those are of the same kind; the world have those and don't oppose themselves, [yet] we Mohists have this and they oppose us. There can be no other reason than that they are stopped up within and closed without; their heart-minds are all filled in!
論語·學而》:子曰:「學而時習之,不亦說?」
The Master said, "Is it not pleasant to learn with a constant perseverance and application?"
孟子·梁惠王上》:王曰:「叟不遠千里而來,亦將有以利吾國?」
The king said, 'Venerable sir, since you have not counted it far to come here, a distance of a thousand li, may I presume that you are provided with counsels to profit my kingdom?'
莊子·逍遙遊》:而我猶代子,吾將為名
If I in these circumstances take your place, shall I not be doing so for the sake of the name?
史記·夏本紀》:吾言厎可行
Are my words sound, and can they be put in force?
禮記·曲禮上》:今人而無禮,雖能言,不亦禽獸之心
Here now is a man who observes no rules of propriety; is not his heart that of a beast?
ㄏㄨ (1.2): 語氣詞:表示讚美或感嘆,相當於「啊」或「呀」。 Modal particle expressing admiration or exclamation.
論語·八佾》:知其說者之於天下也,其如示諸斯
He who knew its meaning would find it as easy to govern the kingdom as to look on this
孟子·梁惠王下》:孟子曰:「王之好樂甚,則齊國其庶幾!」
Mencius replied, 'If the king's love of music were very great, the kingdom of Qi would be near to a state of good government!'
史記·淮陰侯列傳》:時,不再來。
說苑·尊賢》:伯牙子鼓琴,鍾子期聽之,方鼓而志在太山,鍾子期曰:「善哉鼓琴!」
呂氏春秋·本味》:伯牙鼓琴,鍾子期聽之,方鼓琴而志在太山,鍾子期曰:「善哉鼓琴,巍巍若太山。」
ㄏㄨ (1.3): 語氣詞:表示推測,相當於「吧」或「呀」。 Modal particle expressing estimation.
春秋左傳》:宋其亡,幸而後敗。
戰國策》:曰:「日食飲得無衰?」
ㄏㄨ (1.4): 語氣詞:表示祈使或命令,相當於「吧」 Modal particle expressing request or order.
春秋左傳》:勉速行
戰國策》:居有頃,倚柱彈其劍,歌曰:「長鋏歸來!」
ㄏㄨ (1.5): 語氣詞:表示呼告,相當於「啊」 Modal particle expressing calling.
論語·里仁》:子曰:「參!」
The Master said, "Shen."
禮記·仲尼燕居》:子張問政,子曰:「師!」
Zi-gong asked about government. The Master said, 'Shi.'
ㄏㄨ (1.6): 語氣詞:表示商權。 Modal particle expressing consideration.
韓非子·顯學》:故孔子曰:「以容取人,失之子羽。」
ㄏㄨ (1.7): 語氣詞:表示肯定,相當於「也」。 Modal particle expressing affirmation.
韓非子·解老》:有爭則亂,故曰:「禮者,忠信之薄也,而亂之首。」
列子·周穆王》:孔子曰:「此非汝所及!」
ㄏㄨ (2.1): 助詞:用於形容詞之後。 Particle used after adjectives.
戰國策》:游於江海,淹乎大沼,府噣鱔鯉,仰嚙蔆衡,奮其六翮,而凌清風,飄搖高翔,自以為無患,與人無爭也。
ㄏㄨ (2.2): 助詞:用於句中表示停頓。 Particle used in the middle of a sentence to express a pause.
論語·雍也》:子曰:「由也果,於從政何有?」
The Master said, "You is a man of decision; what difficulty would he find in being an officer of government?"
楚辭·離騷經》:冀枝葉之峻茂兮,願竢時吾將刈。
ㄏㄨ (3): 介詞:相當於「於」。 Preposition: in, from, to.
論語·學而》:夫子之求之也,其諸異人之求之與?
The master's mode of asking information! - is it not different from that of other men?
莊子·齊物論》:齧缺問王倪曰:「子知物之所同是乎?」
Nie Que asked Wang Ni, saying, 'Do you know, Sir, what all creatures agree in approving and affirming?'
史記》:於斯之時,天下大說,向風而聽,隨流而化,喟然興道而遷義,刑錯而不用,德隆三皇,功羨於五帝。
列子·黃帝》:顏回問仲尼曰:「吾嘗濟乎觴深之淵矣,津人操舟若神。」
戰國策》:游於江海,淹大沼,府噣鱔鯉,仰嚙蔆衡,奮其六翮,而凌清風,飄搖乎高翔,自以為無患,與人無爭也。

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